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1. Cold War – The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, the Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. The United States remained as the only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfareCold War – Photograph of the Berlin Wall taken from the West side. The Wall was built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from fleeing and to stop an economically disastrous drain of workers. It was a symbol of the Cold War and its fall in 1989 marked the approaching end of the war.
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
3. Soviet Union – The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet statesSoviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
4. ANZUS – It provides that an armed attack on any of the three parties would be dangerous to the others, and that each should act to meet the common threat. It set up a committee of ministers that can meet for consultation. The treaty was one of the series that the United States formed in the 1949–55 era as part of its response to the threat of communism during the Cold War. e. The treaty has lapsed between the United States and New Zealand, although it remains separately in force between both of those states and Australia, while ANZUS is commonly recognised to have split in 1984, the Australia–US alliance remains in full force. There are also regular civilian and military consultations between the two governments at lower levels, the AUSMIN meeting for 2011 took place in San Francisco in September. The 2012 AUSMIN meeting was in Perth, Western Australia in November, unlike the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, ANZUS has no integrated defence structure or dedicated forces. Nevertheless, Australia and the United States conduct a variety of joint activities, during the 2010s, New Zealand and the US resumed a close relationship, although it is unclear whether the revived partnership falls under the aegis of the 1951 trilateral treaty. The US prohibition on New Zealand ships making port at US bases was lifted after the 2012 exercise, in 1951, the United States was eager to normalise relations with Japan, particularly as the Korean War was raging a short distance from Japan. With the involvement of China and possibly the Soviet Union in Korea, however, the governments of Australia and New Zealand were extremely reluctant to finalise a peace treaty with Japan that would allow for Japanese rearmament. Both countries relented only when an Australian and New Zealand proposal for a security treaty was accepted by the United States. The resulting treaty was concluded at San Francisco on 1 September 1951, the treaty bound the signatories to recognise that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety of the others. It stated The Parties will consult together whenever in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, the three nations also pledged to maintain and develop individual and collective capabilities to resist attack. As part of the United Nations deployment, New Zealand and Australia had earlier fought alongside the United States in the Korean War and these troops were however officially engaged in reconstruction under UN Security Council Resolution 1483 and were non-combatant. In 1983, the Reagan Administration approached Australia with proposals for testing the new generation of American intercontinental ballistic missiles, American test ranges in the Pacific were insufficient for testing the new long-range missiles and the United States military wished to use the Tasman Sea as a target area. Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser of the Liberal Party had agreed to provide monitoring sites near Sydney for this purpose. However, in 1985, the newly elected Prime Minister Bob Hawke, of the Labor Party, withdrew Australia from the testing programme, sparking criticism from the Reagan Administration. Hawke had been pressured into doing so by the faction of the Labor Party. The Labor left-wing faction also strongly sympathized with the New Zealand Fourth Labour Governments anti-nuclear policy, despite these disagreements, the Hawke Labor Government still remained supportive of the ANZUS security treatyANZUS – Australian, New Zealand and United States aircraft during a military exercise in 1982
5. NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense, military and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was later clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achievedNATO – The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August.
6. Non-Aligned Movement – The Non-Aligned Movement is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members, all five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, members have at times included the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Argentina, Zaire, Cyprus, and Malta. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movements members were quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers. Some members were involved in conflicts with other members. The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, although the Soviet allies supported the invasion, other members of the movement condemned it. Because the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thwart the Cold War, the successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union, belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011, the applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively. The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012, according to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend. Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents,2 kings, at the summit, Iran took over from Egypt as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015. The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and their actions were known as The Initiative of Five. The term non-alignment was established in 1953 at the United Nations, Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel, the five principles were, Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the conference in 1976. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes, another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries. The movement stems from a not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structureNon-Aligned Movement – Logo of the Sharm El Sheikh Summit, 2009.
7. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization – The formal institution of SEATO was established on 19 February 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand The organizations headquarters were also in Bangkok. SEATO was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and these treaties and agreements were intended to create alliances that would contain communist powers. This policy was considered to have largely developed by American diplomat. The organization, headquartered in Bangkok, was created in 1955 at the first meeting of the Council of Ministers set up by the treaty, also present were committees for economics, security, and information. Unlike the NATO alliance, SEATO had no joint commands with standing forces. S. military intervention in the region during the Vietnam War, despite its name, SEATO mostly included countries located outside of the region but with an interest either in the region or the organization itself. They were Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the Philippines and Thailand were the only Southeast Asian countries that actually participated in the organization. Both shared close ties with the United States, particularly the Philippines, Thailand became a member upon the discovery of the newly founded Thai Autonomous Region in Yunnan - apparently feeling threatened by potential Chinese communist subversion on its land. Other regional countries like Burma and Indonesia were far more minded with domestic internal stability rather than concern of communist threat, malaya also chose to not participate formally, though it was kept updated with key developments due to its close relationship with the United Kingdom. S. Cambodia, however rejected the protection in 1956, the majority of SEATO members were not located in Southeast Asia. To Australia and New Zealand, SEATO was seen as a more satisfying organization than ANZUS – a collective defense organization with the U. S. Great Britain and France joined partly due to having long maintained colonies in the region, Pakistan, however, was simply interested in joining over the appeal of potential support for its long struggle against India. Last but not least, the U. S. upon perceiving Southeast Asia to be a frontier for Cold War geopolitics saw the establishment of SEATO as essential to its Cold War containment policy. All in all, the membership reflected a mid-1950s combination of anti-communist Western nations, the United Kingdom, France and the United States, the latter of which joined after the U. S. Senate ratified the treaty by an 82–1 vote, represented the strongest Western powers. Canada also considered joining, but decided against it in order to concentrate on its NATO responsibilities, secretaries-General of SEATO, After its creation, SEATO quickly became insignificant militarily, as most of its member nations contributed very little to the alliance. While SEATO military forces held joint military training, they were never employed because of internal disagreements, SEATO was unable to intervene in conflicts in Laos because France and Britain rejected use of military action. As a result, the U. S. provided unilateral support for Laos after 1962, though sought by the U. S. involvement of SEATO in the Vietnam War was denied because of lack of British and French cooperation. Both the United States and Australia cited the alliance as justification for involvement in Vietnam, American membership in SEATO provided the United States with a rationale for a large-scale U. S. military intervention in Southeast Asia. Other countries, such as Great Britain and key nations in Asia, in 1962, as part of its commitment to SEATO, the Royal Australian Air Force deployed CAC Sabres of its No.79 Squadron to Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, ThailandSoutheast Asia Treaty Organization – The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on 24 October 1966
8. Warsaw Pact – The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the regional economic organization for the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. While the Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power or counterweight to NATO, instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968, which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland, East Germany and Poland withdrew from the Pact in 1990. On 25 February 1991, the Pact was declared at an end at a meeting of defence, the USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO, in the Western Bloc, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac, and WP. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces, the strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe theirs and not let the Americans take it from them and this policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union arrogated the right to define socialism and communism, geostrategic principles also drove the Soviet Union to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers. Before the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany and these states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany. The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO, Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany being once again a military power and a direct threat. The terrible consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory among the Soviets, previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO. The Soviet request to join NATO arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. James Dunn, who met in Paris with Eden, Adenauer and Robert Schuman, affirmed that the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians, according to John Gaddis there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer from USSR. But Eden, Dulles and Bidault opposed the proposal, the Soviets then decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK and France to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement. Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by the UK, US, emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, supporter of NATO expansion, who said that NATO must grow until the whole free world gets under one umbrella. He opposed the request to join NATO made by the USSR in 1954 saying that the Soviet request to join NATO is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force, in April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon, Eisenhower and Dulles. Ratification of EDC was delaying but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that EDC would have to become a part of NATO, memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany was feared by France tooWarsaw Pact – Logo Military unit Organization The Warsaw Pact. Union of peace and socialism
