Camden Town, often shortened to Camden, is an inner city district of northwest London,2.4 miles north of the centre of London. It is one of the 35 major centres identified in the London Plan, the areas industrial economic base has been replaced by service industries such as retail and entertainment. The area now hosts street markets and music venues which are associated with alternative culture. Camden Town is named after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden and his earldom was styled after his estate, Camden Place near Chislehurst in Kent, formerly owned by historian William Camden. The name, which appears on the Ordnance Survey map of 1822, was applied to the early 20th century Camden Town Group of artists. Camden Town stands on land which was once the manor of Kentish Town, sir Charles Pratt, a radical 18th century lawyer and politician, acquired the manor through marriage. In 1791, he started granting leases for houses to be built in the manor, in 1816, the Regents Canal was built through the area.
Up to at least the mid 20th century, Camden Town was considered an unfashionable locality, the Camden markets, which started in 1973 and have grown since then, attract many visitors all week. Camden Lock Village, known as Camden Lock market, suffered a major fire, Camden Town, previously in the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras, became part of the London Borough of Camden when it was created in 1965. Camden Town is contained in the following political constituencies for different purposes, listed with some incumbents as of 2017, Camden London Borough Council, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, returns three Borough councillors. UK Parliament, Holborn and St Pancras, four Labour, two Conservative, one Green, one UKIP. Camden Town is on flat ground at 100 feet above sea level,2.4 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross. To the north are the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, the culverted, subterranean River Fleet flows from its source on Hampstead Heath through Camden Town south to the Thames. The Regents Canal runs through the north of Camden Town, from the end of the twentieth century entertainment-related businesses and a Holiday Inn started moving into the area. A number of retail and food chain outlets replaced independent shops, driven out by high rents and redevelopment.
Restaurants with a variety of culinary traditions thrived, many of them an away from the markets, on Camden High Street and its side streets, Chalk Farm Road. The plan to re-develop the historic Stables Market led to a steel and glass extension, built on the edges of the site in 2006, Camden is well known for its markets. Camden Town Tube station is near the markets and other attractions and it is a key interchange station for the Bank, Charing Cross and High Barnet Northern line branches
Uxbridge is a town in west London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Fifteen miles west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridge historically formed part of the parish of Hillingdon in the county of Middlesex, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century it expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1955, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is a significant retail and commercial centre, and is the location of Brunel University, the town is close to the boundary with Buckinghamshire, which is locally the River Colne. Several historical events have taken place in and around the town, the public house at the centre of those events, since renamed the Crown & Treaty, still stands. Uxbridge houses the Battle of Britain Bunker, from where the air defence of the south-east of England was coordinated during the Battle of Britain. Situated in RAF Uxbridge, the No.11 Group Operations Room within the bunker played a crucial rule during the battle and was used during the D-Day landings.
The wards of Uxbridge North and Uxbridge South are used for the election of councillors to Hillingdon Council, the 2011 Census recorded population figures of 12,048 for Uxbridge North and 13,979 for Uxbridge South. The name of the town is derived from Wixans Bridge, which was sited near the bottom of Oxford Road where a road bridge now stands, beside the Swan. The Wixan were a 7th-century Saxon tribe from Lincolnshire who began to settle in what became Middlesex, anglo-Saxons began to settle and farm in the area of Uxbridge in the 5th century, clearing the dense woodland and remaining there for around 500 years. Two other places in Middlesex bore the name of the Wixan, Uxendon, a now preserved only in the street names of Uxendon Hill and Crescent in Harrow. Archaeologists found Bronze Age remains and medieval remains during the construction of The Chimes shopping centre, Uxbridge is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of the 11th century, but a hundred years the existing church, St Margarets, was built.
The town appears in records from 1107 as Woxbrigge, and became part of the Elthorne Hundred with other settlements in the area. Charles I met with representatives of Parliament at the Crown Inn in Uxbridge in 1645, the town had been chosen as it was located between the Royal headquarters at Oxford and the Parliamentary stronghold of London. The covered market was built in 1788, replacing a building constructed in 1561, in the early 19th century, Uxbridge had an unsavoury reputation, the jurist William Arabin said of its residents They will steal the very teeth out of your mouth as you walk through the streets. For about 200 years most of Londons flour was produced in the Uxbridge area, the Grand Junction Canal opened in 1794, linking Uxbridge with Birmingham. By 1800 Uxbridge had become one of the most important market towns in Middlesex, the development of Uxbridge declined after the opening of the Great Western Railway in 1838, which passed through West Drayton. A branch line to Uxbridge was not built until 1904, harmans Brewery was established in Uxbridge by George Harman in 1763, and moved into its new headquarters in Uxbridge High Street in 1875
Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow in Greater London and is part of the historic county of Middlesex. It is a suburban district 10.6 miles west south-west of Charing Cross, a minority of its workers are employed in Central London, to which the town is connected by rail and tube. Hounslow is part of the TW3 postcode area, though areas to the west are in TW4 instead. The population of the town, comprising the Hounslow Central, Hounslow Heath, the name Hounslow is spelt in old records as Hundeslow and similar, pointing to Anglo-Saxon Hundes hlāw, meaning the dogs mound or the mound of a man named or nicknamed Hound. Positioned on the Bath Road, Hounslow was centred around Holy Trinity Priory founded in 1211, the priory developed what had been a small village into a town with regular markets and other facilities for travellers heading to and from London. Although the priory was dissolved in 1539 the town remained an important staging post on the Bath Road, the adjacent Hounslow Heath that had been used as a military encampment by both Oliver Cromwell and James II developed a reputation as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads.
