Dubricius or Dubric was a 6th-century British ecclesiastic venerated as a saint. He was much of southeast Wales; the earliest documentation of Dubricius is from around 1133, recording the translation of his relics, is to be found in the Book of Llandaff. It may contain some genuine traditions, but as it appeared at least five hundred years after his death, it cannot claim to be historical. Dubricius was the illegitimate son of the daughter of King Peibio Clafrog of Ergyng, his grandfather threw his mother into the River Wye when he discovered she was pregnant, but was unsuccessful in drowning her. Dubricius was born in Madley in England, he and his mother were reconciled with Peibio when the child Dubricius touched him and cured him of his leprosy. Noted for his precocious intellect, by the time he attained manhood he was known as a scholar throughout Britain. Dubricius founded a monastery at Hentland and one at Moccas, he became the teacher of many well-known Welsh saints, including Teilo and Samson and healed the sick of various disorders through the laying on of hands.
Dedications at Porlock and near Luscombe on the Exmoor coast of Somerset may indicate that he travelled in that area. He became Bishop of Ergyng with his seat at Weston under Penyard, held sway over all of Glamorgan and Gwent, an area, known as the diocese of Llandaff. However, he may have been a bishop for the purpose of ordaining priests, not as administrative head of the church over a geographical area. Dubricius was good friends with Saints Illtud and Samson, attended the Synod of Llanddewi Brefi in 545, where he is said to have resigned his see in favour of Saint David, he retired to Bardsey Island where he was buried before his body was transferred to Llandaff Cathedral in 1120. According to legend, Dubricius was made Archbishop of Llandaff by Saint Germanus of Auxerre, crowned King Arthur, he appears as a character in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae and Wace's Roman de Brut, based on it. Much Alfred, Lord Tennyson featured the saint in his Idylls of the King. Churches dedicated to Saint Dubricius include the Church of England churches at Ballingham, Whitchurch and Hamnish, all in Herefordshire, Porlock in Somerset, the Church in Wales churches at Gwenddwr in Breconshire and at Llanvaches in Newport.
The Catholic Church at Treforest is dedicated to Dyfrig. In the 2004 edition of the Roman Martyrology, Dyfrig is listed under 14 November with the Latin name Dubricius, he is stated to have died on Bardsey Island,'on the north coast of Wales, as a bishop and abbot'. In the current Roman Catholic liturgical calendar for Wales he is commemorated on the traditional date of 14 November, he is represented holding two crosiers to signify his jurisdiction over the sees of Caerleon and Llandaff. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "St. Dubric". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Page about St Dyfrig at St Dyfrig's RC Parish, Pontypridd
Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages. A person who practices teetotalism is called a teetotaler or is said to be teetotal; the teetotalism movement was first started in England, in the early 19th century. The Preston Temperance Society was founded in 1833 by Joseph Livesey, to become a leader of the temperance movement and the author of The Pledge: "We agree to abstain from all liquors of an intoxicating quality whether ale, wine or ardent spirits, except as medicine." There is some dispute over the origin of the word "teetotaler." One anecdote attributes the origin of the word to a meeting of the Preston Temperance Society in 1833. The story attributes the word to Richard Turner, a member of the society, who in a speech said "I'll be reet down out-and-out t-t-total for and ever." Walter William Skeat noted that the Turner anecdote had been recorded by temperance advocate Joseph Livesey, posited that the term may have been inspired by the teetotum.
Greenough stated that "nobody thought teetotum and teetotaler were etymologically connected."A variation on the above account is found on the pages of The Charleston Observer: An alternative explanation is that teetotal is a reduplication of the first "T" in total. It is said that as early as 1827 in some Temperance Societies signing a "T" after one's name signified one's pledge for total abstinence. In England in the 1830s, when the word first entered the lexicon, it was used in other contexts as an emphasized form of total. According to historian Daniel Walker Howe the term was derived from the practice of American preacher and temperance advocate Lyman Beecher, he would take names at his meetings of people who pledged alcoholic temperance and noted those who pledged total abstinence with a T. Such persons became known as Teetotallers; some common reasons for choosing teetotalism are psychological, health, familial, social, past alcoholism, or sometimes it is a matter of taste or preference.
