A seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has twelve months of 30 days plus five or six epagomenal days, the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Geez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 of the Julian calendar, thus the first day of the Ethiopian year,1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is usually September 11. It, falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year, in the Gregorian year 2015, the Ethiopian calendar year 2008 begins on September 12, rather than September 11, on account of this additional epagomenal day occurring every four years. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for the following a leap year. The Ethiopian calendar year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on September 11,2005, the Ethiopian years 1996 and 1992 began on September 12,2003 and 1999, respectively.
This date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099, as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. 400, thus its first civil year began seven months earlier on August 29, Europeans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD525 instead, which placed the Annunciation eight years earlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ethiopian year number to be eight years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, in the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum. Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Years Days,3 1/2 to four months and it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, after the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian and Ethiopian chronologists. The twelfth 532-year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD360, bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as New Years Day,25 March.
Thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC, in the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B. C. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century, the four-year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists, the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-year and the Mark-year. The year with the sixth day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the four-year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar and these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are leap years in the Ethiopian calendar, meaning dates before 1900. The Ethiopian Calendar, Appendix IV, C. F, The Prester John of the Indies
Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is the official civil calendar in use in India along with the Vikram Samvat calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars. The Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the Day of Silence, is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali, nepals Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. The term may refer to the Hindu calendar, the Saka era is commonly used by other calendars. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with Hindu calendar, in leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, the names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka Era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era.
To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year - if the result is a year in the Gregorian calendar. Its structure is like the Persian calendar, despite this effort, local variations based on older sources such as the Surya Siddhanta may still exist. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific, other members of the Committee were, A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and it was Saha’s effort, which led to the formation of the Committee. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, the Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. The task was complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. Indias first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote, “They represent past political divisions in the country….
”Usage started officially at Chaitra 1,1879, Saka Era, or March 22,1957, Dionysian Era. However, government officials seem to ignore the New Years Day of this calendar in favour of the religious calendar. Mapping Time, The Calendar and its History by E. G, Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor, the lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, but in 1873, as part of Japans Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced. In Japan today, the old Chinese calendar is virtually ignored, celebrations of the Lunar New Year are thus limited to Chinese, Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Including The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced into Japan. It was often used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, though, the cycle is seldom used except around New Years. The era name system was introduced from China, and has been in continuous use since AD701.
Each Emperors reign begins a new era, before 1868 era names were declared for other reasons. Nengō are the means of dating years in Japan. It is in use in private and personal business. The Japanese imperial year or kigen 紀元 is based on the date of the founding of Japan by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. It was first used in the calendar in 1873. However, it never replaced era names, and since World War II has been abandoned, the Western Common Era system has gradually come into common use since the Meiji period. Now, most people know it, as well as era names, the official dating system known as nengō 年号, strictly speaking, gengō 元号, has been in use since the late 7th century. Years are numbered within eras, which are named by the reigning Emperor, the nengō system remains in wide use, especially on official documents and government forms. The imperial year system was used from 1872 to the Second World War, Imperial year 1 was the year when the legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan –660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar.
Usage of kōki dating can be a nationalist signal, pointing out that the history of Japans imperial family is longer than that of Christianity, kōki 2600 was a special year. The 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, the Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh, the New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pôhela Bôishakh. The Bengali Era or Anno Bengal, the Bengali year is 594 less than the AD or CE year in the Gregorian calendar if it is before Pôhela Bôishakh, the revised version of the Bengali calendar was officially adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. However, it is not followed in India where the traditional version continues to be followed due to occurrence of Hindu festivals based on a particular sidereal solar day. The Bengali calendar is a solar calendar, the calendar was developed by Alauddin Husain Shah, a Hussain Shahi sultan of Bengal by combining the lunar Islamic calendar with the solar calendar, prevalent in Bengal. All theories agree that the Mughal Emperor, Akbar was instrumental in promulgating the Bengali calendar, Akbar modified, developed and re introduced the Bengali Calendar in order to make tax collection easier in Bengal.
The calendar was called as Tarikh-e-Elahi. Sources credit the idea to Alauddin Husain Shah, akbars royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi developed the Bengali calendar, by synthesizing the Lunar Islamic and Solar calendars. The calendar started with the Islamic calendar value, but the Sanskrit month names were used from the earlier version, the distinctive characteristic of the Bengali year was that rather than being a lunar calendar, it was based on a union of the solar and lunar year. This was essentially a great promotion as the solar and lunar years were formulated in very diverse systems, primarily this calendar was named as Fasli Sôn and Bônggabdô. The Bengali Year was launched on 1584 AD or 992 AH and this was the day that Akbar defeated Hemu in the clash of Panipat to ascend the throne. The month of Muharram in the year 963 AH was equal to the month of Boishakh in the Bengali calendar, in the Tarikh-e-Elahi version of the calendar, each day of the month had a separate name, and the months had different names from what they have now.