Nearby important landowners included those of Osterley House, Syon House, Hanworth Park House, in 1756 Sir Thomas Morris, a distant relative of Bernard Matthews, established the base of his chicken farming empire. As a rich philanthropist who started from humble beginnings, he used his wealth to establish a school for the privileged children of the town. The building of the Great Western Railway line from London to Bristol from 1838 reduced long-distance travel along the Bath Road, by 1842 the local paper was reporting that the formerly flourishing village, which used to stable 2,000 horses, was suffering a general depreciation of property. The Hounslow Loop Line was constructed in 1850, prompting new development, the construction of the Great West Road in the 1920s attracted the building of the factories and headquarters of large companies. The factories were a local source of employment until a decline in the 1970s, attracting workers from a wide area. The settlement is employed in the Commuter Belt with access between 45 and 60 minutes from most of Central London.
DHL Air UK has its office in the Orbital Park in Hounslow. The M4 motorway is 2& mi north, its nearest junction, J3, the A315 is the historic WSW road out of London on which Hounslows High Street is placed. To the east, it bisects Isleworth and Chiswick, to the west it bisects North Feltham and Bedfont before joining the A30. The north-south A312, The Parkway, to the west of Hounslow leads south to Hampton or north to Harrow passing Waggoners Roundabout, Yeading, three minor roads converge on Heston from the A315 in parts of Hounslow, the A3063, A3005 and B363. For longer journeys north, the M4, A4 or A30 M25 provides the best routes, for longer journeys south, Hanworth Road leads to the A316 that becomes the M3 motorway. Hounslow railway station, operated by South West Trains is on the line to London Waterloo station, or westwards to Reading
Fulham is part of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, in southwest London. It is an Inner London district located 3.7 miles south-west of Charing Cross and it was formerly a parish in the County of Middlesex. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Fulham Palace, now a museum, served between 1900 and 1976 as the official residence of the Bishops of London. Fulham has a history of industry and enterprise dating back to the 15th-century, in the shape of its Mill at Millshot and this was followed by pottery, tapestry-weaving, paper-making and brewing in the 17th and 18th-centuries all in the area of present-day Fulham High Street. The next two centuries saw involvement with production, the automotive industry, including early aviation and food production. It is to be decommissioned by 2019, in contrast to its modest post-World War II reputation, Fulham is now considered among the prime London areas by estate agents. Two football clubs, the eponymous Fulham F. C.
and Premier League rivals, There are two exclusive sporting clubs, The Hurlingham Club known for Polo and the Queens tennis club known for its annual pre-Wimbledon Tennis tournament. In the 1800s Lillie Bridge Grounds, hosted the first meetings of the Amateur Athletic Association of England, the second FA Cup Final, the Lillie Bridge area was the former home-ground of the Middlesex County Cricket Club, before it moved to Marylebone. The manor of Fulham is said to have given to Bishop Erkenwald about the year 691 for himself. In effect, Fulham Palace, for nine centuries the residence of the Bishops of London, is the manor of Fulham. In 879 Danish invaders, sailed up the Thames and wintered at Fulham, raphael Holinshed relates that the Bishop of London was lodging in his manor place in 1141 when Geoffrey de Mandeville, riding out from the Tower of London, took him prisoner. During the Commonwealth the manor was temporarily out of the bishops hands, in recent years there has been a great revival of interest in Fulhams earliest history, due almost entirely to the efforts of the Fulham Archaeological Rescue Group.
