1. Arabic script – The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, dialects of Mandinka, Central Kurdish, Luri, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and others. Until the 16th century, it was used to write some texts in Spanish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it, the Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, the script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy, the Arabic script has been adopted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology, the modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars. In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri, and Uyghur writing systems, the Arabic script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad, although it is often strongly, erroneously connected to the latter. Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, to a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb. Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language, the term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic root for foreign, has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages. There is evidence that writing Arabic in this set of letters influenced the style of modern Arabic script. After this initial period, Garshuni writing has continued to the present day among some Syriac Christian communities in the Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant, Kazakh in China Kurdish in Northern Iraq and Northwest Iran. It is mainly used in Sri Lanka and the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu for religious purposes, arwi language is the language of Tamil Nadu Muslims. Malayalam language represented by Arabic script variant is known as Arabi Malayalam, the script has particular letters to represent the peculiar sounds of Malayalam. This script is used in madrasas of the South Indian state of Kerala. It is similar to Chittagonian language in neighboring Bangladesh and sometimes using the Roman script. Malay in the Arabic script known as Jawi, in some cases it can be seen in the signboards of shops or market stalls. In addition, some television programming uses Jawi, such as announcements, advertisements, news, social programs, Berber languages have often been written in an adaptation of the Arabic alphabet. The use of the Arabic alphabet, as well as the competing Latin, West Africa Zarma language of the Songhay familyArabic script – Basic Arabic alphabet
2. Aljamiado – Aljamiado or Aljamía texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially Romance languages such as Mozarabic, Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino. A key aljamiado text was the mufti of Segovias compilation Suma de los principales mandamientos y devediamentos de nuestra santa ley y sunna, in later times, Moriscos were banned from using Arabic as a religious language, and wrote in Spanish on Islamic subjects. Examples are the Coplas del alhichante de Puey Monzón, narrating a Hajj, Aljamiado played a very important role in preserving Islam and the Arabic language in the life of the Moriscos. After the fall of the last Muslim kingdom on the Iberian peninsula and they were forced to adopt Christian customs and traditions and to attend church services on Sundays. Nevertheless, some of the Moriscos kept their Islamic belief and traditions secretly through the usage of Aljamiado, in 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree in Spain, which forced Moriscos to abandon using Arabic on all occasions, formal and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime and they were given three years to learn the language of the Christian Spanish, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. Moriscos translated all prayers and the sayings of their prophet Mohammed into Aljamiado transcriptions of the Spanish language, Aljamiado scrolls were circulated amongst the Moriscos. Historians came to know about Aljamiado literature only in the nineteenth century. Some of the Aljamiado scrolls are kept in the Spanish National Library in Madrid, the word aljamiado is sometimes used for other non-Semitic language written in Arabic letters. For example, Bosnian and Albanian texts written in Arabic script during the Ottoman period have been referred to as aljamiado, however, many linguists prefer to limit the term to Romance languages, instead using arebica to refer to the use of Arabic script for Slavic languages. The word Aljamiado is also used to refer to Greek written in the Arabic/Ottoman alphabetAljamiado – Poema de Yuçuf.
3. Belarusian Arabic alphabet – The Belarusian Arabic alphabet was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th century. It consisted of twenty-eight graphemes, including additions to represent Belarusian sounds not found in Arabic. The Belarusian Arabic alphabet was used by the Lipka Tatars, who had invited to settle in Belarusian territory. During the 14th–16th centuries they gradually stopped using their own language, books of that literary tradition are known as Kitab, which is the Arabic word for book. Some Polish texts were written in the Arabic script, dated not earlier than 17th century. The sounds /w/ and /v/ were both represented by the symbol, Vowels are not listed as they were marked with diacritical marks. Source, be-x-old, Беларускі арабскі альфабэт Д-р Я, Беларускія мусульмане і беларуская літаратура арабскім пісьмом. Левіна,1933, Менск, Беларускае коопэрацыйна-выдавецкае таварыства ″Адраджэньне″,1991, kitabs, the unique highlight of the Belarusian language at pravapis. org Belarusian Latin alphabet Arebica – modified Arabic script used for the Bosnian languageBelarusian Arabic alphabet – Belarusian Arabic alphabet-Zh
