1. Post-Soviet conflicts – This article lists the Post-Soviet conflicts, the violent political and ethnic conflicts in the countries of the former Soviet Union since shortly before its official breakup in December 1991. Some of these such as the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis or the 2013 Euromaidan protests in Ukraine were due to political crises in the successor states. Others involved separatist movements attempting to break away from one of the successor states, some of these conflicts ended in a stalemate or without a peace treaty, and are referred to as frozen conflicts. This means that a number of states are left sovereign over the entirety of their territory in name only. In reality, they do not exercise control over areas still under the control of rebel factions. Rebel groups are essentially left independent over large chunks of the territories they claim, in many instances, they have created institutions which are similar to those of fully fledged independent states, albeit with little or no international recognition. Recognition of these groups vary. In some instances such as Transnistria, no UN-member state has given its recognition, in the case of Georgias Abkhazia and South Ossetia, Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Nauru have recognized them. Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations List of wars 1990–2002 List of wars 2003–2010 List of wars 2011–present Frozen conflict Post-Soviet statesPost-Soviet conflicts – Geopolitics of the Crimean autonomous Republic, March 2014.
2. Nagorno-Karabakh War – Inter-ethnic clashes between the two broke out shortly after the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast in Azerbaijan voted to unify the region with Armenia on 20 February 1988. The declaration of secession from Azerbaijan was the result of a territorial conflict regarding the land. Full-scale fighting erupted in the winter of 1992. International mediation by several including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe failed to bring an end resolution that both sides could work with. In the spring of 1993, Armenian forces captured regions outside the enclave itself, a Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in May 1994, but regular peace talks between Armenia and Azerbaijan mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group have failed to result in a peace treaty. As many as 230,000 Armenians from Azerbaijan and 800,000 Azerbaijanis from Armenia, the territorial ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh today is still heavily contested between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. The current conflict has its roots in events following World War I, shortly before the Ottoman Empires capitulation in the war, the Russian Empire collapsed in November 1917 and fell under the control of the Bolsheviks. Fighting soon broke out between the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in three regions, Nakhchevan, Zangezur and Karabakh itself, in Azerbaijan. Armenia and Azerbaijan quarreled about the boundaries of the three provinces. The Karabakh Armenians attempted to declare their independence but failed to contact with the Republic of Armenia. British troops occupied the South Caucasus in 1919, and the British command suggested Andranik cease his offense, afterward, the British provisionally affirmed Azerbaijani statesman Khosrov bey Sultanov as the governor-general of Karabakh and ordered him to squash any unrest in the region. Afterward followed the Shusha massacre of an estimated 20,000 Armenians, Two months later however, the Soviet 11th Army invaded the Caucasus and within three years, the Caucasian republics were formed into the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks thereafter created a committee, the Caucasus Bureau. Under the supervision of the Peoples Commissar for Nationalities, the future Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was created in 1923, leaving it with a population that was 94% Armenian. The reversal was substantiated with the connections the region had with Azerbaijan. The capital was moved from Shusha to Khankendi, which was renamed as Stepanakert. Armenian and Azerbaijani scholars have speculated that the decision was an application of the principle of divide and this can be seen, for example, by the odd placement of the Nakhichevan exclave, which is separated by Armenia but is a part of Azerbaijan. Others have also postulated that the decision was a gesture by the Soviet government to help maintain good relations with Atatürks TurkeyNagorno-Karabakh War – Clockwise from top: Remnants of Azerbaijani APCs; internally displaced Azerbaijanis from the Armenian-controlled territory; Armenian T-72 tank memorial at the outskirts of Stepanakert; NKR soldiers.
3. Georgian Civil War – While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups, ethnic minority separatist movements – primarily on the part of the Ossetians and the Abkhaz, demanded fuller recognition in the new order of the early 1990s. Asserting its newly gained national prerogatives, Georgia responded with military attempts to restrain separatism forcibly, on January 5,1991 Georgias National Guard entered Tskhinvali, South Ossetian capital and fighting broke out in and around the city. The Georgian-Ossetian Conflict was the first major crisis faced by Gamsakhurdias government, at the time of the dissolution of the USSR, the United States government recognized as legitimate the pre-Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact 1933 borders of the country. Because of this, the George H. W. Activity of the opposition against the Government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia caused a political dispute. Following the police dispersion of an opposition demonstration in Tbilisi on September 2, several oppositionists were arrested and their offices raided. The National Guard of Georgia, the paramilitary force in the country split into two, pro- and anti-Gamsakhurdia factions. Another powerful paramilitary organization, the Mkhedrioni led by Jaba Ioseliani also sided with the opposition, demonstrations and barricade-building marked the next three months. On 22 September, there were the first fatalities in Tbilisi, on September 24, state of emergency was declared in Tbilisi. On October 4 anti-Gamsakhurdia groups attacked the supporters of Gamsakhurdia, one supporter of the President was killed, by late October 1991, most of the leadership of the oppositional National Democratic Party, headed by Giorgi Chanturia, had been arrested. On 20 December 1991, Kitovanis fighters returned in force to begin the final onslaught against Gamsakhurdia, the armed oppositionists released Jaba Ioseliani, the leader of Mkhedrioni and mounted barricades in central Tbilisi. On December 22, the rebels seized several official buildings, and