The Bengali calendar consists of 6 seasons, known as Rreetu ঋতু or Kal কাল, hence after some centuries the months will shift far away from the actual seasons. But the new revised version of the Bengali calendar used in Bangladesh will continue to maintain the seasons on time as mentioned above. The Bengali Calendar incorporates the seven-day week as used by other calendars. The names of the days of the week in the Bengali Calendar are based on the Navagraha, the day begins and ends at sunrise in the Bengali calendar, unlike in the Gregorian calendar, where the day starts at midnight. Pôhela Bôishakh in West Bengal and other states of India with Bengali diaspora, is celebrated on 14/15 April of the Gregorian calendar, according to the revised version of the calendar, now followed in Bangladesh, Pôhela Bôishakh always falls on 14 April. It is not clear, from what ground they start counting of 1st Bengali calendar year from the 593AD, the length of a year is counted as 365 days, as in the Gregorian calendar
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in Hinduism. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle, the names of months. A Hindu calendar is referred to as Panchanga. The ancient Hindu calendar is similar in design to the Jewish calendar. Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar, Vikrami calendar, Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional calendars of Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka. Similarly, the ancient Jainism traditions have followed the lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals, texts. However, the Buddhist and Jaina timekeeping systems have attempted to use the Buddha, the Hindu calendar is important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system, most of which it adopted from Greece, in centuries after the arrival of Alexander the Great. The Indian national calendar or Saka calendar was introduced in 1952 based on the traditional Hindu calendars and this study was one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
The ancient Indian culture developed a time keeping methodology and calendars for Vedic rituals. David Pingree has proposed that the field of timekeeping in Jyotisha may have derived from Mesopotamia during the Achaemenid period. Ohashi states that this Vedanga field developed from actual astronomical studies in ancient India, timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and moon movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. For example, Kaushitaki Brahmana chapter 19.3 mentions the shift in the location of the sun towards north for 6 months. The Vikrami calendar is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 BCE, Hindu scholars attempted to keep time by observing and calculating the cycles of sun and the planets. These texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion, other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies.
The manuscripts of texts exist in slightly different versions, present Surya- and planets-based calculation. These vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and they tracked the solar year by observing the entrance and departure of surya in the constellation formed by stars in the sky, which they divided into 12 intervals of 30 degrees each. Like other ancient human cultures, Hindus innovated a number of systems of which intercalary months became most used, as their calendar keeping and astronomical observations became more sophisticated, the Hindu calendar became more sophisticated with complex rules and greater accuracy
The Republic of China calendar is the method of numbering years currently used in Taiwan by officials and other territories under the control of the Republic of China. It was used in mainland China from 1912 until the founding of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, for example,2017 is the 106th year of the Republic. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective 1 January 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional Chinese calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, after the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China on 10 October 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January 1929. The Peoples Republic of China has continued to use the Gregorian calendar since 1949, despite the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, the numbering of the years was still an issue.
Chinese imperial tradition was to use the era name and year of reign. One alternative to this approach was to use the reign of the half-historical, in the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate such a system of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperors regnal name. Following the establishment of the Republic, hence the lack of an Emperor and this reduced the issue of frequent change in the calendar, as no Emperor ruled more than 61 years in Chinese history — the longest being Kangxi Emperor who ruled from 1662–1722. As Chinese era names are two characters long, 民國 is employed as an abbreviation of 中華民國. The first year,1912, is called 民國元年 and 2010, for example,3 May 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or ROC 93-05-03. The ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the used by the Juche calendar of North Korea, because its founder. The years in Japans Taishō period coincide with those of the ROC era, the use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents.
