1. X Prize Foundation – XPRIZE is a non-profit organization that designs and manages public competitions intended to encourage technological development that could benefit mankind. Their Board of Trustees include James Cameron, Larry Page, Arianna Huffington, the XPRIZE mission is to bring about “radical breakthroughs for the benefit of humanity” through incentivized competition. The most high-profile XPRIZE to date was the Ansari X Prize relating to spacecraft development awarded in 2004 and this prize was intended to inspire research and development into technology for space exploration. In 1927, underdog Charles Lindbergh won the prize in a modified single-engine Ryan aircraft called the Spirit of St. Louis, in total, nine teams spent $400,000 in pursuit of the Orteig Prize. The contest, later titled the Ansari XPRIZE for Suborbital Spaceflight, on October 4,2004, the Ansari XPRIZE was won by Mojave Aerospace Ventures, who successfully completed the contest in their spacecraft SpaceShipOne. The prize was awarded in a ceremony at the Saint Louis Science Center in St. Louis, as of 2011, the Science Center maintains numerous exhibits about the XPRIZE. The foundation has created the XPRIZE Cup rocket challenge competition. XPRIZES are monetary rewards to incentivize three primary goals, Attract investment from outside the sector that takes new approaches to difficult problems, create significant results that are real and meaningful. Competitions have measurable goals, and are created to promote adoption of the innovation, cross national and disciplinary boundaries to encourage teams around the world to invest the intellectual and financial capital required to solve difficult challenges. Other organizations such as the Nobel Prize committee award prizes and financial rewards to individuals or organizations that produce novel advances in science, medicine, the prize can increase attention to endeavors that otherwise might not receive much publicity. For example, attempts in the recent Lunar Lander competition have been publicized in the media. With the Ansari XPRIZE, XPRIZE established a model in which offering a prize for achieving a goal can stimulate entrepreneurial investment. Since then, new challenges have expanded into a range of other fields, XPRIZE is developing new prizes in Exploration, Life Sciences, Energy & Environment, Education and Global Development. Some hope the prizes will help improve lives, create equity of opportunity and stimulate new, as of June 2016, there are six completed contests, seven active contests and one contest that has been canceled. The Ansari XPRIZE for Suborbital Spaceflight was the first prize from the foundation and it successfully challenged teams to build private spaceships capable of carrying three people and fly two times within two weeks to open the space frontier. On that ship, Melvill broke the 100-kilometer mark, the recognized as the boundary of outer space. Brian Binnie completed the part of the requirements on October 4,2004. As a result, US$10 million was awarded to the winner, today, Sir Richard Branson, Jeff Bezos and others are creating a personal spaceflight industryX Prize Foundation – SpaceShipOne Takeoff
2. Ansari X Prize – It was modeled after early 20th-century aviation prizes, and aimed to spur development of low-cost spaceflight. $10 million was awarded to the winner, and more than $100 million was invested in new technologies in pursuit of the prize, several other X Prizes have since been announced by the X Prize Foundation, promoting further development in space exploration and other technological fields. In reading the book, The Spirit of St. Louis during 1994, Peter Diamandis realized that such a prize, as a space prize, might be just what was needed to bring space travel to the general public, to jump-start a commercial space industry. Diamandis developed a fully formed idea for a suborbital space barnstorming prize, the X Prize was first publicly proposed by Diamandis in an address to the NSS International Space Development Conference in 1995. The competition goal was adopted from the SpaceCub project, demonstration of a vehicle capable of flying a pilot to the edge of space. This goal was selected to help encourage the industry in the private sector. It aimed to demonstrate that spaceflight can be affordable and accessible to corporations and civilians, opening the door to commercial spaceflight, NASA is developing a similar prize program called Centennial Challenges to generate innovative solutions to space technology problems. — website Len Cormiers PanAero, Inc, some sources mention two other companies, AeroAstro* Cerulean Freight Forwarding Co. but do not mention Whalen Aeronautics Inc. The Tier One project made two competitive flights, X1 on September 29,2004, piloted by Mike Melvill to 102.9 km. They thus won the prize, which was awarded on November 6,2004, as of 2011, the trophy is on display in the Saint Louis Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri. It was the first flight of a monopropellant rocket. They have not announced a revised timetable, on August 8,2004, Space Transport Corporations Rubicon 1 and Armadillo Aerospaces unnamed test vehicle, in two separate unmanned test launches, both crashed and were destroyed. On February 15,2005, AERA