attacked the Parliament building where Gamsakhurdia, simultaneously, the rebels already controlling most of the city, brutally suppressed pro-Gamsakhurdia protests in and around Tbilisi. They fired on the crowds, killing and wounding several people, within several days of the fighting the main boulevard in the city, Rustaveli Avenue, had been destroyed and at least 113 people were killed. After the successful coup, a government, the Military Council, was formed in Georgia. The 1992 elections established Shevardnadze as the Chairman of Parliament and the Head of State, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, despite his absence, continued to enjoy substantial support within Georgia, especially in rural areas and in his home region of Samegrelo in western Georgia. The supporters of the president, the Zviadists, responded to the coup with spontaneous street demonstrations. One of the most serious occurred in Tbilisi on June 24,1992. However, they were out within a few hours by the National GuardGeorgian Civil War – Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and the Russian part of North Caucasus
4. Transnistria War – Fighting intensified on 1 March 1992 and, alternating with ad hoc ceasefires, lasted throughout the spring and early summer of 1992 until a ceasefire was declared on 21 July 1992, which has held. The conflict remained unresolved, but in 2011 talks were held under the auspices of the Organization for Security, however, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, the territorial changes resulting from it have remained in place. It represents slightly more than one tenth of Moldovas territory, in the Moldavian SSR, as in many other parts of the Soviet Union, national movements became the leading political force. According to John Mackinlay and Peter Cross, who conducted a study based on casualty reports and they suggest that the conflict is more political in nature. On 31 August 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR enacted two laws, one of them made Moldovan the official language, in lieu of Russian, the de facto official language of the Soviet Union. It also mentioned a linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity, the second law stipulated the return to the Latin Romanian alphabet. Moldovan language is the used in the former Soviet Union for a virtually identical dialect of the Romanian language during 1940–1989. On 27 April 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR adopted the tricolour flag with the Moldavian coat of arms and changed the national anthem to Deșteaptă-te. The national anthem of Romania since 1989, later that year the words Soviet and Socialist were dropped and the name of the country was changed to Republic of Moldova. This possibility caused fears among the Russian-speaking population that it would be excluded from most aspects of public life, from September 1989, there were strong scenes of protests in the region against the central governments ethnic policies. The language laws presented a particularly volatile issue as a proportion of the non-Moldovan population of the Moldavian SSR did not speak Moldovan. The problem of the language in the MSSR had become a Gordian knot, being exaggerated and, perhaps. Some described the laws as discriminatory and criticized their rapid implementation. Others, on the contrary, complained the laws were not followed, on 2 September 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed, Pridnestrovie being the name for Transnistria in Russian. On 22 December 1990 president Gorbachev signed a decree that declared void the decisions of the Second Congress of People Deputies of Transnistria from 2 September, for two months, Moldovan authorities refrained from taking action against this proclamation. Transnistria became one of the republics that appeared throughout the USSR, alongside Abkhazia, South Ossetia. These unrecognized states maintained close ties with each other, the first clash between the Moldovan government and separatists occurred on 3 November 1990 in Dubăsari. A police detachment was dispatched to clear a roadblock placed by the city residents on the bridge over the river Dniester that effectively cut the city off from the central government, in the resulting shootout, three residents of Dubăsari were killed, the first casualties of the conflictTransnistria War – PMR trucks on the bridge between Tiraspol and Bendery
5. Tajikistani Civil War – Politically, the rebel groups were led by liberal democratic reformers and Islamists, who fought together and later organized under the banner of the United Tajik Opposition. By June 1997, an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 people had been killed, tensions began in the spring of 1992 after opposition members took to the streets in demonstrations against the results of the 1991 presidential election. Fighting broke out in May 1992 between old-guard supporters of the government and an organized opposition composed of ethnic and regional groups from the Garm. Ideologically, the opposition included democratic liberal reformists and Islamists, the government, on the other hand, was dominated by people from the Leninabadi region, which had also made up most of the ruling elite during the entire Soviet period. It was also supported by people from the Kulyab region, who had held posts in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Soviet times. After many clashes, the Leninabadis were forced to accept a compromise, on 7 September 1992, Nabiyev was captured by opposition protesters and forced at gunpoint to resign his presidency. Chaos and fighting between the opposing factions reigned outside of the capital Dushanbe, with the aid of the Russian military and Uzbekistan, the Leninabadi-Kulyabi Popular Front forces routed the opposition in early and late 1992. The coalition government in the capital was forced to resign, the violence was particularly concentrated in Qurghonteppa, the power base of the IRP and home to many Garmis. Tens of thousands were killed or fled to Afghanistan, in Afghanistan, the opposition reorganized and rearmed with the aid of the Jamiat-i-Islami. The groups leader Ahmad Shah Masoud became a benefactor of the Tajik opposition, later in the war the opposition organized under an umbrella group called the United Tajik Opposition, or UTO. Elements of the UTO, especially in the Tavildara region, became the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Iran did not involve itself militarily, but provided ideological support for Muslims who had long been denied the right to freely exercise their faith in the USSR. Other combatants and armed bands that flourished in this civil chaos simply reflected the breakdown of authority rather than loyalty to a political faction. In response to the violence the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan was deployed, most fighting in the early part of the war occurred in the southern part of the country, but by 1996 the rebels were battling Russian troops in the capital city of Dushanbe. Islamic radicals from northern Afghanistan also began to fight Russian troops in the region, a UN-sponsored armistice finally ended the war in 1997. This was in part fostered by the Inter-Tajik Dialogue, a Track II diplomacy initiative in which the players were brought together by international actors, namely the United States. The peace agreement completely eliminated the Leninabad region from power, presidential elections were held on November 6,1999. Akbar Turajonzoda, second-in-command of the UTO, repeated this warning on 26 June, President Rahmonov, UTO leader Sayid Abdulloh Nuri and Russian President Boris Yeltsin met in the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 June to finish negotiating the peace agreement. Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov met with the Foreign Ministers of Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to discuss the peace accordTajikistani Civil War – Rally at Shakhidon Square in Dushanbe during the 1992 Tajikistan civil war
6. East Prigorodny Conflict – Human Rights Watch/Helsinki takes no position on the ultimate status of the Prigorodnyi region. The report also examines the Russian governments weak response to events leading to the conflict and its utter failure to prevent the destruction of thousands of homes. Russian authorities also conducted population transfers of people in the area at will. In January 1920, the Autonomous Mountain Soviet Socialist Republic, referred to as the Mountaineers Republic, was formed, with its capital in Vladikavkaz. Initially, the Mountaineers Republic, included the Kabards, Chechens, Ingush, Ossetians, Karachai, Cherkess, and Balkars, in 1924, the Ingush were given their own territorial unit that included the Prigorodnyi region. In 1934, the Ingush were merged territorially with the Chechens, the Prigorodnyi region still remained within the Chechen-Ingush entity. Soon after, the depopulated Prigorodny district was transferred to North Ossetia, in 1957, the repressed Ingush and Chechens were allowed to return to their native land and the Chechen-Ingush Republic was restored, with the Prigorodny district maintained as part of North Ossetia. Between 1973 and 1980 the Ingush voiced their demands for the reunification of the Prigorodny district with Ingushetia by staging various protests and meetings in Grozny. Ethnic violence rose steadily in the area of the Prigorodny district, to the east of the Terek River, during the summer and early autumn of 1992, there was a steady increase in the militancy of Ingush nationalists. Ingush fighters marched to take control over Prigorodny district and on the night of October 30,1992, open warfare broke out, the first people killed where respectively Ossetian and Ingush militsiya staff. Russian OMON forces actively participated in the fighting and sometimes led Ossetian fighters into battle, on October 31,1992, a high-level Russian delegation arrived to stop the violence, however, the first deployment of Russian peacekeepers did not begin until early November. President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree that the Prigorodny district was to part of North Ossetia on November 2. The return of most refugees had been blocked by the local government, meanwhile, the former Ingush homes and settlements in the district have been gradually occupied by the Ossetian refugees from Georgia. It is estimated that between 1994 and 2008, around 25,000 of the Ingush people returned to Prigorodny District while some 7,500 remained in Ingushetia, however, the Beslan hostage crisis of 2004 hampered the return process and worsened Ossetian-Ingush relations. Towards sustainable return of Ingush forced migrants and lasting peace in Prigorodny district of North Ossetia Ossetia-IngushetiaEast Prigorodny Conflict – Map of the Prigorodny district inside North Ossetia
7. 1993 Russian constitutional crisis – The constitutional crisis of 1993 was a political stand-off between the Russian president Boris Yeltsin and the Russian parliament that was resolved by using military force. The relations between the president and the parliament had been deteriorating for some time, Yeltsin used the results of the referendum of April 1993 to justify his actions. In response, the parliament declared that the decision was null and void, impeached Yeltsin. The situation deteriorated at the beginning of October, on October 3, demonstrators removed police cordons around the parliament and, urged by their leaders, took over the Mayors offices and tried to storm the Ostankino television centre. The army, which had declared its neutrality, stormed the Supreme Soviet building in the early morning hours of October 4 by Yeltsins order. The ten-day conflict became the deadliest single event of fighting in Moscows history since the Russian Revolution. According to government estimates,187 people were killed and 437 wounded, the Soviet Union broke up on 26 December 1991. Yeltsins economic reform took effect on January 2,1992. Soon afterward prices skyrocketed, government spending was slashed, and heavy new taxes went into effect, a deep credit crunch shut down many industries and brought about a protracted depression. Russias vice president, Aleksandr Rutskoy, denounced the Yeltsin program as economic genocide, indeed, during the first half of 1992, the average income of the population declined 2–2.5 times. Leaders of oil-rich republics such as Tatarstan and Bashkiria called for independence from Russia. Also throughout 1992, Yeltsin wrestled with the Supreme Soviet and the Russian Congress of Peoples Deputies for control over government and government policy. In 1992 the speaker of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Ruslan Khasbulatov, came out in opposition to the reforms, despite claiming to support Yeltsins overall goals. The president was concerned about the terms of the amendments passed in late 1991. Yeltsin, awaiting implementation of his program, demanded that parliament reinstate his decree powers. Parliament responded by voting to take control of the parliamentary army, Yeltsin nominated Viktor Chernomyrdin to be prime minister on December 14, and the parliament confirmed him. Yeltsins December 1992 compromise with the seventh Congress of the Peoples Deputies temporarily backfired, early 1993 saw increasing tension between Yeltsin and the parliament over the language of the referendum and power sharing. In a series of collisions over policy, the congress whittled away the presidents extraordinary powers, the legislature, marshaled by Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, began to sense that it could block and even defeat the president1993 Russian constitutional crisis – Tanks of the Taman Division shelling the Russian White House on October 4, 1993
