1. Peruvian War of Independence – Because of this the viceroy often had the support of the Lima oligarchy, who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on July 28,1821. During the Peninsular War central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost, after success of the royalist armies, Abascal annexed Upper Peru to the viceroyalty, which benefited the Lima merchants as trade from the silver-rich region was now directed to the Pacific. Because of this, Peru remained strongly royalist and participated in the reforms implemented by the Cádiz Cortes. Peru was represented at the first session of the Cortes by seven deputies, therefore, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America, after Upper Peru. Peru eventually succumbed to patriot armies after the continental campaigns of José de San Martín. Some of the early Spanish conquistadors that explored Peru made the first attempts for independence from the Spanish crown and they tried to liberate themselves from the Viceroyalty, who governed for the king of Castile. Throughout the eighteenth century, there were several uprisings against colonial rule. Some of these uprisings became true rebellions and it is debated whether these movements should be considered as precedents of the emancipation that was led by chiefs, Peruvian towns, and other countries in the American continent. The independence of Peru was an important chapter in the Hispano-American wars of independence, the campaign of Sucre in Upper Peru concluded in April 1825, and in November of the same year Mexico obtained the surrender of the Spanish bastion of San Juan de Ulúa in North America. The Spanish strongholds in Callao and Chiloé in South America fell in January 1826, Spain renounced all their continental American territories ten years later in 1836 leaving very little of its vast empire intact. Despite the royalist tendencies of Peru, junta movements did emerge, there were two short-lived uprisings in the southern city of Tacna in 1811 and 1813. One significant movement, led by Natives in Huánuco, began on February 22,1812 and it involved various leaders, including curacas and township magistrates, but was suppressed within a few weeks. More enduring was the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1815, the rebellion began in a confrontation between the Constitutional Cabildo and the Audiencia of Cuzco over the administration of the city. Cabildo officials and their allies were arrested by the Audiencia, Criollo leaders appealed to retired brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, who was curaca of Chinchero, and decades earlier had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Pumacahua joined the Criollo leaders in forming a junta on August 3 in Cuzco, in 1814, the first expedition was successful in reconquering Chile after winning the Battle of Rancagua. In 1817 following the royalist defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco, initially it was successful in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, the expedition was finally defeated by José de San Martín in the Battle of Maipú. To begin the liberation of Peru, Argentina and Chile signed a treaty on February 5,1819 to prepare for the invasion, General José de San Martín believed that the liberation of Argentina wouldnt be secure until the royalist stronghold in Peru was defeatedPeruvian War of Independence – The Battle of Ayacucho Painting by Antonio Herrera Toro
2. Esmeralda (1791) – The Spanish Esmeralda was a 44 gun frigate built in Port Mahón, Balearic Islands in 1791. The First Chilean Navy Squadron under the command of Thomas Cochrane captured her in the night from 5 to 6 November 1820 and she was renamed Valdivia in Chilean service. She was beached in Valparaíso in June 1825, the ship was 950 ton burthen frigate designed by engineer Bouyón in the Balearic Islands. The convoy arrived in Callao on 30 September 1817, except Tagle, on 31 March 1818 Esmeralda, the most powerful Spanish warship on the Pacific coast joined the Pezuela and Potrillo in the blockade of Valparaíso until 27 April 1818. On that day the Chilean ship Lautaro come alongside the Esmeralda, the boarders were unable to capture Esmeralda but the Spanish ships abandoned the blockade. The demoralization of his crews helped dissipate the power of the Viceroy. Later she was renamed Valdivia to commemorate Cochranes capture of Valdivia, the squadron was forced to move up and down the coast on supply gathering excursions, challenging shore fortifications. The Chilean ships sailed as far as the Gulf of Cortez off Mexico without finding a trace of the missing frigatesEsmeralda (1791) – Capture of the Esmeralda in Callao, by L, Colet, Club Naval, Valparaíso