When at drinking establishments, teetotalers either abstain from drinking or consume non-alcoholic beverages such as water, tea, non-alcoholic soft drinks, virgin drinks and alcohol-free beer. Most teetotaler organizations demand from their members that they do not promote or produce alcoholic intoxicants. Abstention from alcohol is a tenet of a number of religious faiths, including Hinduism, such as the Swaminarayans. "Khamr" is the term for all intoxicants. Drinking intoxicants is a crime according to Islamic criminal law, the offender should be whipped. One of the five precepts of Buddhism is abstaining from intoxicating substances that disturb the peace and self-control of the mind, but it is formulated as a training rule to be assumed voluntarily rather than as a commandment. A number of Christian denominations forbid the consumption of alcohol, including the Amish, Seventh-day Adventists, Church of the Brethren members, Christian Scientists. Many Christian groups, such as Methodists, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Quakers, are associated with teetotalism due to their traditionally strong support for temperance movements and prohibition.
However, tenets forbidding the consumption of alcohol are variably practiced. For example, Church of the Nazarene, an offshoot of Methodism does teach abstinence from alcohol. In many Christian denominations, abstinence is not a religious requirement, but the tradition is strong enough to make ritual and recreational alcohol consumption a controversial issue among members. Members of the Salvation Army make a promise on joining the movement to observe lifelong abstinence from alcohol; the Catholic Church, Orthodox churches, Anglicanism all require wine in their central religious rite of the eucharist, while many Protestant churches allow grape juice or alcohol-free wine in their communion services, only a few Protestants require a non-alcoholic beverage as official policy. Many members of these religious groups are required to refrain from selling such products. A translation of the New Testament, the Purified Translation of the Bible, translates in a way that promotes teetotalism; some Christians choose to practice teetotalism throughout the Lent season, thus giving up alcoholic beverages as their Lenten sacrifice.
Dominic Conroy and Richard de Visser published research in Psychology and Health which studied strategies used by college students who would like to resist peer pressure to drink alcohol in social settings. The research hinted that students are less to give in to peer pressure if they have strong friendships and make a decision not to drink before social interactions. Caroline H. McClave published a comparison of three studies entitled Asexuality as a Spectrum: A National Probability Sample Comparison to the Sexual Community in the UK which found that asexuals and gray-asexuals drank less and were more to abstain from drinking than the people not of those sexual orientations. A 2015 study by the Office for National Statistics showed that young Britons were more to be teetotalers than their parents. In one study, increased teetotalism within a family was associated with a lower level of alcoholism and v
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv
Wales Empire Pool
The Wales Empire Pool, known locally as the Empire Pool, was an international standard swimming pool building, located in Cardiff, Wales from 1958 until it was demolished in 1998. It was a centrepiece for Commonwealth Games. A site on Wood Street in the centre of the Cardiff had been identified in the 1930s as a good location for a new swimming baths. However, the construction of a new pool was not realised until Cardiff was chosen as the hosts of the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games; the pool's site was next to the Cardiff Arms Park, the main stadium for the Games. The building was acclaimed as the first example of modernist architecture in Cardiff, was similar in design to the Royal Festival Hall in London, it was designed by D. M. Davies, believed to be influenced by Peter Behrens' 1910 AEG turbine factory; the Royal Institute of British Architects differs in opinion, attributing the design to John Dryburgh, the City Architect 1957–74. The structural engineer was Oscar Faber, known for his work with reinforced concrete.
Work on the new pool began in January 1956 and the completed building was opened by the Lord Mayor of Cardiff, J. H. Morgan, on 18 April 1958, two months before the Empire Games started; the City Council were reluctant to finance the new pool, but agreed to do so when confronted with the ultimatum of "No Pool – No Games". The total cost of construction was £650,000 and the 1958 Empire Games went on to achieve a financial surplus of £37,000; the main attraction of the Empire Pool was the international standard swimming pool, which measured 55 by 20 yards with a depth of between 3 and 16 feet, with diving boards. For spectators there were 1,722 permanent seats. In addition to the main pool, there was an aerotone therapeutic bath, Turkish baths, physiotherapy rooms, hot showers, a restaurant and a large reception area. In 1970 the main pool was shortened to 50 metres. In 1973 a teaching pool was created for school children, opened by Winifred Mathias, Lord Mayor of Cardiff; the Empire Pool was demolished in 1998 to make space for the Millennium Stadium, leading to a severe lack of swimming facilities in the South Wales area.