8. First Chechen War – The First Chechen War, also known as the War in Chechnya, was a conflict between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, fought from December 1994 to August 1996. The official figure for Russian military deaths is 5,732, although there are no accurate figures for the number of Chechen forces killed, various estimates put the number at about 3,000 to 17,391 deaths and missing. The conflict led to a significant decrease of population due to violence. Following long local resistance during the 1817−1864 Caucasian War, Imperial Russian forces defeated the Chechens, in 1936, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin established the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The official pretext was punishment for collaboration with the invading German forces during the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, eventually, Soviet first secretary Nikita Khrushchev granted the Vainakh peoples permission to return to their homeland and restored their republic in 1957. Russia became an independent nation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, while Russia was widely accepted as the successor state to the USSR, it lost a significant amount of its military and economic power. In the Soviet period, some of Russias approximately 100 nationalities were granted ethnic enclaves that had various formal federal rights attached, relations of these entities with the federal government and demands for autonomy erupted into a major political issue in the early 1990s. Boris Yeltsin incorporated these demands into his 1990 election campaign by claiming that their resolution was a high priority, there was an urgent need for a law to clearly define the powers of each federal subject. In almost all cases, demands for autonomy or independence were satisfied by concessions of regional autonomy. The treaty outlined three basic types of subjects and the powers that were reserved for local and federal government. The only federal subjects that did not sign the treaty were Chechnya, neither Yeltsin nor the Chechen government attempted any serious negotiations and the situation deteriorated into a full-scale conflict. The storming caused the death of the head of Groznys branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Vitaly Kutsenko and this effectively dissolved the government of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic of the Soviet Union. In the following month, Dudayev won overwhelming support to oust the interim administration that was supported by the central government. He was made president and declared independence from the Soviet Union, in November 1991, Yeltsin dispatched Internal Troops to Grozny, but they were forced to withdraw when Dudayevs forces surrounded them at the airport. The newly created republic of Ingushetia then joined the Russian Federation, from 1991 to 1994, tens of thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity left the republic amidst reports of violence and discrimination against the non-Chechen population. During the undeclared Chechen civil war, factions both sympathetic and opposed to Dudayev fought for power, sometimes in pitched battles with the use of heavy weapons, in March 1992, the opposition attempted a coup détat, but their attempt was crushed by force. A month later, Dudayev introduced direct rule, and in June 1993. To prevent the invasion of Chechnya, he did not provoke the Russian troops, in August 1994, the coalition of the opposition factions based in north Chechnya launched a large-scale armed campaign to remove Dudayevs governmentFirst Chechen War – Russian Mil Mi-8 helicopter brought down by Chechen fighters near the capital Grozny in 1994
9. War of Dagestan – The war ended with a major Russian victory and the retreat of the IIB. The Invasion of Dagestan was the casus belli for the Second Chechen War, during the inter-war period of 1996 to 1999, a war-ravaged Chechnya descended into chaos and economic collapse. Aslan Maskhadovs government was unable to rebuild the region or to prevent a number of warlords from taking effective control, the relationship between the government and radicals deteriorated. In March 1999, Maskhadov closed down the Chechen parliament and introduced aspects of Sharia law, despite this concession, extremists such as Shamil Basayev and the Saudi-born Islamist Ibn Al-Khattab continued to undermine the Maskhadov government. In late 1997, Bagauddin Magomedov, the ethnic Avar leader of the wing of the Dagestani Wahhabis. There he established ties with Al-Khattab and other leaders of Chechnyas Wahhabi community. In January 1999, Khattab began the formation of an Islamic Legion with foreign Muslim volunteers, at the same time, he commanded the peacemaking unit of the Majlis of Ichkeria and Dagestan. Other attacks targeted civilians and Dagestani police on a regular basis, on August 4,1999, several Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs servicemen were killed in a border clash with a group of Magomedovs fighters led by Bagaudin Kebedov. Khattab described himself as the commander of the operation while Basayev was the overall commander in the battlefield. They seized villages in the districts of Tsumadi and Botlikh, on August 10, they announced the birth of the independent Islamic State of Dagestan and declared war on the traitorous Dagestani government and Russias occupation units. The federal military response to the invasion was slow, and the efforts were initially fumbling, Basayev and Khattab were not welcomed as liberators as they had expected, the Dagestani villagers considered the invading force occupiers and unwelcome religious fanatics. Instead of a mass uprising, the border areas saw mass mobilization of volunteers against Basayevs. As resistance to the invaders stiffened, Russian artillery and airstrikes came into action and this conflict saw the first use of aerially delivered fuel-air explosives against populated areas, notably on the village of Tando by the federal forces. The rebels were stalled by the ferocity of the bombardments, their lines were cut. This gave Moscow time to assemble a counter-attack under Colonel-General Viktor Kazantsev, on August 23 the Basaev and Khattab announced they were withdrawing from Botlikhsky District to redeploy and begin a new phase in their operations. The war also saw the first use of the T-90 tank, in the Kadar zone, a group of 8 to 12 T-90S tanks pushed through stubborn resistance. One of the tanks was hit by 7 RPG rockets, on the morning of September 5, Chechen rebels launched a second invasion into the lowland Novolakskoye region of Dagestan, this time with a larger force. The rebels came within a mere five kilometers of the city of KhasavyurtWar of Dagestan – Russian federal Spetsnaz forces in Dagestan.