4. Kazakh alphabets – The Kazakh alphabets are the alphabets used to write the Kazakh language. The Kazakh language uses the following alphabets, The Cyrillic script is used in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is also used by native Kazakh populations belonging to the areas of Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and it was introduced by the Soviet Union in 1940. The Arabic script is used in Peoples Republic of China in the Altay Prefecture. It is also used in Iran and Afghanistan and this is a modified script based on the alphabet used for Kazakh before 1927. A Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet is used by the Kazakh diaspora in Turkey. The Kazakh diaspora also uses a surrogate Latin alphabet in Germany, as with other Central Asian Turkic languages, a Latin alphabet was introduced by the Soviets and used from 1927 to 1940 when it was replaced with Cyrillic. Kazakh Braille The Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet is used in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, in the nineteenth century, Ibrahim Altynsarin, a prominent Kazakh educator, first introduced a Cyrillic alphabet for transcribing Kazakh. Russian missionary activity, as well as Russian-sponsored schools, further encouraged the use of Cyrillic in the nineteenth, the alphabet was reworked by Sarsen Amanzholov and accepted in its current form in 1940. It contains 42 letters,33 from the Russian alphabet with 9 additional letters for sounds of the Kazakh language, initially, Kazakh letters came after letters from the Russian alphabet, but now they are placed after Russian letters similar in sound or shape. The letters В, Ё, Ф, Х, Һ, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь and Э are not used in native Kazakh words. Of these, Ё, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь, Э, are used only in words borrowed from Russian or through the Russian language which are according to Russian orthographic rules. The letter Х in conversational speech is pronounced similar to Қ, the letter Һ is used only in Arabic-Persian borrowings and is often pronounced like an unvoiced Х. The letter И represents the tense vowel obtained from the combinations ЫЙ /əj/, the letter У represents /w/ and the tense vowel obtained from the combinations ҰУ /ʊw/, ҮУ /ʉw/, ЫУ /əw/ and ІУ /ɪw/. Additionally, И and У are retained in words borrowed from Russian, some Internet resources in part used the government information agency QazAqparat before the encoding of this standard. Today the encoding UTF-8 is being accepted, the Arabic script is still the official alphabet for Kazakhs in the Peoples Republic of China. It was first introduced to the territory of Kazakhstan in the eleventh century, in 1924, Kazakh intellectual Akhmet Baitursynov attempted to reform the Arabic script to better suit Kazakh. The letters ۆ, گ, ڭ, پ and چ are used to represent sounds not found in the Arabic language, the Kazakh Arabic alphabet contains 29 letters and one digit, the upper hamza used at the beginnings of words to create front vowels throughout the wordKazakh alphabets – Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924
5. Ottoman Turkish alphabet – The Ottoman Turkish alphabet is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet. Though Ottoman Turkish was primarily written in script, non-Muslim Ottoman subjects sometimes wrote it in other scripts, including the Armenian, Greek, Latin. The earliest known Turkic alphabet is the Orkhon script, the various Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets, including Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek, Latin, and some other Asiatic writing systems. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet is a Turkish form of the Perso-Arabic script, well suited to writing Arabic and Persian borrowings, it was poorly suited to native Turkish words. The Arabic script had been designed to write Arabic, and while it was serviceable for Persian, it is quite inadequate at representing Turkish phonemes, still, Turkic languages such as Azerbaijani and Uzbek continue to be written using Arabic script in Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq. The introduction of the telegraph and the press in the 19th century exposed further weaknesses in the Arabic script. Some Turkish reformers promoted the Latin script well before Atatürks reforms, in 1862, during an earlier period of reform, the statesman Münuf Pasha advocated a reform of the alphabet. At the start of the 20th century, similar proposals were made by writers associated with the Young Turk movement, including Hüseyin Cahit, Abdullah Cevdet. The issue was raised again in 1923 during the İzmir Economic Congress of the new Turkish Republic, a move away from the Arabic script was strongly opposed by conservative and religious elements. It was argued that Romanization of the script would detach Turkey from the wider Islamic world, others opposed Romanization on practical grounds, as was no suitable adaptation of the Latin script that could be used for Turkish phonemes. Some suggested that a better alternative might be to modify the Arabic script to introduce characters for better representing Turkish vowels. In 1926, the Turkic republics of the Soviet Union adopted the Latin script, Ottoman Turkish script was replaced by the Latin-based new Turkish alphabet. Its use became compulsory in all communications in 1929. The change was formalized by the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, passed on November 1,1928, as with Arabic and Persian, texts in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet are written right to left. The appearance of a letter changes depending on its position in a word, isolated, final, medial, some letters cannot be joined to the left and so do not possess separate medial and initial forms. In medial position, the form is used. In initial position, the form is used. In most texts, kef, gef, and sağır kef are written identically although one Ottoman variant of gef has a mini-kaf of ﻙ as well as the doubled upper stroke of گOttoman Turkish alphabet – A calendar page for November 1, 1895 (October 20 O.S.) in cosmopolitan Thessaloniki. The first 3 lines in Ottoman Turkish Arabic script give the date in the Rumi – 20 Teşrin-i Evvel 1311 – and Islamic – 14 Jumādā al-Ūlā 1313 – calendars; the Julian and Gregorian (in French) dates appear below.