Excavations have revealed Roman settlements during the third and fourth centuries AD, There is no record of the original erection of a Parish church in Fulham, but the first written record of a church dates from 1154 as a result of a tithe dispute. The first known parish priest of All Saints Church, Fulham was appointed in 1242, there is a comparably old church on the opposite bank of the Thames, St Marys Church, Putney, on the other side of the river crossing. In 1642 the Earl of Essex threw a bridge of boats across the river in order to march his army in pursuit of Charles I and this is thought to have been near the subsequent wooden Fulham Bridge, built in 1729 and replaced in 1886 with Putney Bridge. In 1792 it was occupied by Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his wife and his non-political wife was Maria Fitzherbert who lived in East End House in Parsons Green. They are reputed to have had several children, during the 18th century Fulham had a reputation for debauchery, becoming a playground for the wealthy of London, where there was much gambling and prostitution and breweries.
Until 1834, the village of Hammersmith had been incorporated in the parish of Fulham
Dalston is a district of the London Borough of Hackney in North East London, England. Dalston began as a hamlet within the parish of Hackney, which developed on either side of Dalston Lane, as the area urbanised, the term came to apply to surrounding areas including the old centres of Kingsland and Shacklewell, which are now considered part of Dalston. The area’s best known resident was Prime Minister Tony Blair who lived in Mapledene Road from 1980–86. The same contrast could not be today as gentrification has led to a rapid increase in the price of property. The process of change was accelerated by the East London line extension, the reopening of Dalston Junction Station on this extension was part of Londons successful bid to hold the 2012 Olympics. Dalston has never been a unit, and partly for this reason the boundaries are not fully defined. There are popularly understood boundaries in the south and west, but its northern and this is a common situation in London’s neighbourhoods which often merge and change over time.
There is an electoral Ward of the name which covers a part of the north–west of Dalston. Dalston’s boundaries are described more or less precision below, South. Albion Drive forms much of this boundary, The originally Roman A10 road marks most of Dalston’s western margin. This area includes Dalston Kingsland Railway Station, There isnt a tradition of a clear northern boundary with Stoke Newington. East, Between Downs Road and Amhurst Road, the barrier of the railway embankment marks the postcode boundary with Lower Clapton. There is little tradition of a boundary with the central Hackney area except that it is said that Dalston extends as far as the park at London Fields. The name Dalston is thought to have derived from Deorlafs tun in much the way as nearby Hoxton was named after the farm of Hoch. The first written record available is from 1294 when the name was written as Derleston, the village was one of four small villages within the Parish of Hackney that were grouped for assessment purposes, together having only as many houses as the village of Hackney.
John Rocques map of 1746 shows the village of Kingsland centred on the crossroads at what is now Dalston Junction, another clear feature is Roman Ermine Street which now forms most of the western boundary of this area. Ermine Street now has the road number A10 and goes by a number of names, around AD1280 a leper hospital was founded in Dalston by the citizens of London and in AD1549 it was attached to the chapel of St Bartholomew as an outhouse. During the 18th and 19th centuries the area changed from an agricultural and rural landscape to urban one, during the 1930s, 40sand 60s the areas large Jewish and other minority populations made it a target for provocative rallies by Oswald Mosley and the various organisations he founded
Catford is a district of south east London, within the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located south west of Lewisham, the area is the civic administrative centre for the local authority, and comprises both the Town Hall & Civic Suite. The majority of Catford is located in the Rushey Green and Catford South wards within the Borough, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Catford was historically part of Kent until 1889, when it was absorbed into the new London County Council, Catford covers most of SE6 postcode district. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Broadway Theatre is an art deco building adjoining the town hall. It is a stone structure decorated with shields and heraldic emblems. It was opened in 1932 as the Concert Hall and is now a Grade II listed building, the interior is in art deco style. The last cinema in the borough stood diagonally opposite the theatre until its closure in 2002, Catford boasts a large Gothic police station.
In 2006, a large blue pipe sculpture was unveiled outside Eros House, which was another former cinema, the 1960s and 70s had a considerable impact on the architecture of Catford. The old Town Hall of 1875, was replaced by the current Civic Suite in 1968, soon after the merger of the boroughs of Lewisham. Laurence House, where many of the Lewisham Council offices are housed, is on the site of old St Laurences Church, the original Gothic C of E St. In Rushey Green the old village water hand-pump from the 1850s survives, at the end of World War II, the 188-bungalow Excalibur Estate was laid out in Catford, and by 2011 this was the largest surviving prefab estate in Britain. However, it is now planned that all but six of the prefabs will be demolished and replaced by new housing, a few examples of Brutalist architecture survive including the Catford shopping centre and Milford Towers, designed by the architect Owen Luder in 1974. The design was to make it the Barbican of the south, architecture critic Ian Nairn praised Eros House, which is now Grade II listed as, A monster sat down in Catford and just what the place needed.