10. Second Chechen War – The Second Chechen War was an invasion launched by the Russian Federation, starting 26 August 1999, in response to the Invasion of Dagestan by the Islamic International Brigade. On 1 October, Russian troops entered Chechnya, the campaign ended the de facto independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and restored Russian federal control over the territory. Some Chechen separatists also carried out attacks against civilians in Russia and these attacks, as well as widespread human rights violations by Russian and separatist forces, drew international condemnation. In mid-2000, the Russian government transferred certain military operations to pro-Russian Chechen forces, the military phase of operations was terminated in April 2002, and the coordination of the field operations were given first to the Federal Security Service and then to the MVD in the summer of 2003. By 2009, Russia had severely disabled the Chechen separatist movement, Russian army and interior ministry troops no longer occupied the streets. Grozny underwent reconstruction efforts and much of the city and surrounding areas were rebuilt quickly, sporadic violence continues throughout the North Caucasus, occasional bombings and ambushes targeting federal troops and forces of the regional governments in the area still occur. On 15 April 2009, the government operation in Chechnya was officially ended, as the main bulk of the army was withdrawn, the burden of dealing with the ongoing low-level insurgency mainly fell on the shoulders of the local police force. The exact death toll from this conflict is unknown, unofficial estimates range from 25,000 to 50,000 dead or missing, mostly civilians in Chechnya. Russian casualties are over 5,200 and are about 11,000 according to the Committee of Soldiers Mothers, Chechnya is an area in the Northern Caucasus which has constantly fought against foreign rule, including the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. The Russian Terek Cossack Host was established in lowland Chechnya in 1577 by free Cossacks who were resettled from the Volga to the Terek River, in 1783, Russia and the Georgian kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, under which Kartl-Kakheti became a Russian protectorate. To secure communications with Georgia and other regions of the Transcaucasia, Russian forces first moved into highland Chechnya in 1830, and the conflict in the area lasted until 1859, when a 250, 000-strong army under General Baryatinsky broke down the highlanders resistance. Frequent uprisings in the Caucasus also occurred during the Russo-Turkish War, the Chechen states were opposed by both sides of the Russian Civil War and most of the resistance was crushed by Bolshevik troops by 1922. Then, months before the creation of the Soviet Union, the Chechen Autonomous Oblast of the Russian SFSR was established and it annexed a part of territory of the former Terek Cossack Host. Chechnya and neighboring Ingushetia formed the Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936, in 1941, during World War II, a Chechen revolt broke out, led by Khasan Israilov. Chechens were accused by Joseph Stalin of aiding Nazi forces, in February 1944 Stalin deported all the Chechens and Ingush to the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs. Up to a quarter of people died during the resettlement. In 1957, after the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev allowed the Chechens to return, afterwards, the authority of the Soviet government gradually eroded. During the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chechnya declared independence, in 1992, Chechen and Ingush leaders signed an agreement splitting the joint Chechen–Ingush republic in two, with Ingushetia joining the Russian Federation and Chechnya remaining independentSecond Chechen War – Russian artillery shell militant positions near the village of Duba-Yurt in January 2000.