In 2003 a new Wales National Pool was opened in Swansea while Cardiff received the £32 million Cardiff International Pool, which opened in Cardiff Bay in February 2008. List of Commonwealth Games venues
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, established in 1908, is a Welsh Government sponsored body concerned with the archaeological and historic environment of Wales. It is based in Aberystwyth; the RCAHMW maintains and curates the National Monuments Record of Wales, whose online archive is called Coflein. The Royal Commission has a national role in the management of the archaeological and maritime heritage of Wales as the originator and supplier of authoritative information for individual and governmental decision-makers and the general public. To this end it. In 1882 Sir John Lubbock pioneered the First British Ancient Monuments Act; this Act, concerned principally with prehistoric monuments rather than with medieval structures, encouraged owners to voluntarily transfer important sites into the safekeeping of Her Majesty's Commissioners of Works. It discouraged the public from damaging monuments by threatening to impose stiff penalties; the first Schedule of monuments resulted from a nationwide inquiry among interested local antiquarian societies.
In order to add monuments to this Schedule, the First Inspector of Ancient Monuments, General Pitt-Rivers, travelled the British Isles examining the known sites, searching for new ones. Only limited information was available to him and his helpers about the nature and condition of many monuments, there was no easy way to assess the potential national significance or value of any given site. In Wales, there were only three monuments on the first Schedule; these were Plas Newydd megalith, Arthur's Quoit, Gower and the megalith at Pentre Ifan, Pembrokeshire. By the turn of the century it was becoming clear that a census of archaeological sites was needed, so that a selection of the best could be put forward for Statutory Protection. By 1908 the administrative frameworks were in place to establish individual Royal Commissions on Ancient Monuments separately in Scotland and Wales, their original remit was to encompass not only Historic Monuments, but Constructions. On 10 August 1908 a Royal Commission was authorised and appointed by King Edward VII to'make an inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions connected with or illustrative of the contemporary culture and conditions of life of the people in Wales and Monmouthshire from the earliest times, to specify those which seem most worthy of preservation'.
This last injunction was the most urgent purpose of the Commission in the eyes of the legislators, but the inventory was its essential preliminary. The protection of significant sites under the Ancient Monuments Act of Queen Victoria's reign had been hampered by a basic lack of knowledge of the country's stock of monuments. So it was felt that an independent and official body was needed to prepare a reliable inventory from which examples could be selected and recommended for statutory protection; this need was not peculiar to Wales, in 1908 identical Royal Commissions were established for Scotland and England too. The early commissioners were distinguished men who were notable figures in Welsh cultural life, each with a distinctive contribution to make to the task ahead, their involvement in such long-established scholarly institutions as the Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion proved invaluable to the Royal Commission from the beginning. For the first four decades of its existence it was based, like other Royal Commissions, in London, which allowed easy access to the British Museum, the Public Record Office and the Cymmrodorion Society, which had its headquarters in the capital.
The Royal Commission's first chairman was Sir John Rhys and professor of Celtic at Oxford University. He oversaw the publication of the first four inventory volumes, which appeared in quick succession: for Montgomeryshire, Flintshire and Denbighshire; the second chairman was Evan Vincent Evans. By profession an accountant and journalist, he was a friend of Welsh politicians and a stalwart of eisteddfodau and the Cymmrodorion; the early commissioners, included Edward Anwyl, another philologist, professor of Welsh and Comparative Philology at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Griffith Hartwell Jones was an Anglican clergyman living in Surrey but chairman of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Robert Hughes was a former lord mayor of Cardiff, created a city. Henry Owen, a lawyer, was a notable Pembrokeshire historian and another leading light of the Cymmrodorion. J. A. Bradney, the pre-eminent historian of Monmouthshire, was appointed a commissioner during the Great War, when he was a lieutenant-colonel in the militia.
The last of these early commissioners to be appointed was John Morris-Jones and professor of Welsh in the University College of North Wales, Bangor. None of these men were practising archaeologist by the definition of the term. Two other commissioners, included W. E. Llewellyn Morgan, on the army retired list, had spent several decades penning field descriptions of monuments. Robert Carr
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.