Bellinzona is the capital of the canton Ticino in Switzerland. The city is famous for its three castles that have been UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2000, the town lies east of the Ticino river, at the foot of the Alps. It stretches along the valley, surrounded by the southern ranges of the Lepontine Alps to the east and west. The toponym is first attested in 590 in Latin as Belitio or Bilitio, the name is Lepontic in origin, possibly from belitio or belitione. During the medieval period, the name is found as Berinzona, Birizona and Belinzona, the German name of the town is Bellenz. A local folk etymology derives the name Bellinzona from zona bellica war zone, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is an erect serpent in silver on a red field. The fabulous animal is called in Italian Biscione and this animal, which can be found on the arms of the Alfa Romeo car company, is linked with the Visconti family, who were feudal lords of Bellinzona in the 14th and 15th centuries. Bellinzona has always occupied an important geographic location in the Alps, to the south, the Po valley is accessible by a lowland route down the valley of the Ticino river and by Lake Maggiore.
To the north, the valley of the Ticino leads to the alpine passes of Nufenen, St. Gotthard, Lukmanier. Although now little used, the San Jorio Pass to the east was important in Bellinzonas past. While the region has been occupied since the early Neolithic age it wasnt until the late 1st century BOT that a fort was built in the area during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. While the fort fell into disrepair in the centuries, it was rebuilt. During the reign of Diocletian and Constantin a chain of castles, Bellinzonas location was recognized as a key point in the defenses and a large castle was built to protect the walls. The town that grew up around the fortifications was known as Bilitio, under the Longobards, Bellinzona became the site of a permanent garrison to protect the region from raids by the neighboring Frankish and Alemannic tribes. From Bellinzona the Longobards controlled the traffic on the important trade route from Varese over Ponte Tresa, some researchers believe that Bellinzona may have been the capital of a county that included most of the valleys in Ticino.
At around 774 the Frankish Kingdom gained control of the Ticino valley including Bellinzona, about two centuries the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, seeking to restore the power of glory of ancient Rome and expand into Italy, opened the Lukmanier and St. Bernard passes. Control of Bellinzona was a key part of this expansion, the city was taken from Milan and given as a gift to the Bishop of Como, who supported the Ottonian dynasty. In 1002, following the death of Otto III, Marquis Arduino of Ivrea declared himself King of Italy and ratified the bishops ownership of the Castelgrande and the city
Dietikon is the fifth biggest city of the canton of Zürich in Switzerland, after Zürich, Uster and Dübendorf. It is the capital of the district of Dietikon and part of the Zürich metropolitan area. The industrial city Dietikon is situated at an elevation of 388 m at the confluence of the Reppisch, here and in the neighboring region, Spreitenbach, is the large Limmattal rail freight marshalling yard. Dietikon has an area of 9.3 square kilometers, of this area,17. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 27% is forested. Of the rest of the land,49. 1% is settled, in 1996 housing and buildings made up 33. 8% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total area, water made up 4. 9% of the area. As of 200740. 7% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The largest and best known forests of the municipality include the Honeret, Guggenbüehl, the Honeret forest lies on a side moraine of the Linth glacier. There are over 200 prominent stones through the woods, up to erratic boulders as big as 25 m2, the Honeret and the Guggenbüehl-Wald are separated by only one main street.
In the forest, there are a few springs from which the brooks Tobelbach and Stoffelbach rise, in the forest lies the forest cottage Lorenzhütte. The Guggenbüehl forest lies wholly within Dietikon, within the forest lies the Giigelibode pond. It has neither inflow nor outflow, a Vita course is in the forest. The municipality is located on the A3 motorway, Dietikon railway station and Glanzenberg railway station are stops of the S-Bahn Zürich on the lines S3 and S12. Dietikon railway station is the terminus of the line S17 provided by the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn, important running waters that flow through Dietikon are the Limmat and its tributary Reppisch. Wide brooks are the approximately 3 km long Schäflibach and the Teischlibach, the Schäflibach is created with the flows together from Allmendbach and Stockacherbach and leads into the Limmat. The Teischlibach originates from Röhrenmoos in the forest above Dietikon and leads into the Limmat, the Marmoriweiher lies in the Grunschen a place used for gaming and grilling.
