The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays
The Wemba-Wemba are an Indigenous Australian group in north-Western Victoria and south-western New South Wales, including in the Mallee and the Riverina regions. They are known as the Wamba-wamba, before European settlement in the nineteenth century, the Wemba-Wemba occupied the area around Swan Hill, Victoria and Creswick. Two German Moravian missionaries, Reverend A. F. C, täger and Reverend F. W. Spieseke, established Lake Boga mission in 1851. The mission closed in 1856 due to lack of converts, disputes with authorities and hostilities from local landholders. The Moravian Church established a subsequent mission site in Wergaia territory near Lake Hindmarsh in 1856
The Thaua/Thawa and called Yuin-Djuin, were an Indigenous Australian tribe living around the Twofold Bay area of the South Coast of New South Wales. Thawa is a member of the Yuin–Kuric language family. Its exact status is unknowable, since the report we have of it is from a brief note in Alfred William Howitt who wrote that Thau-aria was the language of Twofold Bay. It is considered to have either a dialect of Dhurga. The word Yuin in the associated with the Thawa meant man. According to John Blay The Thawa ranged from Mallacoota to Merimbula, for McIntyre it was a wintering place erected by Cristóvão de Mendonça as he made his imagined way back up the coast from Corio Bay. The ruin actually is what is left of a partially raised. Twofold Bay was an important area for the industry where the local Aboriginals quickly gained employment not only as crewmen and oarsmen. Contemporary writers commented favourably on their industriousness, unlike natives working on pastoral leases, they were parts of the catch, cash.
The area nearby, at Snug Point near Eden, had taken up by Alexander and Peter Imlay. On arriving in Australia, the Scottish immigrant and pastoralist Benjamin Boyd squattered land in the area and his companion on the voyage out, the painter Oswald Brierly remarked admiringly of the prowess, of both native men and women, in handling whaling boats there. Bibliography of Thaua people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
The Paakantyi are an Australian Aboriginal tribal group of the Darling River basin in Far West New South Wales, Australia. They lived in the country from the river, around the Paroo River. In the nineteenth century they were reduced by disease and they ended up working for the immigrants who had invaded their lands. Pictures were taken by Frederic Bonney at Momba Station in the 1870s which have provided a sympathetic, unusually Bonney records their names and his reverence for their integrity. The name of the language refers to the Paaka, with the suffix -ntyi, the name Paakantyi therefore simply means the River People. Etymologically the suffix -kali has been attributed as meaning people, and is incorporated in numerous group names in the nearby area, the major work on the Paakantyi language has been that of linguist Luise Hercus
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The Muthi Muthi people are an Aboriginal group of the Kulin Nation whose traditional lands are located in the Northern Riverina and Far West regions of New South Wales. Clans of the Muthi Muthi include the Yita Yita, Kunji Kunji, Tati Tati, the Muthi Muthi are the traditional owners of Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee as well as the Willandra Lakes, Lake Mungo and the Lake Mungo remains. The Muthi Muthi are associated with the lands of the far western region of New South Wales, the Mutthi Mutthi tribal lands were a meeting place of many tribes for ceremonies and marriages. The Muthi Muthi lands are referred to as the Five Rivers Region of Australia. The rivers are the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee, the Nari Nari/Wathi Wathi boundary to the east has not been formally marked out but the Nari Nari Tribal Council refer to Dry Lake as being the western most reach of their lands. Archaeological investigation has confirmed a tribal boundary in this location as this is the last known location of Muthi Muthi burial mounds.
Muthi Muthi lands include the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area, Mungo National Park, Yanga National Park, Booligal National Park, Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee Conservation Area. Tindale notes that the Muthimuthi traditional lands were On Murrumbidgee River at Balranald, southwest to Murray River, west to near Lake Benanee, at Reedy Lake, north to west of Carrawathal. There are 64 variations of the spelling of the tribal name Mutthi Mutthi in common literature so far in that describes the people, the tribal names may be double-barrelled, hyphenated or singular depending on the reference document. The most common spellings being Muthi Muthi or Mutti Mutti in archaeological references, Mathimathi in linguistical reference, other common spelling variations in historical literature include Maadi, Madhi Madhi, Muttu Muttu and Mataua. Within the native title claim group there is a preference for the spelling Muthi Muthi or Mutthi Mutthi, there are references to Matuara and Maruara. In 1997 a claim for native title was made for an area in the south of New South Wales, as of 2016 a native title claim is before the Federal Court of Australia.
Kutcha Edwards, musician Mungo Man and Mungo Lady