No offence meant, this extension of Lewisham High Street badly wanted stiffening. Now there is a punchy concrete focus both close to and at a distance, from the heights of the Downham Estate. Rough concrete is put through all its paces, front convex eaves on Sainsburys to a tower which is either afflicted with an astounding set of visual distortions or is actually leaning. Unlike many other buildings, particularly in the universities, this one is done from real conviction
Ealing is a major suburban district of west London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing. It is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically a village in the county of Middlesex. Improvement in communications with London, culminating with the opening of the station in 1838. As part of the growth of London in the 20th century, Ealing significantly expanded and increased in population and it now forms a significant commercial and retail centre with a developed night time economy. Ealing has the characteristics of both suburban and inner-city developments, Ealings town centre is often colloquial with Ealing Broadway, the name of both a rail interchange & a shopping centre. Most of Ealing, including the district, South Ealing, Ealing Common, Pitshanger. Areas to the north-west of the centre such as Argyle Road. A small section north-east of the centre, near Hanger Hill. The population of Ealing, comprising the Ealing Broadway, Ealing Common, Walpole, the area of Hanwell is strongly associated with Ealing, however, it is a separate district with its own postcode.
Northfields on the hand, despite sharing postcodes with Ealing is generally considered to be a separate area in its own right. The Saxon name for Ealing was recorded c.700 as Gillingas, meaning place of the associated with Gilla, from the personal name Gilla. Over the centuries, the name has changed, and has known as Illing,1130, Gilling,1243. Archaeological evidence shows that parts of Ealing have been occupied for more than 7,000 years Iron Age pots have been discovered in the vicinity on Horsenden Hill. A settlement is recorded here in the 12th century amid a great forest that carpeted the area to the west of London, the earliest surviving English census is that for Ealing in 1599. This list was a tally of all 85 households in Ealing village giving the names of the inhabitants, together with their ages and occupations. It survives in form at The National Archives, and was transcribed and printed by K J Allison for the Ealing Historical Society in 1961. Settlements were scattered throughout the parish, many of them were along what is now called St.
Marys Road, near to the church in the centre of the parish
Bromley is a large suburban town, the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Bromley in Greater London, United Kingdom. It was historically a market town chartered since 1158 and an ancient parish in the county of Kent, as part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Bromley significantly increased in population and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1903. Most of Bromley including the centre falls under the BR1 postcode district. Bromley is first recorded in a charter of 862 as Bromleag and it shares this Old English etymology with Great Bromley in Essex, but not with the Bromley in Tower Hamlets. The history of Bromley is closely connected with the See of Rochester, in AD862 Ethelbert, the King of Kent, granted land to form the Manor of Bromley. It was held by the Bishops of Rochester until 1845, when Coles Child, the town was an important coaching stop on the way to Hastings from London, and the now defunct Royal Bell Hotel is referred to in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice.
Bromley, known as Bromley St Peter and St Paul, formed an ancient parish in the Bromley and Beckenham hundred, in 1840 it became part of the expanded Metropolitan Police District. The parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and a board was formed in 1867. The board was reconstituted as Bromley Urban District Council in 1894 and it formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. Bromley became part of the newly created Greater London in 1965, Bromley forms part of the Bromley and Chislehurst Parliament constituency and the London European Parliament constituency. The current MP is Bob Neill, James Cleverly is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency, in which the town is located. Bromleys most prominent MP was the former Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Bromley is located 9.3 miles south east of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Bromley is a post town in the BR postcode area, consisting of BR1, BR1 covers Bromley, Sundridge Park and part of Downham, and the BR2 portion covers Hayes, Shortlands and Bromley Common.
Other nearby areas, Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfb. Bromley is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. The town has a retail area, including a pedestrianised High Street and The Glades centre. The shopping area includes such as Gap, Russell & Bromley and Waterstones. Orpington, Sevenoaks via Swanley, Ashford International via Maidstone East, Bromley North station with services to London Bridge and Charing Cross by changing at Grove Park. Bromley has a number of theatres, the most notable being the Churchill Theatre in the town centre, the Churchill Theatre was opened on 19 July 1977 by HRH Prince of Wales, and seats 785
Shepherds Bush is an area of west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Although it is residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherds Bush Green. The main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all containing a number of small and mostly independent shops, pubs. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherds Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers, in 2011, the population of the area was 39,724. The district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton, White City forms the northern part of Shepherds Bush. Shepherds Bush comprises the Shepherds Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Kensal Green and White City wards. The areas focal point is Shepherds Bush Green, an area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops. This position makes it an important node of the bus network and it is served by five London Underground stations, Shepherds Bush, White City, Shepherds Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane.
Originally built in the 1970s with a car park and connecting bridge to the station. The bridge was removed, and the now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. The Westfield Group opened a centre in October 2008. The same building houses Escape Studios, an art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherds Bush are primarily located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, and about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, Shepherds Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate that was originally constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s.
The name Shepherds Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London. An alternative theory is that it could have named after someone in the area. Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age, Shepherds Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the Fulanham estate
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census