The Marmoriweiher is a pond, that was positioned for the water supply of the fire brigade. For this, a canal was built with the Grunschen
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
Grenchen is a municipality in the district of Lebern in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located at the foot of the Jura mountains between Solothurn and Biel, approximately 25 km north of Bern, with over 16,000 inhabitants, it is one of the larger towns of the canton of Solothurn. The city is known for its watch industry, that has been present for more than 150 years. Grenchen is the 2008 winner of the Wakker Prize for architectural heritage, jura-Sternwarte Grenchen is located at Grenchen. Around 1000 AD, the local barons built a castle on the cliff that was inhabited for three centuries. The name Grenchen was first documented in 1131 as Granechun, the name comes from the gallo-romanic graneca, meaning by the granary. 1851, Clock manufacture begins 1918, General strike Grenchen has an area, as of 2009, of this area,9.85 km2 or 37. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 10.42 km2 or 40. 1% is forested. Of the rest of the land,5.39 km2 or 20. 7% is settled,0.34 km2 or 1. 3% is either rivers or lakes and 0.05 km2 or 0. 2% is unproductive land.
Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2. 2% of the area while housing and buildings made up 9. 7%. While parks, green belts and sports made up 1. 4%. Out of the land,38. 5% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 5% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,25. 8% is used for growing crops and 6. 0% is pastures and 5. 3% is used for alpine pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality is the capital of the Lebern District and it is the second largest city in the Canton of Solothurn. The municipality stretches from the hamlet of Staad along the Aare river, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules a Ploughshare Argent. Grenchen has a population of 16,741, as of 2008,28. 7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -1. 3%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and French being third. There are 16 people who speak Romansh, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 49. 2% male and 50. 8% female.
The population was made up of 5,328 Swiss men and 2,547 non-Swiss men, There were 5,845 Swiss women and 2,289 non-Swiss women
Kreuzlingen is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in north-eastern Switzerland. It is the seat of the district and is the second largest city of the canton, after Frauenfeld, with a population of about 20,800. Together with the city of Konstanz just across the border in Germany. In 1874, the municipality of Egelshofen was renamed Kreuzlingen and it reached its present size with the incorporation of Kurzrickenbach in 1927 and Emmishofen in 1928. The name of the municipality stems from the Augustinian monastery Crucelin and it was founded in 1125 by the Bishop of Constance Ulrich I. In 1650, the monastery was rebuilt in its present location, with secularization in 1848, the buildings became a teachers school. The chapel became a Catholic church The area was settled during the Bronze Age. Celtic and Roman coins and artifacts testify of continued settlement, Kurzrickenbach is first mentioned as Rihinbah in 830, Egelshofen as Eigolteshoven in 1125, and Emmishofen as Eminshoven in 1159.
The territory of the municipality, except for the Augustinian monastery, when the Eidgenossen conquered Thurgau in 1460 and further with the Reformation, the ties to the neighboring city loosened. Until the beginning of the 19th century, the present center of Kreuzlingen was still largely agricultural, the first steamboats began to operate on Lake Constance in 1824. The first train line to Romanshorn was finished in 1871, and this brought commerce and industry to the region. In 1874, Kreuzlingen became the capital of the district, instead of Gottlieben, until World War I, Kreuzlingen was a kind of suburb of Constance. Most of its industry was in the hands of German firms, the war made Kreuzlingen more independent. The Sanatorium of Bellevue, which occupied part of the old monastery, in 1857, Ludwig Binswanger, a psychiatrist from Münsterlingen acquired the property and opened a private sanatorium. The clinic was very modern and remained in the control of the Binswanger family for nearly 120 years, important psychiatric advances, particularly under the founders grandson, called Ludwig Binswanger, especially in the development of existential psychotherapy, were made at the sanatorium.
However, few of its buildings remain, Kreuzlingen has an area, as of 2009, of 11.49 square kilometers. Of this area,3.13 km2 or 27. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.24 km2 or 28. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,4.87 km2 or 42. 4% is settled,0.11 km2 or 1. 0% is either rivers or lakes and 0.13 km2 or 1. 1% is unproductive land
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. It is located in the Jura mountains at an altitude of 1000 m, after Geneva and Lausanne, it is the third largest city located completely in the Romandie, the French-speaking part of the country, with a population of 38,957. The city was founded in 1656 and its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watch making industry. It is the most important centre of the watch making industry in the known as the Watch Valley. Completely destroyed by a fire in 1794 La Chaux-de-Fonds was rebuilt following a street plan. Karl Marx said about the special urban design of the city that it was a city-factory. The famous architect Le Corbusier, the writer Blaise Cendrars and the car maker Louis Chevrolet were born there, La Chaux-de-Fonds is a renowned centre of Art nouveau. In 2009, La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Locle, its city, have jointly been awarded UNESCO World Heritage status for their exceptional universal value.