6. Arabic alphabet – The Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjadiyah is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written right to left, in a cursive style. Originally, the alphabet was an abjad consisting only of consonants, as with other abjads, such as the Hebrew alphabet, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel points. The basic Arabic alphabet contains 28 letters, there are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots above or below their central part and these dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters transliterated as b and t have the basic shape, but b has one dot below, ب. Both printed and written Arabic are cursive, with most of the letters within a word connected to the adjacent letters. There are two main collating sequences for the Arabic alphabet, abjad and hija, in this order, letters are also used as numbers, Abjad numerals, and possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy. The hijā’ī or alifbā’ī order, used where lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries, groups letters by similarity of shape. Loss of sameḵ was compensated for by the split of shin ש into two independent Arabic letters, ش and ﺱ which moved up to take the place of sameḵ, the six other letters that do not correspond to any north Semitic letter are placed at the end. This is commonly vocalized as follows, abjad hawwaz ḥuṭṭī kalaman sa‘faṣ qarashat thakhadh ḍaẓagh, the hijā’ī order is never used as numerals. Another kind of order was used widely in the Maghreb until recently when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order. The Arabic alphabet is always cursive and letters vary in shape depending on their position within a word, letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial, final, or isolated position. While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions, generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters can only be linked to their preceding letter. For example, أرارات has only isolated forms because each letter cannot be connected to its following one, in addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures, notably lām-alif. Notes See the article Romanization of Arabic for details on various schemes, however. Also names are transcribed as pronounced locally, not as pronounced in Literary Arabic. Regarding pronunciation, the values given are those of Modern Standard ArabicArabic alphabet – Calligraphy
7. Arabi Malayalam – Arabi Malayalam is a writing system for writing Mappila Malayalam. It uses a variant form of the Arabic script, Mappila Malayalam uses the grammar and syntax of Malayalam, vocabulary from Malayalam, Arabic, Tamil, Urdu and Persian, and the Arabic script with special orthographic features. Though this originated in the South Indian region of the Malabar, today the script is used in Malaysia. It is also used to teach Malayalam in Madrassas of Kerala, until the 20th century, the script was widely taught to all Muslims in Kerala, including women. Most of the Mappila Songs are written in Arabi-Malayalam script, the earliest known such work is the Muhyidheen Mala, written in 1607. Over the centuries, almost 3000 Arabic words used in Mappila Malayalam came to be assimilated to the Malayalam language, many of them relate to law, administration and commerce, indicating the areas where the Muslim influence, especially in the lands under the Zamorin. There were many problems to write Malayalam using letters covering Arabic, only 28 letters were available from Arabic orthography to render over 53 phonemes of Malayalam. It was overcome by following the pattern of creating additional letters established for Persian, the letters like pa, gha, kha, ṅa, ña, ḻa, ga, ca were not available in the Arabic alphabets. The characters which stand for ḻa, ca, pa, ga are ژ, چ, پ, گ respectively in Arabi Malayalam. A huge volume of works written in Arabi-Malayalam have not been translated to the Malayalam script of today. These works contain the greatest literary achievements by Mappilas over the centuries, romantic ballads, folk tales and battle songs have found a place in Arabi-Malayalam literature. While Arabi-Malayalam literally denotes Arabic influence in Malayalam, the used in Arabi-Malayalam works often included Sanskrit, Persian. The first Arabi-Malayalam novel, Chahar Dervesh, a translation of a Persian work, was published in 1883, moyinkutty Vaidyar and others translated important works of Sanskrit into Arabi-Malayalam. Major works translated thus were Astangahridaya, Amarakosha, Panchatantra and even stories about King Vikramaditya, Sanskrit medical texts were also translated into Arabi-Malayalam by authors like Abdurahiman Musaliar of Ponnani Puthiyakath. These included the Upakarasara, Yogarambha and Mahasara, Arabi-Malayalam periodicals played an important role in social reform movements of the Mappilas in the early 20th century. Al-Irshad, published in 1923 by the Muslim Aikya Sanghom played an important role in explaining the tenets of Islam to the common man, Arabi-Malayalam still used as a medium of Madrassa education by Samastha Kerala Islam Matha Vidhyabhyasa Board in the Malabar region of Kerala. Arwi Judeo-Malayalam Suriyani Malayalam Beary basheArabi Malayalam – Al Bayan newspaper Dated March 1930 printed in Arabi Malayalam script
8. Arwi – Arwi is a written register of the Tamil language that uses an Arabic alphabet. It typically has extensive lexical influences from the Arabic language, Arwi was used extensively by the Muslim minority of Tamil Nadu state of India and Sri Lanka. The majority of Madrasas still teach the basics of Arwi as part of their curricula, Arwi was an outcome of the cultural synthesis between seafaring Arabs and Tamil-speaking Muslims of Tamil Nadu. It had a body of work in jurisprudence, sufism, law, medicine. It was used as a language for Tamil Muslims to learn Arabic. Many hadith manuscripts have been found, most of the fiqh books, particularly those of Imaam Shaafi and Imaam Abu Hanifa, have been found in Arwi. There was also a translation of the Bible into Arwi in 1926, Arwi contributed immensely to the education and progression of Muslim women in South India and Sri Lanka. Arwi-educated women were active participants in the fabric of society playing vital roles in education, medicine. Large portions of Arwi works were lost in two periods of time, in the 16th century with the arrival of the Portuguese and in the 20th century with the arrival of the printing press. Using the Arabic script meant that Arwi could not jump to print easily, presently, manuscripts are being eaten away by termites in homes and in private, public and institutional libraries. Efforts are underway to halt the decline and revive the language, Arwi still has a place among the more traditional Indian Tamil Muslim and Sri Lankan Moor families. The Arwi alphabet is the Arabic alphabet with thirteen letters, used to represent the Tamil vowels e and o. Arusi branch of the Qadiri path Arwi, Comments, Questions and Answers Islamic Cultural Values of Arwi Southeastern university of Sri LankaArwi – Letters unique to Arwi.