11. 2001 Kodori crisis – The 2001 Kodori crisis was a confrontation in the Kodori Valley, Abkhazia, in October 2001 between Georgians and Abkhazian forces. The crisis was largely neglected by world media, focused on the concurrent US attack on Afghanistan, on October 4,2001, a group of Chechen and Georgian fighters led by the commander Ruslan Gelayev entered the gorge from the Georgian side and attacked the village Giorgievskoe. Then, on October 8,2001, a helicopter carrying United Nations observers was shot down over Kodori, chkhetiani, a resident of Kutaisi and born in 1973, had been condemned to a prison sentence of 15 years. On 29 July 2006, Mart Laar, former minister of Estonia. Laar also warned that future provocations of Georgia by Russia are to be expected, on 30 April 2008, Russia accused Georgia of massing 1500 troops in the Kodori region in preparation to invade Abkhazia. Georgia maintained the troops were present in accordance with a 1994 accord that allowed for peacekeeping forces in the region and were essential to maintaining order after the 2001 Kodori crisis, Russia responded by deploying troops to the region, further escalating tensions between Russia and Georgia. These forces would take part in the war in 20082001 Kodori crisis – Map of Abkhazia showing the location of the Kodori Gorge
12. Insurgency in the North Caucasus – The Insurgency in the North Caucasus is an armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus Emirate and, since June 2015, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant groups. It followed the end of the decade-long Second Chechen War on 16 April 2009. It attracts people from the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia, who participated in the conflict. The violence has mostly concentrated in the North Caucasus republics of Chechnya, Dagestan. Occasional incidents happen in surrounding regions, like North Ossetia-Alania, Karachay-Cherkessia, Stavropol Krai, in late 1999, Russias Premier, Vladimir Putin, ordered military, police and security forces to enter the breakaway region of Chechnya. By early 2000, these forces occupied most of the region, high levels of fighting continued for several more years and resulted in thousands of Russian and Chechen casualties and hundreds of thousands of displaced persons. After his death, his successor, Dokka Umarov, declared continuing jihad to establish an Islamic fundamentalist Caucasus Emirate in the North Caucasus, Russias pacification policy in Chechnya has involved setting up a pro-Moscow regional government and transferring more local security duties to this government. An important factor in Russias apparent success in Chechnya has been reliance on pro-Moscow Chechen clans affiliated with regional President Ramzan Kadyrov, police and paramilitary forces under Kadyrovs authority have committed abuses of human rights, according to rulings by the European Court of Human Rights and others. Terrorist attacks in the North Caucasus appeared to increase substantially in 2007–2010, in the summer of 2009, more than 442 persons died in North Caucasus violence in just four months as compared to only 150 deaths reported in the entire year of 2008. In the period from 2010 to 2014, the number of casualties in the North Caucasus insurgency declined each year, the insurgency in the North Caucasus is a direct result of the two post-Soviet wars fought between Russia and Chechnya. The First Chechen War was a nationalist struggle, with secular and Islamist overtones, for independence from Russia and took place between 1994 and 1996. After a vicious struggle between Russian federal forces and Chechen separatist guerrillas, Chechnya was granted de facto independence per the terms of the Khasavyurt Accord, signed on 30 August 1996. What remained of the rebel units then withdrew into the inaccessible Vedeno. The republic remained a center of violence for many years. Reported casualties declined, with 26 security forces and 24 suspected militants being killed in 2014, Dagestan is the most religious, populous and complex of all the north Caucasian republics. It is double the size of Chechnya and consists of several ethnic groups. Dagestan has the highest levels of violence and extremism in the North Caucasus republics, the Russian Interior Ministry stated that of the 399 terrorist crimes committed in the North Caucasus in 2013,242 were in Dagestan. Along with Dagestan, Ingushetia bore the brunt of the violence in the North Caucasus in the Insurgencies early years, the Islamist insurgency in the republic sprang from the wars in neighbouring Chechnya in the 1990s and early 2000sInsurgency in the North Caucasus – Russian President, Dmitri Medvedev, meets with FSB head, Alexander Bortnikov, in March 2009, to discuss the ending of the counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya.
13. War in Ingushetia – The War in Ingushetia began in 2007 as an escalation of an insurgency in Ingushetia connected to the separatist conflict in Chechnya. The conflict has described as a civil war by local human rights activists and opposition politicians. By mid-2009 Ingushetia had surpassed Chechnya as the most violent of the North Caucasus republics, however, by 2015 the insurgency in the Republic had greatly weakened, and the casualty toll declined substantially in the intervening years. On 26 July 2007, a security operation was launched in Ingushetia. Moscow sent in an additional 2,500 MVD troops, almost tripling the number of forces in Ingushetia. In the next few days, hundreds of men were rounded up in the sweeps, by October 2007, police and security forces in Ingushetia were issued orders to stop informing the media of any incidents of a terrorist nature. In 2008, Magomed Yevloyev, owner of the highly critical opposition website Ingushetia. ru, was killed while in police custody, the aftermath of the killing was marked by an upsurge in separatist activity and animosity towards Russia and Russians among the Ingush population. At the center of controversy was the deeply unpopular President Murat Zyazikov. The Ingush Interior Minister Musa Medov was targeted by a bomber in October 2008. Eventually, Zyazikov was asked to resign, on 30 October 2008, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree to remove Zyazikov from office and replace him with Lieutenant Colonel Yunus-bek Yevkurov. This was hailed by the Ingush opposition as a victory, however, the violence did not end. According to police sources, nearly 50 people died in the almost daily clashes in this small republic in the first three months of 2009, assassinations and attempted assassinations of high-profile figures continued. On 10 June 2009 Aza Gazgireeva, the Deputy Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ingushetia, was gunned down, Ingush President Yevkurov was seriously wounded in a suicide bomb attack on 22 June, and Construction Minister Ruslan Amerkhanov was shot dead in his office in August. After 2010, the levels of violence in Ingushetia began to decline, in 2014, the insurgencys leader Arthur Getagazhev was killed by security forces. In mid-2015, Yevkurov stated that the insurgency in the Republic had been defeated and he said that 80 fighters from the group had turned themselves in and been given amnesty and that the remaining active insurgents were greatly reduced in numbers. 2004 Nazran raid 2009 Nazran bombing East Prigorodny Conflict Insurgency in the North Caucasus Lokshina, how Chechnya came to Ingushetia, The Guardian,8 July 2008 Leahy, Kevin Daniel. Ingushetia Insurgency Adds to Russias North Caucasus Instability, World Politics Review,18 Nov 2008 Lokshina, Ingushetia Under Siege, Human Rights Watch, July 1,2009 Pakhomenko, Varvara. Ingushetia abandoned, OpenDemocracy,16 August 2009 Ingushetia insurgency worsening, BBC News,12 Nov 2009War in Ingushetia – War in Ingushetia