9. Hukbalahap Rebellion – The Hukbalahap Rebellion was a rebellion staged by former Hukbalahap or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon soldiers against the Philippine government. It started during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in 1942 and continued during the presidency of Manuel Roxas, during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, the Hukbalahap created a strong resistance army against the Japanese forces in Central Luzon. The Huk Resistance, as it popularly known, created a stronghold against the Japanese in the villages through guerrilla warfare. During this time, the area was protected by Huks. The aftermath of the liberation from Japan was characterized by chaos, the Philippine Government, following orders from the United States of America, disarmed and arrested the Huks for allegedly being communists. Harassment and abuses against peasant activists became common, largely consisting of peasant farmers, the Huks feared for their lives as United States Army Forces in the Far East and the Philippine Constabulary hunted them down. The Huks decided to go back to the mountains and their lifestyle as a response to supposed maltreatment by the government. They staged a rebellion against the Philippine Government when it became clear that the repression would not stop unless all former Huk soldiers and supporters were rounded up. Landowners favored cash crops for export to the USA, such as tobacco and sugar cane, over the rice or cereals. Patterns of farm management were also changing, traditional landowners wanted to modernize their farms and employ tenant-farmers as wage-earners with legal contracts in order to maximize their profit. The landlord thought of himself as a grandfather to all tenants, … But the system had to be changed over time as the hacienda has to be put in a sound economic footing. The landlord tenant relationship is a partnership, it is not a family. The landlord has invested capital in the land, and the tenants give their labor, on loans If the tenants need to borrow rice or money, they could go somewhere else to get it. I decided to lend to only a few tenants, if they pay interest, but to give ration loans and charge no interest, and sometimes not be repaid is certainly an un-businesslike way to handle money. On contracts Contracts help to prevent tenants from cheating from me and my father never had problems because the tenants were better people then. But tenants became lazy, and they would take rice and other things that do not belong to them, so each year I made them sign contracts. Anyone who didnt want to could go someplace else, and those who didnt abide by the contracts can go someplace else. On mechanization of farms I was enthused about putting modern machinery to work like the modern farms Id seen in the US, … The only machine here is the Japanese rice thresherHukbalahap Rebellion – HUKBALAHAP Veterans Card
10. Dekemvriana – Yet, on December the 1st, the British commander Ronald Scobie ordered the unilateral disarmament of EAM-ELAS. The rally of some 200.000 people was brutally shot upon by the Greek Police and Gendarmerie and these killings ushered a full-blown armed confrontation between EAM and the Government forces at first, and during the 2nd half of December, against the full blown British military forces. The clashes were limited to Athens, while elsewhere in Greece the situation remained tense, the Dekemvriana ended with the defeat of EAM-ELAS, leading to its disarmament in the Varkiza Agreement which marked the end of ELAS. This first defeat broke the power of EAM and was followed by a period of White Terror against the left, by 1944, the two major resistance movements in occupied Greece, EDES and EAM-ELAS, each saw the other to be their great enemy. They both saw the Germans were going to be defeated and were a temporary threat, for the communists, the British represented their major obstacle. The Axis withdrawal, before the government could return to the country. The government-in-exile, now led by the prominent liberal George Papandreou, moved to Italy, under the Caserta Agreement of September 1944, all resistance forces in Greece were to be placed under the command of a British officer, General Ronald Scobie. The British arrived in Greece in October, by then, the Germans were in full retreat, and most of Greeces territory had already been liberated by Greek partisans. On October 13, British troops entered Athens, the area still occupied by the Germans. The king stayed in Cairo because Papandreou had promised that the future of the monarchy would be decided by referendum, there was little to prevent the ELAS from taking full control of the country. With the German withdrawal, ELAS units had control of the countryside. The KKE’s leadership knew so, but not the ELASs fighters and rank-and-file, following Stalins instructions, the KKE’s leadership tried to avoid a confrontation with the Papandreou government. Most ELAS members saw the British as liberators despite some KKE leaders, such as Andreas Tzimas, Tzimas was in touch with Yugoslav Communist leader Josip Broz Tito, and he disagreed with ELASs cooperation with the British forces. The issue of disarming the resistance organizations was a cause of friction between the Papandreou government and its EAM members, the EAM, believing that it would leave the ELAS defenseless against anticommunist militias, submitted an alternative plan of total and simultaneous disarmament. Papandreou rejected this plan, causing the EAM ministers to resign from the government on December 2, on December 1, Scobie issued a proclamation calling for the dissolution of the ELAS. Command of the ELAS was the KKEs greatest source of strength, titos influence may have played some role in the ELASs resistance to disarmament. Tito was outwardly loyal to Stalin but had come to power through his own means and his influence, however, had not prevented the EAM leadership from putting its forces under Scobies command a couple of months earlier, in accordance with to the Caserta Agreement. According to the Caserta Agreement, all Greek forces were under Allied command, on December 1,1944, the Greek government of National Unity under Georgios Papandreou and GenDekemvriana – Sherman tanks and troops from the 5th (Scottish) Parachute Battalion, British 2nd Parachute Brigade, fighting against members of ELAS in Athens, 18 December 1944.