Misinterpretation is more likely in the cases when the prefix is omitted, there have been legislative proposals by pro-Taiwan Independence political parties, such as the Democratic Progressive Party to abolish the Republican calendar in favor of the Gregorian calendar. Generally, the ROC era is obtained by subtracting 1911 from the Gregorian calendar year, since the release of Java 8, the Minguo calendar is supported in the new Date and Time API. East Asian age reckoning Public holidays in Taiwan
Kali Yuga is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of the cycle of yugas described in the Sanskrit scriptures, within the present Mahayuga. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali. The Kali of Kali Yuga means strife, quarrel or contention, according to Puranic sources, Krishnas departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE and this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to his heavenly abode. This information is placed at the temple of Bhalka, the place of this incident, according to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. He finished his book “Aryabhattiya” in 499 CE, in which he gives the year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the year 3600 of the Kali Age at the age of 23.
As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, according to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kaliyuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is slightly off, the actual date for this alignment is February 7 of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE, Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30% of what the modern scholars estimate. The Kali Yuga is thought by some authors to last 6480 years although other durations have been proposed, hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, which is referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism often symbolically represents morality as an indian bull, in Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter.
By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga, in relation to rulers, it lists, Rulers will become unreasonable, they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects, people will start migrating, seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source. (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to relationships, Markandeyas discourse says, Avarice. Humans will openly display animosity towards each other, people will have thoughts of murder with no justification and will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries and it is used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year of AD622, during that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH in parallel with the Christian, in Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH, the current Islamic year is 1438 AH. In the Gregorian calendar,1438 AH runs from approximately 3 October 2016 to 21 September 2017, four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Ḥijjah and Muḥarram.
As the lunar calendar lags behind the solar calendar by about ten days every gregorian year, the cycle repeats every 33 lunar years. Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle, traditionally this is based on actual observation of the crescent marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Dawoodi Bohra Muslims and Shia Ismaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar in which odd-numbered months have thirty days, in Arabic, the first day of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic weekdays, like those in the Hebrew and Baháí calendars, the Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers, which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight, Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on gathering day which corresponds with Friday.
Thus gathering day is regarded as the weekly day of rest. A few others have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a midday break to allow time off for worship. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars, at least some of these calendars followed the lunisolar system. For Central Arabia, especially Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence, both al-Biruni and al-Masudi suggest that the Ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs. Nevertheless, the Islamic position equating Nisan with Dhū al-Ḥijja has prevailed, for a comparison between the Islamic and pre-Islamic months, see Islamic and Jahili months. The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah, the forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram
Vikram Samvat Nepali, नेपाली पात्रो, Listen ) is an era used in India and Nepal, just like the Christian era started in 1 CE. The Vikram Samvat started in 58/57 BCE in southern and 57/56 BCE in northern systems of Hindu calendar, the era is named after king Vikramaditya. The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar, for example, the year 2073 BS began in 2016 CE and will end in 2017 CE. The new year begins with the first day of month Baishakh, the first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called Bisket Jatra. The Rana rulers of Nepal made it their official calendar, there have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as Indias official calendar. The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal years, because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months are added or occasionally subtracted. A Tithi or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the angle between the moon and the Sun to increase by 12°.
Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours, a Paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 tithis. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas. Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the account, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan, despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gandharvasena himself was forgiven, the defeated king retired to the forest, where he was killed by a tiger. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana, on, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the Vikrama era, the Ujjain calendar started around 56-58 BCE, and the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana.
The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE, the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or simply, Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era Vikrama is from 842 CE and this inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, and is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE, the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes
The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar, prior to that, Javanese had used the Hindu calendar or Saka calendar which that starts in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time. Sultan Agungs calendar retained the Saka calendar year counting but differs by using the lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar. Occasionally it is referred by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ, the Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping but separate measurements of times, called cycles. Traditionally Javanese people didnt divide day and night hours. The division of a day and night are, The native Javanese system groups days into a week called Pasaran. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar, the days of the cycle have two names each, because the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness and krama. The krama names for the days are less common.
ꦊꦒꦶ – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ ꦥꦲꦶꦁ – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ ꦮꦒꦺ – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ The origin of the names is unclear, the names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names. Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week, however many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon. Javanese people find great interest in their interpretations in this combination. The seven-day-long week cycle is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam in Indonesian archipelago and this combination form the wetonan cycle explained below. The Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts 35 days, an example of wetonan cycle, From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6,2008 would be read as Selasa Wage. The Wetonan cycle is important for divinatory systems, and important celebrations, rites of passage, commemorations.
An especially prominent example widely still taught at schools is the Weton for the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia on August 17,1945. It was coinciding with the Weton for the birth and death of Sultan Agung, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage. There are taboos that relate to the cycle, for example, pawukon is a 210-day cycle in Javanese calendar, related to Hindu tradition