9. Jawi alphabet – Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two scripts in Brunei, used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay dominated areas in Indonesia. It can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, day-to-day usage of Jawi is maintained in more conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. Jawi is still used on road and building signs, and taught in primary and religious schools in Brunei. The word Jawi is an adjective for the Arabic noun Jawah, both terms may have originated from the term Javadwipa, the ancient name for Java. Prior to the onset of the Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still firmly established in the region and this is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription. The spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century. The conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136, at the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language and this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey, Persia and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was then deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the Sri Paduka Tuan of Terengganu, urging his subjects to extend and uphold Islam and this has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu specifically and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing which was restricted to the nobility. The Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class, with the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures originally written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script. Additionally local religious scholars later began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings, moreover, there were also individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which previously existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form. This was believed to have taken place from the 15th century, other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi. Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several alphabets other than Jawi alphabets to suit the languages, due to their fairly limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script. The script became prominent with the spread of Islam, as the Malays found that the earlier Pallava script was totally unsuited as a vehicle to relay religious concepts. The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the use of jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua franca of the region, alongside the spread of IslamJawi alphabet – A copy of Undang-Undang Melaka ('Laws of Malacca'). The Malacca system of justice as enshrined in the text was the legal source for other major regional sultanates like Johor, Perak, Brunei, Pattani and Aceh.
10. Khowar alphabet – The Khowar alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Khowar language. It is a modification of the Urdu alphabet, which is itself a derivative of the Persian alphabet, according to the Khowar Academy with 60 letters, the Khowar alphabet is typically written in the calligraphic Nastaliq script, whereas Arabic is more commonly in the Naskh style. Usually, bare transliterations of Khowar into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages written in the Latin script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition, today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar since the 1960s. The Montly Zhang is the first newsletter was the first Khowar newspaper to use Nasta’liq computer-based composition, there are efforts under way to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Khowar support on computers and the internet. Nowadays, nearly all Khowar newspapers, magazines, journals, the Nastaliq calligraphic writing style began as a Persian mixture of scripts Naskh and Taliq. Nastaliq is more cursive and flowing than its Naskh counterpart, a list of the letters of the Khowar alphabet and their pronunciation is given below. Khowar contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities, the retroflex consonants needed to be added as well, this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, some of the original Arabic letters are not used in Khowar. This is the list of the Khowar letters created by Rehmat Aziz Chitrali, many of these letters also represent vowel sounds. Vowels in Khowar are represented by letters that are also considered consonants, many vowel sounds can be represented by one letter. Confusion can arise, but context is usually enough to figure out the correct sound and this is a list of Khowar vowels found in the initial, medial, and final positions. Short vowels are represented by marks above and below a consonant, alif is the first letter of the Khowar alphabet, and it is used exclusively as a vowel. At the beginning of a word, alif can be used to represent any of the vowels, e. g. ابدار abdar, اسم ism. Also at the beginning, a followed by either wāo or ye represents a long vowel sound. However, wāo or ye alone at the beginning represents a consonant, alif also has a variant, call alif madd. It is used to represent a long ā at the beginning of a word, e. g. آپک āpak, at the middle or end of a word, long ā is represented simply by alif, e. g. باغ bāgh, آرام ārāmKhowar alphabet – File:Allam Iqbal’s poetry’s versified khowar translation by Rahmat Aziz Chitrali