14. Russo-Georgian War – The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The war took place in August 2008 following a period of worsening relations between Russia and Georgia, both constituent republics of the Soviet Union. The fighting took place in the strategically important Transcaucasia region, which borders the Middle East and it was regarded as the first European war of the 21st century. The Republic of Georgia declared its independence in early 1991 as the Soviet Union began to fall apart, following the war, a joint peacekeeping force of Georgian, Russian, and Ossetian troops was stationed in the territory. Meanwhile, a stalemate developed in the region of Abkhazia. By August 1,2008, Ossetian separatists began shelling Georgian villages, to put an end to these deadly attacks and restore order, the Georgian Army was sent to the South Ossetian conflict zone on 7 August. Georgians took control of most of Tskhinvali, a separatist stronghold, Georgia later stated it was also responding to Russia moving non-peacekeeping units into the country. Russia accused Georgia of aggression against South Ossetia, and launched a land, air. Russian and Ossetian forces battled Georgian forces in and around South Ossetia for several days, Russian and Abkhaz forces opened a second front by attacking the Kodori Gorge held by Georgia. Russian naval forces blockaded part of the Georgian coast and this was the first war in history in which cyber warfare coincided with military action. An active information war was waged during and after the conflict. President of France Nicolas Sarkozy negotiated an agreement on 12 August. Russian forces temporarily occupied the Georgian cities of Zugdidi, Senaki, Poti, the South Ossetians destroyed most ethnic Georgian villages in South Ossetia and were responsible for an ethnic cleansing of Georgians. Russia recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia as separate republics on 26 August, in response, Russia mostly completed its withdrawal of troops from Georgia proper on 8 October. In the aftermath, Russias international relations were largely unharmed, the war displaced 192,000 people and while many returned to their homes after the war,20,272 people remained displaced as of 2014. Russia has, since the war, occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia in violation of the agreement of August 2008. In the tenth century AD, Georgia for the first time emerged as a concept in the territories where the Georgian language was used to perform Christian rituals. After the Mongol invasions of the region, the Kingdom of Georgia eventually was broken up into several kingdoms, in the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire gradually annexed the Georgian landsRusso-Georgian War – Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
15. Tajikistan insurgency – The Tajikistan Insurgency was a military conflict which took place in eastern Tajikistan between the Tajik army and Islamist militants, led by numerous leaders from the Tajikistani Civil War. On 19 September, more than 25 Tajik soldiers were killed in an ambush by suspected Islamist fighters, the soldiers were part of a 75-man convoy moving through the Rasht Valley, in eastern Tajikistan. They were ambushed while searching for members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan who previously escaped from a prison in Dushanbe on 25 August. The military column was ambushed by gunmen around midday local time, while passing through the mountainous Rasht Valley, the column sustained heavy fire from machine-guns and grenade launchers, in the mountains from above. Initial reports indicated that 40 soldiers were killed but the Tajik minister of defense denied this, five Tajik officers were among the dead. None of the attackers were reported to have killed or wounded. On 4 October,5 Tajik soldiers along with two insurgents were killed during an operation in Rasht Valley. The incident occurred, when a vehicle was stopped at a checkpoint on the road between Garm and Dushanbe. As the soldiers approached the car, gunmen opened fire killing five of them, the soldiers retaliated opening fire at the vehicle, killing the two attackers. Among the dead was a high ranked Tajik officer, meanwhile, dozens of caches of heavy weapons including grenade launchers, as well as food and medication were discovered in an abandoned Islamist hideout. Twelve military checkpoints were set on the leading from the administered region of Rasht to the capital Dushambe. On 7 October,28 servicemen from the Presidential National Guard were killed when their helicopter crashed during an operation in Rasht Valley near the towns of Ezgand, the helicopter became caught in power lines and crashed while attempting to land, leaving no survivors. The helicopter was bringing service men from the capital Dushanbe to the Rasht Valley to take part in the operation, the same day,6 other soldiers were killed in a separate incident caused by an accidental mine explosion. On 18 October, three suspected insurgents were killed by Tajik soldiers on the outskirts of Garm, located near the Afghan border during a military operation. On 1 December, gunmen shot and killed 3 Tajik soldiers in the village of Dulona-Maidon in the Buljuvon Region,150 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe, on 27 December,2 Tajik soldiers were killed when a group of thirty Islamists tried to enter Tajikistan from the Afghan border. After three hours of fighting, a helicopter arrived, opening fire on the intruders forcing them to retreat into Afghanistan. Local residents said that three Tajik soldiers were killed with two being the victims of friendly-fire from the helicopter, the Tajik military however claims no one was killed by friendly fire. Several Islamists were also killed in the attack, on 21 July, the head of the Tajik Intelligence agency was assassinated by insurgents in the city of IshkashimTajikistan insurgency – Eastern Tajikistan (shaded), Tajikistan
16. Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation – The Ukrainian territory of Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014. On 23 February 2014, pro-Russian demonstrations were held in the Crimean city of Sevastopol and it led to the other members of the then G8 suspending Russia from the group, then introducing the first round of sanctions against the country. The resolution calls upon all States and international organizations not to recognize or to imply the recognition of Russias annexation, the Russian Federation opposes the annexation label, with Putin defending the referendum as complying with the principle of self-determination of peoples. In July 2015, Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev said that Crimea had been integrated into Russia. Crimea became part of the Russian Empire in 1783, when the Crimean Khanate was annexed, initially it was incorporated into the Empire as Taurida Oblast but in 1795 it was merged into Novorossiysk Governorate and then, in 1802, transferred to the Taurida Governorate. A series of short-lived governments were established during first stages of the Russian Civil War, in October 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR was instituted. In 1954, the Crimean Oblast was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. In 1989, under perestroika, the Supreme Soviet declared that the deportation of the Crimean Tatars under Stalin had been illegal, in 1990, the Soviet of the Crimean Oblast proposed the restoration of the Crimean ASSR. The oblast conducted a referendum in 1991, which asked whether Crimea should be elevated into a signatory of the New Union Treaty, by that time, though, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was well underway. The Crimean ASSR was restored for less than a year as part of Soviet Ukraine before Ukrainian independence, newly independent Ukraine maintained Crimeas autonomous status, while the Supreme Council of Crimea affirmed the peninsulas sovereignty as a part of Ukraine. The autonomous status of Crimea was limited by Ukrainian authorities in 1995, on 24 August 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov said then that he hoped that Russia would treat Crimea the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Yanukovych won the 2010 presidential election with strong support from voters in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and southern and eastern Ukraine. The Crimean autonomous government strongly supported Yanukovych and condemned the protests, on 4 February 2014, the Presidium of the Supreme Council considered holding a referendum on the peninsulas status, and asked the Russian government to guarantee the vote. The Security Service of Ukraine responded by opening a case to investigate the possible subversion of Ukraines territorial integrity. The Euromaidan protests came to a head in late February 2014, arseniy Yatsenyuk was appointed by the Rada to serve as the head of a caretaker government until new presidential and parliament elections could be held. This new government was recognised internationally, though the Russian government said that these events had been a coup détat, in January 2014 the Sevastopol city council had already called for formation of peoples militia units to ensure firm defence of the city from extremism. Crimean parliament members called for a meeting on 21 February. Crimean Tatar Mejlis chairman Mustafa Dzhemilev said that he suspected that the meeting was arranged to call for Russian military intervention in CrimeaAnnexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation – Euromaidan in Kiev, 11 December 2013
17. War in Donbass – The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. Prior to a change of the top leadership in August 2014, during the middle of 2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% and 80% of the combatants. Crossings occurred both in areas under the control of forces and areas that were not under their control, such as the south-eastern part of Donetsk Oblast. These events followed the reported shelling of Ukrainian positions from the Russian side of the border over the course of the preceding month, head of the Security Service of Ukraine, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko said that the events of 22 August were a direct invasion by Russia of Ukraine. Western and Ukrainian officials described these events as an invasion of Ukraine by Russia. Russian President Vladimir Putin justified the incursion as defending the Russian-speaking population in the Donbass, as a result of this, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the preceding government military offensive. A deal to establish a ceasefire, called the Minsk Protocol, was signed on 5 September 2014, violations of the ceasefire on both sides were common. The ceasefire completely collapsed in January 2015, with renewed heavy fighting across the zone, including at Donetsk International Airport. A new ceasefire, called Minsk II, was agreed to on 12 February 2015, immediately following the signing of the agreement, separatist forces launched an offensive on Debaltseve and forced Ukrainian forces to withdraw from it. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred. This state of stalemate led the war to be labelled by some a frozen conflict, despite this, the area stayed a war zone, with dozens of soldiers and civilians killed each month. Since the start of the conflict there have been eleven ceasefires, each intended to be indefinite, with the latest having started on 20 February 2017, pro-Russian protesters occupied the Donetsk RSA from 1–6 March, before being removed by the Security Service of Ukraine. On 6 April,1, 000–2,000 people gathered at a rally in Donetsk to demand a status similar to the one held in Crimea in March. The demonstrators stormed the RSA building, and took control of its first two floors, as these demands were not met, the activists held a meeting in the RSA building, and voted in favour of independence from Ukraine. They proclaimed the Donetsk Peoples Republic, concurrent to the events in Donetsk, armed forces led by Russian operative Igor Girkin stormed and occupied government buildings in other regional centers beginning on 12 April. Protesters barricaded the building, and demanded that all arrested separatist leaders be released, at this assembly, they elected Valery Bolotov to the position of Peoples Governor. The Luhansk Peoples Republic was declared on 27 April, representatives of the Republic demanded that Ukrainian government provide amnesty for all protesters, enshrine Russian as an official language, and hold a referendum on the status of the region. They issued an ultimatum that stated that if Kiev did not meet their demands by 14,00 on 29 April, in response to the widening unrest, the acting Ukrainian President, Oleksandr Turchynov, vowed to launch a major anti-terror operation against separatist movements in Donetsk OblastWar in Donbass – Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 9 March 2014