11. Yalta Conference – The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta in Crimea, USSR. The goal of conference was to shape a post-war peace that represented not just a collective security order, the meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Within a few years, with the Cold War dividing the continent, to a degree, it has remained controversial. Yalta was the second of three wartime conferences among the Big Three and it had been preceded by the Tehran Conference in 1943, and was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, which was attended by Stalin, Churchill and Harry S. Truman, Roosevelts successor. All three leaders were attempting to establish an agenda for governing post-war Germany and they wanted to keep peace between post-world war countries. On the Eastern Front, the front line at the end of December 1943 remained in the Soviet Union but, by August 1944, Soviet forces were inside Poland, by the time of the Conference, Red Army Marshal Georgy Zhukovs forces were 65 km from Berlin. Stalins position at the conference was one which he felt was so strong that he could dictate terms. According to U. S. delegation member and future Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, t was not a question of what we would let the Russians do, moreover, Roosevelt hoped for a commitment from Stalin to participate in the United Nations. Stalin, insisting that his doctors opposed any long trips, rejected Roosevelts suggestion to meet at the Mediterranean and he offered instead to meet at the Black Sea resort of Yalta, in the Crimea. Stalins fear of flying also was a factor in this decision. Each leader had an agenda for the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt wanted Soviet support in the U. S, Poland was the first item on the Soviet agenda. Stalin stated that For the Soviet government, the question of Poland was one of honor, in addition, Stalin stated regarding history that because the Russians had greatly sinned against Poland, the Soviet government was trying to atone for those sins. Stalin concluded that Poland must be strong and that the Soviet Union is interested in the creation of a mighty, free, Roosevelt wanted the USSR to enter the Pacific War with the Allies. Stalin agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War three months after the defeat of Germany, Stalin pledged to Truman to keep the nationality of the Korean Peninsula intact as Soviet Union entered the war against Japan. At the time, the Red Army had occupied Poland completely, the Declaration of Liberated Europe did little to dispel the sphere of influence agreements that had been incorporated into armistice agreements. They also agreed to give France a zone of occupation, carved out of the U. S. also, the Big Three agreed that all original governments would be restored to the invaded countries and that all civilians would be repatriated. The Declaration of Liberated Europe is a declaration that was created by Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and it was a promise that allowed the people of Europe to create democratic institutions of their own choice. The declaration pledged, the earliest possible establishment through free elections governments responsive to the will of the people and this is similar to the statements of the Atlantic Charter, which says, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will liveYalta Conference
12. Guerrilla war in the Baltic states – The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1944 to the mid-1950s. After the conquest of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, according to some estimates,10,000 partisans in Estonia,10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as a struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards. Proportionally, the movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam. Cursed soldiers Forest Brothers Operation Jungle Operation Priboi Occupation of the Baltic states Tauras, Guerrilla Warfare on the Amber CoastGuerrilla war in the Baltic states – History
13. Forest Brothers – Similar anti-Soviet Eastern European resistance groups fought against Soviet and communist rule in Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, and western Ukraine. The Red Army occupied the independent Baltic states in 1940–1941 and, after a period of German occupation, as Stalinist repression intensified over the following years,50,000 residents of these countries used the heavily forested countryside as a natural refuge and base for armed anti-Soviet resistance. The term Forest Brothers first came into use in the Baltic region during the chaotic Russian Revolution of 1905, varying sources refer to forest brothers of this era either as peasants revolting or as schoolteachers seeking refuge in the forest. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania gained their independence in 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire, the ideals of nationalism and self-determination had taken hold with many people as a result of having independent states of Estonia and Latvia for the first time since the 13th century. Allied declarations such as the Atlantic Charter had offered promise of a world in which the three Baltic nations could re-establish themselves. Having already experienced occupation by the Soviet regime followed by the Nazi regime, unlike Estonia and Latvia where the Germans conscripted the local population into military formations within Waffen-SS, Lithuania never had its own Waffen-SS division. In 1944 the Nazi authorities had created an ill-equipped but 20, the Germans, however, quickly came to see this force as a nationalist threat to their occupation regime. The senior staff were arrested on May 15,1944, with General Plechavičius being deported to the camp in Salaspils. Many Estonian and Latvian soldiers, and a few Germans, evaded capture, others, such as Alfons Rebane and Alfrēds Riekstiņš escaped to the United Kingdom and Sweden and participated in Allied intelligence operations in aid of the Forest Brothers. The Latvian government has asserted that the Latvian Legion, primarily composed of the 15th and 19th Latvian Waffen-SS divisions, was neither a criminal nor collaborationist organization. The ranks of the resistance swelled with the Red Armys attempts at conscription in the Baltic states after the war, the widespread harassment of disappearing conscripts families pushed more people to evade authorities in the forests. Many enlisted men deserted, taking their weapons with them, with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22,1941, Joseph Stalin made a public statement on the radio calling for a scorched earth policy in the areas to be abandoned on July 3. The battle of Tartu lasted for two weeks, and destroyed a part of the city. Under the leadership of Friedrich Kurg, the Forest Brothers drove out the Soviets from Tartu, thus they secured South Estonia under Estonian control by July 10. The NKVD murdered 193 people in Tartu Prison on their retreat on July 8, the German 18th Army crossed the Estonian southern border on July 7–9. The Germans resumed their advance in Estonia by working in cooperation with the Forest Brothers, in North Estonia, the destruction battalions had the greatest impact, being the last Baltic territory captured from the Soviets. The joint Estonian-German forces took Narva on August 17 and the Estonian capital Tallinn on August 28. On that day, the red flag shot down earlier on Pikk Hermann was replaced with the flag of Estonia by Fred Ise only to be changed by a German Reichskriegsflagge a few hours laterForest Brothers – Famous Estonian partisan fighter Ants "Ants the Terrible" Kaljurand
14. Operation Priboi – Operation Priboi was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949. The action is known as the March deportation by Baltic historians. More than 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to forced settlements in areas of the Soviet Union. Over 70% of the deportees were women and children under the age of 16, the deportation fulfilled its purposes, by the end of 1949, 93% and 80% of the farms were collectivized in Latvia and Estonia. In Lithuania, the progress was slower and the Soviets organized another large deportation known as Operation Osen in fall 1951, the deportations were for eternity with no rights to return. The mortality rate for the deportees was estimated at less than 15%, based on the Martens Clause and the principles of the Nuremberg Charter, the European Court of Human Rights has held that the March deportation constituted a crime against humanity. Collectivisation in the Baltic states was introduced in early 1947, despite new heavy taxes on farmers and intense propaganda, only about 3% of farms in Lithuania and Estonia joined kolkhozes by the end of 1948. Borrowing from the experiences of the early 1930s, kulaks were named as the primary obstacle. It is unclear when the idea of a mass deportation was advanced, on 18 January 1949, leaders of all three Baltic republics were called to report to Joseph Stalin. That day, during a session of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, on 29 January, the top secret decision No. 390-138 ss was adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, approving the deportation of kulaks, nationalists, bandits, their supporters and families from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Lists of kulaks to be deported were to be compiled by each republic, given just two months for preparations, the various agencies began marshaling resources. On 28 February 1949, Viktor Abakumov, the minister of MGB, Lieutenant General Pyotr Burmak commanded the MGB troops while Lieutenant General Sergei Ogoltsov, Deputy Minister of MGB, was in charge of the overall MGB role in the deportation. Burmak set up his headquarters in Riga, the success of the operation depended on its suddenness to prevent mass panic, escape attempts, or retaliations by the Forest Brothers. Therefore, secrecy was of paramount importance, special MGB representatives were dispatched to various local offices of MGB to form operative staff that would select the deportees and compile a file on each family. This led to confusion and uncertainty as to what offenses warranted deportation. Deportees often blamed local informants of MGB who, they believed, acted out of petty revenge or greed and this caused much confusion during the operation. Local MGB offices would prepare summary certificates for each family and send them for approval to the republican MGB office, for example, by 14 March, Estonian MGB approved summary certificates for 9,407 families which created a reserve of 1,907 families above the quotaOperation Priboi – Estonian deportees in Siberia — 72% of deportees were women and children under 16.