11. Kurdish alphabet – The Kurdistan Regional Government has agreed upon a standard for Soriani, implemented in Unicode for computation purposes. The Hawar is used in Turkey, Syria and Armenia, the Soriani in Iraq, two additional alphabets, based on the Armenian alphabet and the Cyrillic script, were once used in Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. When presenting the alphabet in his magazine Hawar, Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan proposed using ⟨ḧ ẍ ⟩ for غ, ح and these three glyphs do not have the official status of letters, but serve to represent these sounds when they are indispensable to comprehension. Turkey does not recognize this alphabet, use of the letters Q, W, and X, which did not exist in the Turkish alphabet until 2013, led to persecution in 2000 and 2003. Since September 2003, many Kurds applied to the courts seeking to change their names to Kurdish ones written with these letters, the Turkish government finally legalized the letters Q, W, and X as part of the Turkish alphabet in 2013. Some scholars have suggested to add minor additions to Bedirxans Hawar alphabet to make it more user-friendly, the additions correspond to sounds that are represented in the Soriani Arabic Alphabet, but not in the Hawar alphabet. These scholars suggest this extended alphabet be called the Universal Kurdish Latin Alphabet, the suggested additional characters are Ł, Ň, Ř and Ü. The velar Ł/ł is for non-initial positions only, in Kurdish velar Ł never comes in initial position, the initial position in any Kurdish word beginning with r is pronounced and written as a trill Ř/ř. The letter Ü/ü is a new letter, which is sometimes written ۊ in the Soriani alphabet, the velar nasal consonant is also a Kurdish phoneme which never comes in initial position, and it is written as Ň/ň. The Universal Kurdish Latin Alphabet consists of 35 letters in total, Universal Kurdish Latin Alphabet In this alphabet the short vowels are E, I and U, the long vowels are A, Ê, Î, O, Û and Ü. Non-Kurdish Phonemes These three glyphs do not have the status of letter. Central Kurdish is mainly using a modified Persian alphabet with 33 letters introduced by Said Kaban Sedqi. Unlike the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad, Sorani is almost a true alphabet in which vowels are mandatory, making the script easier to read. Reformed Sorani does have glyphs for the Kurdish short i and it is able to differentiate between the consonant w from the short vowel u by representing w with a. It is also able to differentiate between the consonant y from the long vowel î by representing î with a. For pronunciations see comparison table below, the alphabet is represented by 34 letters including وو, which is arguably incorrect, which is given its own position. Kurds in Iraq and Iran mainly use this alphabet, though the Kurdish Latin alphabet is also in use, the standardization by KRG uses ک instead of ك for letter Kaf, as listed in the Unicode table on the official home page for the standard. However, the glyph is still in use by various individualsKurdish alphabet – Kurdish restaurant sign written in Arabic script
12. Pashto alphabet – The seventeenth century saw the rise of a polemic debate that was also polarized along lines of script. The heterodox Roshani movement wrote their literature mostly in the Persianate style called Nastaʿlīq script, even lithographically reproduced Pashto has been calligraphied in Naskh as a general rule, since it was adopted as standard. The Pashto alphabet has several letters which do not appear in any other Arabic script, the letters ښ and ږ look like sīn and re respectively with a dot above and beneath. Pashto has ی, ې, ۀ, and ۍ for additional vowels, Pashto uses all 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, and shares 3 letters with Persian and Urdu in the additional letters. Pashto has 45 letters and 4 diacritic marks, the Southern, Central and Northern dialects of Pashto are included. ^1 In the beginning of a word, آ represents the long vowel /ɑ/, in the middle or end of a word, ا represents the long vowel /ɑ/ which is following a consonant. ^2 Ten letters, ق ف ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, eight of these, ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, represent no additional phonemes of Pashto, and their pronunciation merges with other phonemes. ^3 ح /h/ tends to be omitted in pronunciation when at the end of a word, e. g. اصلاح is always pronounced as. ^4 The letter ړ represents /ɺ̢/ if it is not at the position of a syllable, if it is final. It tends to merge with /p/ پ, ^6 The phoneme /q/ ق occurs only in loanwords. It tends to merge with /k/ ک, ^7 It is also common to write the letter ک as ك. ^8 It is also common to write the letter ګ as گ, ^9 In informal texts, ی as well as ې, ۍ and ئ are sometimes replaced by the letter ے, especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. ^10 ی represents /ai/ when it is following a consonant, ^11 The letter ئ represents /j/ after a vowel, e. g. جدائي - judāyī, separation. ^12 It is also common to write ﺉ with the hamza over the side of the letter - ٸ. The superscribed element of the letter ځ in earlier varieties was not hamza-shaped, such shape of the upper element of the letter is hard to find in modern fonts. څ is now used for only /t͡s/. The four diacritic marks are, The diacritic marks are not considered separate letters and their use is optional and are usually not written, they are only occasionally used to distinguish between two words which would otherwise appear similar. In Arabic loanwords, the tanwin fatha can be used, e. g. مَثَلاً - masalan, ^1 If ى follows a consonant in a word, it indicates the word is masculine singular and in the direct case. ^2 ۍ always indicates the word it occurs in is feminine, ^3 If ئ occurs at the end of a verb, it indicates the verb is in second person plural formPashto alphabet
13. Pegon alphabet – Pegon is an Arabic alphabet used to write the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as an alternative to the Roman alphabet or the Javanese script and the old Sundanese script. In particular, it was used for writing and poetry from the fifteenth century. The word Pegon originated from a Javanese word pégo, which means deviate, due to the practice of writing Javanese language with Arabic script, the main difference between Jawi and Pegon is that the latter is almost always written with vocal signs. This is because the Javanese language contains more variations of aksara swara than their Malay counterpart resulting in vocal signs needing to be written to avoid phonetic confusion, if written without vocal signs, as in Jawi, the script is called Gundhul. Pegon includes symbols for sounds that are not present in standard Arabic, one of the earliest dated examples of the usage of Pegon may be Masail al-talim, a work on Islamic law written in Arabic with interlinear translation and marginal commentary in Javanese. The manuscript is dated 1623 and written on dluwang, a made from the bark of the mulberry treePegon alphabet – Pegon consonants. Letters not present in the Arabic alphabet are marked with a yellow circle.