The watch making cities of La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Locle have jointly received recognition from UNESCO for their exceptional universal value, the Sites planning consists of two small cities located close to each other in the mountainous environment of the Swiss Jura. Due to the altitude and the lack of water the land is ill suited to farming and buildings reflect the watch-making artisans need of rational organization. Both agglomerations present outstanding examples of mono-industrial manufacturing-towns, which are still well-preserved, the urban planning has accommodated the transition from the artisans’ production of a cottage industry to the more concentrated factory production of the late 19th and 20th centuries. In 1867 Karl Marx was already describing La Chaux-de-Fonds as a “huge factory-town” in Das Kapital, where he analyzed the division of labour in the watch making industry of the Jura. It is the tenth Swiss Site to be awarded World Heritage status, joining others such as the Old City of Bern, the Rhaetian Railway, the region was first inhabited around 10,000 years ago.
A skull and other traces have been found in caves nearby, in the middle of the 14th century, the region was colonized from the southern Val-de-Ruz. La Chaux-de-Fonds is first mentioned in 1350 as la Chaz de Fonz, in 1378 it was mentioned as Chault de Font. The region was under the authority of the lords of Valangin, in the 15th and 16th centuries, a second wave of colonization came from the so-called Clos de la Franchise. Agriculture was the activity but the village remained small. In 1531 there were only about 35 people living there, the first church was built in 1528
Thun is a town and a municipality in the administrative district of Thun in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with about 43,783 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2013. It is located where the Aare flows out of Lake Thun,30 kilometres south of Bern, besides tourism and precision instrument engineering, the largest garrison in the country, the food industry and publishing are of economic importance to Thun. The official language of Thun is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The area of what is now Thun was inhabited since the Neolithic age, during the early Bronze Age there were a number of settlements along the lake shore and the Aare. A site at Renzenbühl had a chief or noblemans grave which contained one of the richest collections of early Bronze Age artifacts in Europe. Another site at Wiler contained approximately 1,500 maritime snail shells which were harvested from the Mediterranean, the name of the town derives from the Celtic term Dunum, meaning fortified town.
It fell to Rome in 58 BC, when Roman legions conquered almost all of Switzerland, the Romans were driven out of Thun, and out of the rest of Switzerland, by the Burgundians around 400 AD. The Aare became the frontier between the Christian Burgundians and the Pagan, German-speaking Alemanni, who lived north, the region was mentioned for the first time during the 7th century, in the chronicle of Frankish monk Fredgar. The town is first mentioned in 1133 as Tuno, the region of Thun became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1033, when Conrad II gained the title of King of Burgundy. The emperors entrusted the Zähringen family, centred in Bern, with subduing the unruly nobles of central Switzerland, around 1190 Duke Bertold V of Zähringen, built Thun castle and expanded the town. After Bertolds death in 1218, his territories went to Ulrich III von Kyburg, in 1264 Thun received town rights and in 1384 the town was bought by the canton of Bern. Thun was the capital of the Canton of Oberland of the Helvetic Republic, in 1819 a Military School was founded in the town, which developed into the main military school in Switzerland.