3. Callao Affair – The Callao affair occurred in November 1820, during the Peruvian War of Independence. It began when a Spanish fort opened fire on the United States warship USS Macedonian, though the ship was damaged, the Americans did not violate their neutrality by counterattacking. On the following day, a filled with United States Navy sailors was attacked. Two days after that, an American merchant ship was attacked, ultimately, there was no significant response by the United States to the attacks on their shipping and their citizens, though the Spanish government vowed to punish the perpetrators. Inspired by the French revolution in 1789, and the Peruvian revolution, the capture of the ship crippled Spains operational capabilities in the Pacific Ocean and infuriated the Royalist inhabitants of Callao. Because the Macedonian was so close to the area, the Spanish military in Callao assumed that she had supported Cochranes fleet in the attack. So instead of aiming for the Chilean ships, the garrison opened fire on the frigate, multiple rounds ripped through the ships rigging though the damage was repairable and no Americans were harmed. The Macedonians carpenter, Samuel Holbrook, later described the incident, Their shot flew round us like hail, cutting away our cross-jack yard, many of the red hot shot struck near us. Captain Downes was in Lima at the time and a first lieutenant was in command, on the following day, the lieutenant sent the tender Buckskin filled with sailors into port for provisions. However, while the sailors were still heading to shore, Spanish troops at the docks opened fire, Holbrook described the scene, blood and brain scattered round the inside as though a bullock had been killed in her. There was no landing as some claim and the survivors went back to their ship without obtaining the fresh food they were looking for. The Macedonian also took on board that day several American and British refugees who were in fear of being killed by the natives. Captain Downes was still not interested in exacting redress for the three incidents but he did send the Spanish Viceroy Joaquin de la Pezuela a letter of protest, Pezuela said he would punish those responsible but whether he actually did so or not remains unknown. So, when the Americans were leaving Callao, they expected to have to fight their way past the Chilean fleet, but Cochrane ignored the frigate and let it go without any opposition. In the end, there was no retaliation by the United States in response to the attacks on their vessels or their citizens, bahia incident Rio de Janeiro Affair Glenn, Myra C. Jack Tars Story, The Autobiographies and Memoirs of Sailors in Antebellum America, chronicles of the Frigate Macedonian, 1809–1922. Gold braid and foreign relations, diplomatic activities of U. S. naval officers, 1798–1883Callao Affair – The rebuilt USS Macedonian in Ireland during the Great Famine.
4. Battle of Ayacucho – The Battle of Ayacucho was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America, as of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On 9 December 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho took place at Pampa de Ayacucho, Independentist forces were led by Simón Bolívars lieutenant Sucre. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle, in 1820 Spain began what would shortly become a political disaster. An expedition of 20,000 soldiers waiting to be sent to Río de la Plata to help the royalists of America revolted under the encouragement of General Rafael Riego. In the subsequent weeks the revolt spread and King Ferdinand VII was forced to restore the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812, the royalists in each viceroyalty, however, took different paths. In Peru Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela was discredited after a royalist expedition to Chile under Mariano Osorio was defeated and advances in Peru were made by José de San Martín. The viceroy was overthrown on 29 January 1821, in Asnapukyu, in a coup by General José de la Serna, the independentists started the new year with a promising victory. At Cerro de Pasco they defeated a Peruvian royalist army commanded by Viceroy La Serna, however, the royalists had received solid military training. Their first victory came against the independentist army commanded by Domingo Tristán, a year later, San Martin had withdrawn from the scene after the Interview of Guayaquil and royalist forces had smashed Rudecindo Alvarados Liberating Expedition in campaigns in Torata and Moquegua. After scattering Santa Cruzs isolated troops, La Serna recaptured Arequipa after beating Antonio José de Sucres Gran Colombian force on 10 October. Sucre decided to evacuate the Gran Colombian troops, setting sail on 10 October 1823, saving himself and his troops, Viceroy La Serna ended the campaign after reaching Oruro in Upper Peru. On the political front, the last remnants of optimism among patriots faded away with accusations of treason against Peruvian presidents José de la Riva Agüero, Riva Agüero deported deputies of the Peruvian Congress and organized another congress in Trujillo. After being found guilty of treason by the Peruvian Congress he was banished to Chile. This act, in turn, was considered by Simón Bolívar to be treasonous, Tagle, who had earlier ordered all armies under his command to support Bolívar against the royalist enemy, was now pursued by Bolívar, who was looking to capture and execute him. Tagle took shelter with the royalists in the fortress of Callao, nevertheless, by the end of 1823, the situation had started to become critical for those who defended the kings cause. In spite of the military triumphs, Bolívars request for reinforcements from Colombia made him a threat to the royalist armyBattle of Ayacucho – The Battle of Ayacucho, by Antonio Herrera Toro from studies by Martín Tovar y Tovar