14. Persian alphabet – The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic alphabet is a writing system based on the Arabic script and used for the Persian language. It has four more than the Arabic alphabet, پ, چ, ژ. The Persian script is an abjad and is exclusively written cursively and that is, the majority of the letters in a word connect to each other. This is also implemented on computers, whenever the Persian alphabet is typed, the computer automatically connects the letters to each other. Words are written right to left. Also, vowels are underrepresented in writing, see below for details, the replacement of the Pahlavi scripts with the Persian alphabet in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirid dynasty in ninth century Greater Khorasan. Below are the 32 letters of the modern Persian alphabet, since the script is cursive, the appearance of a letter changes depending on its position, isolated, initial, medial, and final of a word. The names of the letter are mostly the ones used in Arabic, the only ambiguous name is he, which is used for both ﺡ and ه. For clarification, these are often called ḥe-ye jimi and he-ye do-češm, respectively. Letters which do not link to a following letter Seven letters – و, ژ, ﺯ, ﺭ, ﺫ, ﺩ, ﺍ – do not connect to a letter as the rest of the letters of the alphabet do. These seven letters have the form in isolated and initial position. For example, when the letter ا alef is at the beginning of a such as اینجا injā. Persian script has adopted a subset of Arabic diacritics which consists of zabar /æ/, zir /e/, other Arabic diacritics may be seen in Arabic loan-words. The following are not actual letters but different orthographical shapes for letters, and in the case of the lām alef, as to ﺀ hamze, it has only a single graphic, since it is never tied to a preceding or following letter. However, it is seated on a vāv, ye or alef. Technically, hamze is not a letter but a diacritic, although at first glance they may seem similar, there are many differences in the way the different languages use the alphabets. For example, similar words are written differently in Persian and Arabic, vowel notation is simple but its history is complicated. Classical Arabic has a length distinction, in writing, long vowels are normally written ambiguously by letters known as matres lectionis while short ones are normally omitted entirelyPersian alphabet – Example showing the Nastaʿlīq calligraphic style's proportion rules.
15. Sindhi language – Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/ is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the language of the Pakistani province of Sindh. In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government, most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat and in the Ulhasnagar region of the state of Maharashtra. The Sindhi language and other languages of Pakistan are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the language of Sindh. There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network, besides this, Indian television Doordarshan have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis of India. Sindhi Computing is the used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language. Sindhi language software such as Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as, M. B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. The name Sindhi is derived from Sindhu, the name of the Indus River. When Sindh was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29,1857 advising civil servants in Sindh to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication, seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police, like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century CE. In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency assigned Narayan Jagannath Vaidya to replace the Abjad used in Sindhi, the script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities, according to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE /270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by Akhund Azaz Allah Muttalawi, the first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq. Sindhi has a large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonant phonemes and 16 vowels, the consonant to vowel ratio is around average for worlds languages at 2.8. All plosives, affricates, nasals, the flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterpartsSindhi language
16. Tajik alphabet – The Bukhori dialect spoken by Bukharan Jews traditionally used the Hebrew alphabet but more often today is written using the Cyrillic variant. As with many states, the change in writing system. The Persian alphabet is supported by the religious, Islamists. As the de facto standard, the Cyrillic alphabet is supported by those who wish to maintain the status quo. As a result of the influence of Islam in the region, until this time, the language was not thought of as separate and simply considered a dialect of the Persian language. The Soviets began by simplifying the Persian alphabet in 1923, before moving to a Latin-based system in 1927. The Latin script was introduced by the Soviet Union as part of an effort to increase literacy and distance the, at time, largely illiterate population. The regular Persian alphabet, being an abjad, does not provide sufficient letters for representing the system of Tajik. In addition, the abjad is more difficult to learn, each letter having different forms depending on the position in the word, the Decree on Romanisation made this law in April,1928. The Latin variant for Tajik was based on the work by Turcophone scholars who aimed to produce a unified Turkic alphabet, the literacy campaign was successful, with near-universal literacy being achieved by the 1950s. As part of the russification of Central Asia, the Cyrillic script was introduced in the late 1930s, the alphabet remained Cyrillic until the end of the 1980s with the disintegration of the Soviet Union. In 1989, with the growth in Tajik nationalism, a law was enacted declaring Tajik the state language, in addition, the law officially equated Tajik with Persian, placing the word Fârsi after Tajik. The law also called for a reintroduction of the Persian alphabet. The Persian alphabet was introduced into education and public life, although the banning of the Islamic Renaissance Party in 1993 slowed down the adoption, in 1999, the word Fârsi was removed from the state-language law. As of 2004 the de facto standard in use is a Cyrillic alphabet, the letters of the major variants of the Tajik alphabet are presented below, along with their phonetic values. There is also a table below. A variant of the Persian alphabet is used to write Tajik, in the Tajik version, as with all other versions of the Arabic script, with the exception of ا, vowels are not given unique letters, but rather optionally indicated with diacritic marks. The Latin script was introduced after the Russian Revolution of 1917 in order to facilitate an increase in literacy, only lowercase letters were found in the first versions of the Latin variant, between 1926-9Tajik alphabet – The coat of arms of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic circa 1929. "Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic" is written (from top to bottom) in Tajik Latin, Tajik Arabic, and Russian Cyrillic.