Corporation announced its plans to send seven paying passengers into space as early as 2006, anousheh Ansari and Amir Ansari, the official sponsors of the competition. First USA, US$1,000,000 New Spirit of St. Louis Organization Danforth Foundation, US$500,000 Tom Clancy, mcDonnell Andrew Taylor Andrew Beal St. The Foundation has developed into a non-profit prize institute that conceives, designs, the funding for the US$10,000,000 prize was unconventional in being backed by an insurance policy to guarantee that the $10 million is in place on the day that the prize is won. Diamandis referred to this as an insurance policy. The success of the X Prize competition has spurred spin-offs that are set up in the same way, an independent spin-off called the N-Prize was started by Cambridge Microbiologist Paul H. Dear in 2007, designed to research into low-cost orbital launchersAnsari X Prize – Flight 16P taxi pre launch
3. Archon X Prize – The 30 day evaluation phase of the competition to begin on September 5,2013, was canceled August 22,2013 and this cancellation was debated on March 27,2014. The $10 million was donated by Canadian geologist and philanthropist Stewart Blusson, the name Archon is the name of Blussons company, which refers to the type of lithosphere beneath northern Canada. Upon cancellation, the money was returned to the Blussons because no Master Team Agreements were in place, the Archon X Prize in genomics began as a joint effort of the X Prize Foundation and the J. Craig Venter Science Foundation. The 100 human genomes to be sequenced in this competition were donated by 100 centenarians from all over the world and these centenarians’ genes would provide us with a window to the past, significantly impacting the future of healthcare. Although the contest is cancelled, the X PRIZE foundation collected blood samples and those genomes are expected to be sequenced nonetheless and put into an open data forum. The two officially registered teams were Ion Torrent in Guilford, CT and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering in Boston MA and these teams were announced 23-Jul-2012 and 3-Oct-2012. This global competition was expected to inspire breakthrough genome sequencing innovations, a public debate concerning the validity and potential implications of the cancellation was published March 27,2014Archon X Prize – Archon Genomics X PRIZE presented by Express Scripts
4. Automotive X Prize – Within the Competition Division, there are two vehicle classes, Mainstream and Alternative. The mainstream class had a prize of $5 million, the alternate class had two separate prizes of $2.5 million, one for side-by-side seating and one for tandem seating. The PIAXP has an Educational Program, funded by a $3, the winners of the competition were announced on 16 September 2010. Team Edison2 won the $5 million Mainstream competition with its four-passenger Very Light Car, Team Li-Ion Motors won the $2.5 million Alternative Side-by-Side competition with their aerodynamic Wave-II electric vehicle achieving 187 MPGe. Team X-Tracer Switzerland won the $2.5 million Alternative Tandem competition with their 205.3 MPGe faired electric motorcycle, from that point onward, it was known as the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize. At the 12 April 2007 announcement of the creation of the X Prize, the Foundation released draft Competition Guidelines, the latest guidelines were published on 10 January 2009. The competition guidelines are the product of hundreds of volunteers of the AXP, on 7 April 2009, the X Prize Foundation announced that 111 teams had registered by the February 2009 deadline. By 20 October 2009, the judging had winnowed the number of teams down to 43, with some publicly. The formal vehicle competition events began on 26 April 2010, and consisted of the four stages, Shakedown, Knockout, Finals. Within the Competition Division, there are two vehicle classes—Mainstream and Alternative—both of which have the requirements for fuel economy and emissions. The Alternative class is divided into tandem and side-by-side classes. Vehicles in the Mainstream Class must meet specifications that are derived from small, five-passenger. The Alternative Class has fewer performance and design restrictions and provides an outlet for innovation, both classes allow entries that are modifications of an existing popular vehicle, provided that all PIAXP requirements are met. Vehicles in both classes must have an economy of 100 MPGe and produce less than 200 grams/mile CO2 emissions. For electric vehicles, the CO2 emissions requirement is a more binding constraint, further, electricity consumption is measured at the plug side of the battery charging device, so it would have to achieve 114 MPGe, assuming 100% efficient battery charging. If the charger were 85% efficient, this requirement would grow to 134 MPGe, in the other words, efficiency of electric cars should be not 21 but 16 kWh/100 km. They must have the usual automotive controls, including accelerator pedal, brake pedal, steering mechanism and indicators. They must be capable, which is defined as the ability to maintain 65 mph on a four percent uphill gradeAutomotive X Prize – Aptera Motors' high-efficiency passenger vehicle was a contender in the X-Prize competition.
5. Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X CHALLENGE – The Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X CHALLENGE was a challenge award offered by the X PRIZE Foundation for efficient capturing of crude oil from ocean water. Inspired by the ongoing Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster, the award was announced on July 29,2010, the first three teams were to be awarded US$1 million, US$300,000 and US$100,000 respectively. Of the over 350 teams that preregistered to participate in the challenge by January 2011,37 officially registered the following month, by the time of the official testing in May 2011, the field of challengers had been narrowed to ten teams. The winners for the challenge were announced on October 11,2011, the first-place finisher and winner of the $1 million prize was the team of Elastec/American Marine using a design similar to a Tesla turbine. The second-place finisher and winner of $300,000 was the team NOFI, no other team met all of the challenges goals, so the planned third place prize was not awarded. The US$1.4 million prize purse was offered by Wendy Schmidt from The Schmidt Family Foundation, Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X CHALLENGE award announcement Official Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X CHALLENGE resultsWendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X CHALLENGE – Wendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup X Challenge
6. Google Lunar X Prize – The Google Lunar XPRIZE, sometimes referred to as Moon 2.0, is an inducement prize space competition organized by XPRIZE, and sponsored by Google. In 2015, XPRIZE announced that the deadline would be extended to December 2017 if at least one team could secure a verified launch contract by 31 December 2015. Two teams secured such a contract, and the deadline was extended. As of 2017,5 teams remain in the competition, SpaceIL, Moon Express, Synergy Moon, Team Indus, and Team Hakuto, having secured verified launch contracts for 2017. All teams must launch by the end of 2017, the Google Lunar XPRIZE was announced at the Wired Nextfest on 13 September 2007. The first team to do so will claim the US$20 million grand prize, additionally, a US$1 million diversity award may be given to teams that make significant strides in promoting ethnic diversity in STEM fields. The Chinese Change 3 probe landed on the Moon in December 2013, however, in November 2013, as the launch of the probe approached, it was agreed between the organizers and the teams to drop this rule. In 2015, XPRIZE announced that the deadline would be extended to December 2017 if at least one team could secure a verified launch contract by 31 December 2015. Two teams secured such a contract, and the deadline was extended. XPRIZE announced 5 finalists on January 24,2017, SpaceIL, Moon Express, Synergy Moon, Team Indus and Hakuto having secured verified launch contracts for 2017. All other teams had until the end of 2016 to secure a verified launch contract, the Google Lunar XPRIZE expires when all constituent purses have been claimed, or at the end of the year 2017, whichever comes first. At the time the prize was announced, the last operational vehicle on the Moon had landed in 1976, even then, it will be at a large expense, and probably with little public involvement. The Google Lunar XPRIZE was announced in 2007, similar to the way in which the Ansari XPRIZE was formed, the Google Lunar XPRIZE was created out of a former venture of Peter Diamandis to achieve a similar goal. Dr Diamandis served as CEO of BlastOff, corporation, a commercial initiative to land a robotic spacecraft on the Moon as a mix of entertainment, internet, and space. Although it was unsuccessful, the BlastOff. Initiative paved the way for the Google Lunar X Prize, initially, NASA was the planned sponsor and the prize purse was just US$20 million. As NASA is an agency of the United States government, and thus funded by US tax money. However, budget setbacks stopped NASA from sponsoring the prize, Peter Diamandis then presented the idea to Larry Page and Sergey Brin, co-founders of Google, at an XPRIZE fundraiserGoogle Lunar X Prize – Carnegie Mellon University lunar rover
7. X Prize Cup – This led to plans to build the worlds first true rocket festival. Three X-Prize Cups have been held, in 2005,2006 and 2007, each X Prize Cup hosts different events and demonstrations, such as rocket-powered bicycles, rocket jet packs, but particularly notable are the Lunar Lander Challenge and the Space Elevator Games. 85,000 visitors attended the 2007 X Prize Cup, although there was no X Prize Cup in 2009, there was a Lunar Lander Challenge. This X Prize was first proposed by Dr. Peter Diamandis in an address to the NSS International Space Development Conference in 1995. The notion of a goal was adopted from the SpaceCub project, demonstration of a private vehicle capable of flying a pilot to the edge of space. This goal was selected to help encourage the industry in the private sector. The X Prize Cup aimed to demonstrate that spaceflight can be affordable and accessible to corporations and civilians, opening the door to commercial spaceflight and it is also hoped that competition will breed innovation to develop new low-cost methods of reaching Earth orbit. The X Prize Cup offers monetary rewards and organizational support to the community of aerospace professionals—and by