Thun was connected to the network of Switzerland in 1859. The center of Thun is located on the Aare, just downstream of the point where that river flows out of Lake Thun, the town covers an area of 21.6 km2, with the town boundaries reaching up to 4 km from the town centre. The town ranges in altitude between about 560 m, in the center, and 1,170 m, on its eastern boundary. Thun has an area of 21.58 km2, as of the 2004 survey, a total of 6.03 km2 or 27. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.32 km2 or 20. 0% is forested. Of rest of the municipality 10.76 km2 or 49. 9% is settled,0.29 km2 or 1. 3% is either rivers or lakes and 0.19 km2 or 0. 9% is unproductive land. From the same survey, industrial buildings made up 5. 7% of the area while housing and buildings made up 26. 8%
Biel/Bienne is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Biel/Bienne is on the boundary between the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, and is throughout bilingual. Biel is the German name for the town, Bienne its French counterpart, the town is often referred to in both languages simultaneously. Since January 1,2005, the name has been Biel/Bienne. Until then, the city was officially named Biel, Neuchâtel and Bern lie west and southeast of Biel/Bienne. They all can be reached in about 30 minutes, either by train or by car, the city has about 55,000 inhabitants and in 2014 the agglomeration had almost 106,000. The shoreline of Lake Biel has been inhabited since at least the neolithic, the remains of two neolithic settlements were found at Vingelz in 1874. The remains of the settlements became the Vingelz / Hafen archaeological site, east of the Vingelz site, a late Bronze Age settlement was discovered. After the Roman conquest, the region was part of Germania Superior, during the Roman era the Roman road from Petinesca to Pierre Pertuis or Salodurum passed through the village of Mett, which is now part of Biel/Bienne.
The foundations of buildings and a 4th-century cemetery in Mett come from a late Roman or a medieval military guard station. A theory holds that the toponym is derived from the name of Belenus, however, no surviving records or inscriptions confirm this theory. Another theory states that the town grew up around a late Roman fortress, while no trace of the fortress has been found, the foundations of several Roman buildings have been found east of the medieval town. The town is mentioned in 1142 as apud belnam, which is taken as evidence for its derivation from Belenus, in popular etymology, the name has been connected with the German name for axe, reflected in the two crossed axes in the citys coat of arms. In the 5th century, the area was invaded by the Burgundians, during the 6th or 7th century, the Germanic speaking Alamanni moved into the area around Lake Biel, creating the language boundary that exists today. By the 8th century, the German-speaking population became the majority on the east end of the lake, in 999 Rudolph III of Burgundy granted lands around Lake Biel to the Bishopric of Basel, during the formative period of the Holy Roman Empire.
Through the Bishop of Basel, the Counts of Neuchâtel and the Counts of Neuchâtel-Nidau began to exercise their power in the foothills of the Jura Mountains. In 1140 the counts built Nidau Castle in the village of Nidau to help secure their land on the eastern end of the lake. The town was built by the Bishop of Basel, Heinrich II von Thun
Herisau is a municipality of the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland. It is the seat of the government and parliament, the judicial authorities are situated in Trogen. Together with other Alpine towns Herisau engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc, Herisau was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2003. Herisau was first mentioned in 837 as Herinisauva, and its church is mentioned in 907, in 1084 Herisau was destroyed as part of battles around the monastery in St. Gallen. In 1248 and 1249 the town was destroyed again, this time by the monastery to establish loyalty, in 1401 Herisau joined an alliance with other places in Appenzell as part of the Appenzell Wars. Between 1517 and 1518 Herisau managed to buy itself free from the monastery, the town hall was built in 1601. In 1606 the town was destroyed by a fire. In 1648 Schwellbrunn separated and became an independent village, between 1798 and 1803 Herisau was the capital of the canton Säntis.
Herisau has an area, as of 2006, of 25.2 km2, of this area,56. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 27. 1% is forested. Of the rest of the land,15. 5% is settled, the municipality is located in the former District of Hinterland. It is located at the point of two major routes through the region, the St. Gallen-Toggenburg road and the Gossau-Appenzell road. In addition to being the capital of the canton, about one-third of the population of the entire half canton lives in Herisau. It consists of the village of Herisau and scattered hamlets as well as bedroom communities, before 1648 it controlled about twice the land area as is currently part of the municipality. Until 1648 Schwellbrunn was part of the municipality and until 1720, Herisau has a population of 15,527, of which about 17. 9% are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -5. 2%, most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and Italian being third. As of 2000, the distribution of the population was 49. 6% male and 50. 4% female.
The age distribution, as of 2000, in Herisau is,1,194 people or 7. 5% of the population are between 0–6 years old,1,775 people or 11. 2% are 6-15, and 835 people or 5. 3% are 16-19. Of the adult population,945 people or 6. 0% of the population are between 20–24 years old,4,760 people or 30. 0% are 25-44, and 3,831 people or 24. 1% are 45-64