17. Urdu alphabet – The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language. It is a modification of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, the Urdu alphabet has up to 58 letters. With 39 basic letters and no distinct letter cases, the Urdu alphabet is written in the calligraphic Nastaʿlīq script. Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages written in the Latin script. The Urdu language emerged as a register of Hindustani well before the Partition of India. It is distinguished most by its extensive Persian influences, the standard Urdu script is a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script and has its origins in 13th century Iran. It is closely related to the development of the Nastaliq style of Perso-Arabic script, Urdu script in its extended form is known as Shahmukhi script and is used for writing other Indo-Aryan languages of North Indian subcontinent like Punjabi and Saraiki as well. Despite the invention of the Urdu typewriter in 1911, Urdu newspapers continued to publish prints of handwritten scripts by calligraphers known as katibs or khush-navees until the late 1980s, the Pakistani national newspaper Daily Jang was the first Urdu newspaper to use Nastaʿlīq computer-based composition. There are efforts under way to more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, usage of script generally signifies the users faith, Muslims generally use the Urdu script, while Hindus use the Devanagari script. The Nastaʿlīq calligraphic writing style began as a Persian mixture of scripts Naskh, after the Mughal conquest, Nastaliq became the preferred writing style for Urdu. It is the dominant style in Pakistan, and many Urdu writers elsewhere in the use it. Nastaʿlīq is more cursive and flowing than its Naskh counterpart, the Urdu script is an abjad script derived from Perso-Arabic script, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic script. The Urdu alphabet was standardized in 2004 by the National Language Authority, tāʼ marbūṭah is also sometimes considered a letter though it is rarely used except for in certain loan words from Arabic. As an abjad, the Urdu script only shows consonants and long vowels, the letters added include, ٹ to represent /ʈ/, ڈ to represent /ɖ/, ڑ to represent /ɽ/, ں to represent /◌̃/, and ے to represent /ɛ, / or /e, /. Furthermore, a separate letter, ھ, exists to denote a /ʰ/ or a /ʱ/. This letter is used as part of the multitude of digraphs. The digraphs of aspirated consonants are as follows, the Urdu language has 10 vowels and 10 nasalized vowelsUrdu alphabet – Example of writing in the Urdu alphabet: Urdu
18. Uyghur Arabic alphabet – The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China. It is one of several Uyghur alphabets, and it is the alphabet of Uyghur language since 1982. The first Perso-Arabic derived alphabet for Uyghur was developed in the 10th century, the version used for writing the Chagatai language. It became the literary language, now known as the Chagatay alphabet. It was used nearly exclusively up to the early 1920s, between 1937 and 1954 the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Uyghur was modified by removing redundant letters and adding markings for vowels. A Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in the 1950s and a Latin alphabet in 1958, the modern Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet was made official in 1978 and reinstituted by the Chinese government in 1983, with modifications for representing Uyghur vowels. The pre-modification alphabet used Arabic diacritics to mark short vowels, several of these alternatives were influenced by security-policy considerations of the Soviet Union or the Peoples Republic of China. A Pinyin-derived Latin-based alphabet, then called “New script” or Uyghur Yëngi Yëziq or UYY, was for a time the only officially approved alphabet used for Uyghur in XinjiangUyghur Arabic alphabet
19. Uzbek alphabet – The Uzbek language has been written in various scripts, Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin. In Uzbekistan, it is now written in the Latin script officially, in the Xinjiang region of China, some Uzbek speakers write using Cyrillic, while others apply the Uyghur Arabic script for Uzbek. Uzbeks of Afghanistan also write Uzbek using the Arabic script, the Uzbek Arabic script is being taught at schools in Afghanistan. Like all Turkic languages in Central Asia, Uzbek was written in forms of the Arabic script by the literate population. The Latinization of Uzbek was carried out in the context of Latinization of all Turkic languages, in 1940, Uzbek was switched to the Cyrillic script under Joseph Stalin. The deadline in Uzbekistan for making this transition has been repeatedly changed, the latest deadline was 2005, but was shifted once again to provide a few more years. Already education in areas of Uzbekistan is in the Latin script. Since 2004 some official websites have switched over to using the Latin script when writing in Uzbek, most street signs are also in the new Latin script. The main national TV channel of Uzbekistan, Oʻzbekiston telekanali, has switched to the Latin script when writing in Uzbek. The modern Uzbek Latin alphabet has 29 letters, The symbol ⟨ʼ⟩ does not constitute a separate letter, below is a table of Uzbek Cyrillic and Latin alphabets with represented sounds. Notes When the Uzbek language is written using the Latin script, the modifier letter apostrophe is used to mark the phonetic glottal stop when it is put immediately before a vowel in borrowed words, as in sanʼat. The modifier letter apostrophe is used to mark a long vowel when placed immediately after a vowel. Since this character is absent from most keyboard layouts, many Uzbek websites use U+2019 ’ RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK instead. Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human RightsUzbek alphabet – A page from an Uzbek book printed in Arabic script. Tashkent, 1911.