staging Earths great space exposition, NASA is developing similar prize programs called Centennial Challenges to generate innovative solutions to space technology problems. It was modeled after early 20th-century aviation prizes, and aimed to spur development of low-cost spaceflight, the prize was won on October 4,2004, the 47th anniversary of the Sputnik 1 launch, by the Tier One project using the experimental spaceplane SpaceShipOne. The success and popularity of this event lead to the events which were called the X-PRIZE Cup. The 2006 Wirefly X Prize Cup focused on rocketry and lunar landing technology, the exposition also featured high-powered rocket launches and exhibits intended to boost public interest in aerospace technology. In December 2006, the Cups organizers announced expansion plans based on the success of the October event, with the success of the original X Prize competition, the open competitions for $2.5 million in monetary prizes were the highlight of the 2006 Wirefly X Prize Cup. The aerospace teams in Las Cruces fought for the top prize in three events—the Lunar Lander Challenge, the Vertical Rocket Challenge, and the Space Elevator Games, in addition to the featured competitions, the Wirefly X Prize Cup included a series of rocketry exhibitions and educational presentations. Rocketman Dan Schlund demonstrated his Rocketbelt, a device allows him to soar above the earth with a rocket strapped to his back. The Rocket Racing League debuted the Mark-1 X-Racer, a preview of next-generation motor sports, other attractions included high-powered rocket launches, a student competition, a symposium on personal spaceflight, and an assortment of ground displays and simulators. The 2007 X Prize Cup, was held at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo, NM, aircraft as well as rockets were featured at the event, along with the Lunar Lander Challenge. No other competitor was able to even a successful first leg of the competition. The Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge is intended to accelerate the development of a vehicle capable of launching from the surface of the Moon to lunar orbitX Prize Cup – Wirefly X Prize logo
8. Peter Diamandis – He is also the former CEO and co-founder of the Zero Gravity Corporation, the co-founder and vice chairman of Space Adventures Ltd. Diamandis was born in The Bronx, New York. His parents, both Greek immigrants, were in the business, his father was a physician. From a very early age, Diamandis expressed a keen interest in space exploration, at age 8, he began giving lectures on space to his family and friends. At age 12, Diamandis won first place in the Estes Rocket Design Competition for building a system able to simultaneously launch three rockets. During his second year at MIT in 1980, Diamandis co-founded Students for the Exploration, Diamandis graduated from MIT in 1983 with a B. S. in molecular biology. He then entered Harvard Medical School to pursue his M. D, during his second year of medical school, he co-founded the Space Generation Foundation to promote projects and programs that would help the Space Generation get off the planet. During his last year of school in 1989, Diamandis was acting as managing director of the International Space University and CEO of International Micro Space. After completing his M. S. at MIT, Diamandis returned to Harvard completing his M. D, in 1987, during his third year of medical school, Diamandis co-founded the International Space University alongside Todd B. Hawley and Robert D. Richards. Diamandis served as the director and chief operating officer of the university until 1989. Today, ISU offers a Space Studies program and two accredited Master of Space Studies degrees and it has grown into a $30 million university campus headquartered in Strasbourg, France. Diamandis co-founded Microsat Launch Systems, later renamed International MicroSpace Inc. in 1989 during his year of medical school. IMI designed a small launcher called Orbital Express for taking 100-kg payloads to low-Earth orbit, the company won a $100 million SDIO contract for one launch plus nine options and was sold to CTA Inc of Rockville, MD in 1993 for $250,000. Diamandis joined CTA for one year as VP of Commercial Space Programs post-acquisition, in 1991, Diamandis founded Constellation Communications, Inc. one of five low-Earth orbit satellite constellations for voice telephony. The company was funded to deploy an equatorial ring of 10 satellites to provide communications primarily to Brazil, Constellation was sold to E-Systems and Orbital, Diamandis remained the director until 1993. In 1994, Diamandis founded the X PRIZE Foundation after the failure of International MicroSpace, Inc and he serves as the chairman and CEO of the foundation. The X PRIZE was created to fund and operate a $10 million incentive competition intended to inspire a new generation of private passenger-carrying spaceships, the prize was announced on May 18,1996 in St. Louis, MO without any purse money or any teams. The prize was funded through an insurance policy underwritten by the Anousheh and Hamid Ansari Family. The winning vehicle, SpaceShipOne, was piloted to space twice within two weeks to win the competition, the first flight was made on September 29,2004, piloted by Mike Melvill and the winning second flight was made on October 4,2004 by pilot Brian BinniePeter Diamandis – Dr. Diamandis on April 27, 2013