20. Arabic Afrikaans – Arabic Afrikaans was a form of Afrikaans that was written in Arabic script. It began in the 1830s in the madrasa in Cape Town, seventy-four Arabic Afrikaans texts are extant. The earliest, the Hidyat al-Islam, is dated 1845, though its source manuscript no longer exists, the oldest surviving manuscript, which describes the basic Islamic learning, was written by the imam Abdul-Kahhar ibn Abdul-Malik in 1868. The most professional version was written in 1869 by Abu Bakr Effendi, one of the best examples of this literature was Uiteensetting van die Godsdiens, a book laying out Islamic traditions according to the Hanafi religious law. Written by Abu Bakr Effendi, it was printed using Arabic script throughout and this is a paragraph of the book Uiteensetting van die godsdiens, Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text. The italics mark Arabic-language words, Iek bagent diesie kitab met Allah sain naam, Allah es rizq giefar ien dunya fer al wat liefandag ies. Allah es beriengar ien die gannat ien dag ahirat fer al die miesie an djinns wat oewhap iman gadoet het, al die dank an parais es rieg fer Allah alien. Allah het gagief fer oewhans Islam sain agama, Islam sain agama oek waas gawies fantefoewhar Ibrahim sain agama. An Allah het gamaak die Quran rasulullah sain hadit fer seker dalil fer oewhans, an Allah het galaat oewhans wiet die riegtie wieg fan die ilms an gahelp fer oewhans oewham ta lier ander miesie oewhap die riegtie manierie. Translation into modern standard Afrikaans, Ek begin hierdie boek met Allah se naam, Allah is onderhouer in die wêreld vir al wat lewendig is. Allah is bringer in die paradys in die laaste dag vir al die mense en djinns wat oop iman gedoen het, al die dank en prys is reg vir Allah alleen. Allah het gegee vir ons Islam se godsdiens, the Arabic-alphabet version uses an Arabic word in several places where modern Afrikaans uses a Germanic word, e. g. dunya دنيا for wêreld, meaning world. The Arabic words are unknown in Afrikaans. Without the above Translation into modern standard Afrikaans, it is impossible for an Afrikaans-speaking person to understand the above Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text. Some words do however appear to resemble phonetic transliterations between Arabic script and the version of Afrikaans spoken by Cape Coloured people, mixed with Dutch, an example that used Arabic vowels was a handwritten Arabic–Afrikaans bilingual Koran. The letter of prolongation in ī and ū has sukūn, the Afrikaans preposition by is written as part of the next word, likely by copying Arabic language usage with some prepositions. The Afrikaans word al = all is written as part of the next word, the apartheid regime was reluctant to openly acknowledge the influence of other languages spoken in South Africa on Afrikaans. Until around 1900, Afrikaans was considered a dialect of Dutch, even today, Afrikaans and Dutch are considered mutually intelligibleArabic Afrikaans – Arabisch-Afrikaans 1872
21. Berber Arabic alphabet – The Berber Arabic alphabet is an Arabic-based alphabet that was used to write various Berber languages in the Middle Ages. Nowadays users have largely reverted to either the Tifinagh alphabet in Morocco, writing Berber Languages, a quick summary. Archived from the original on 2005-07-30Berber Arabic alphabet – Berber language poetry in Arabic script with its translation in French
22. Swahili language – Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. The closely related Comorian language, spoken in the Comoros Islands, is considered a dialect. Estimates of the number of Swahili speakers vary widely, from 50 million to over 100 million. Swahili serves as a language of three nations, Tanzania, Kenya, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Shikomor, the language in Comoros and also spoken in Mayotte, is related to Swahili. Swahili is also one of the languages of the African Union. A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary is derived from Arabic through contact with Arabic-speaking Muslim inhabitants of the Swahili Coast, Swahili is traditionally regarded as being the language of coastal areas of Tanzania and Kenya. It was formalised after independence by presidents of the African Great Lakes region and it spread as a fishermans language to the various islands surrounding the Swahili Coast. Traders from these islands had extensive contact with the peoples from at least the 2nd century A. D. There is also evidence of early Zaramo people settlement on Zanzibar from Dar es Salaam in present-day Tanzania. Clove farmers from Oman and the Persian Gulf farmed the Zanzibar Archipelago, the earliest known documents written in Swahili are letters written in Kilwa in 1711 A. D. in the Arabic script that were sent to the Portuguese of Mozambique and their local allies. The original letters are now preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa, the British did not do so in neighbouring Kenya even though they made moves in that direction. Swahili was the only candidate in the two colonies. In the aftermath of Germanys defeat in the First World War, Swahili was to be subordinate to English, university education, much secondary education and governance at the highest levels would be conducted in English. One key step in spreading Swahili was to create a written language. In June 1928, a conference took place at Mombasa, at which the Zanzibar dialect. Swahili has become a language spoken by tens of millions in three African Great Lakes countries where it is an official or national language. In 2016 it was made a subject in all Kenyan schoolsSwahili language – Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a Latin alphabet that was introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the Catholic version of the Lord's Prayer.