15. Operation Jungle – Operation Jungle was an program by the British Secret Intelligence Service early in the Cold War for the clandestine insertion of intelligence and resistance agents into Poland and the Baltic states. The agents were mostly Polish, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian exiles who had trained in the UK. The naval operations of the program were carried out by the Royal Navy, the American-sponsored Gehlen Organization also got involved in the draft of agents from Eastern Europe. The KGB penetrated the network and captured or turned most of the agents, in the late 1940s the MI6 established a special center in Chelsea, London, to train agents to be sent to the Baltic states. The operation was codenamed Jungle and led by Henry Carr, director of the Northern European Department of MI6 and they were sent to Portsmouth where one of them was modified to reduce its weight and increase its power. To preserve deniability, a former German E-boat captain, Hans-Helmut Klose, the boats proceeded to their destinations, typically several miles offshore, under cover of darkness and met with shore parties in dinghies returning agents were received at some of these rendezvous. The operation evolved into a number of phases, the first transport of agents occurred in May 1949, with six agents boarding the boat at Kiel. The vessel was manned by Klose and a German crew, the British officers on board, Lieutenant Commanders Harvey-Jones and Shaw, handed over the command of the boat to Swedish officers in Simrishamn, Southern Sweden. The German crew then proceeded via the cover of Öland Island, then east to Palanga, north of Klaipeda, arriving around 10, within 300m of shore the six agents disembarked in a rubber dingy and made their way to shore. The boat returned to Gosport, picking up the British officers at Simrishamn, following the success of the initial operation, MI6 followed up with several more improvised landings via rubber dingy. Two agents were landed at Ventspils on 1 November 1949, three agents landed south of Ventspils on April 12,1950 and two agents in December at Polanda. In late 1950, British Naval Intelligence and MI6 created a permanent organisation with Klose hiring a crew of 14 sailors. The British Baltic Fishery Protection Service was thus invented as a cover story given the harassment of West German fishermen by the Soviets. The operation evolved with a task of visual and electronic reconnaissance of the Baltic coast from Saaremaa in Estonia to Rügen in East Germany. For this purpose the boat was re-fitted with additional tanks for extended range. During this phase, four landings were performed between 1951 and 1952 with 16 agents inserted and five agents retrieved, eight Polish agents were inserted during this period using sea-borne balloons. During the period 1954-55, three new German-built motorboats of the Silbermöwe class replaced the old E-boats and they were christened Silvergull, Stormgull and Wild Swan. The operation was compromised by Soviet counter-intelligence, primarily through information provided by the British Cambridge FiveOperation Jungle – Three German Silbermöwe -class motorboats, used during the last phase of Operation Jungle
16. Occupation of the Baltic states – On 22 June 1941 Nazi Germany attacked the USSR and within weeks occupied the Baltic territories. In July 1941, the Baltic territory was incorporated into the Reichskommissariat Ostland of the Third Reich, the Soviet annexation occupation of the Baltic states lasted until August 1991, when the Baltic states regained independence. In its reassessment of Soviet history that began during perestroika in 1989, however, Russia agreed to Europes demand to assist persons deported from the occupied Baltic states upon joining the Council of Europe. De facto independence was restored to the Baltic states in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia started to withdraw its troops from the Baltics in August 1993. The full withdrawal of troops deployed by Moscow was completed in August 1994, Russia officially ended its military presence in the Baltics in August 1998 by decommissioning the Skrunda-1 radar station in Latvia. The dismantled installations were repatriated to Russia and the returned to Latvian control. Early in the morning of August 24,1939, the Soviet Union and Germany signed a ten-year non-aggression pact, the pact contained a secret protocol by which the states of Northern and Eastern Europe were divided into German and Soviet spheres of influence. In the north, Finland, Estonia and Latvia were assigned to the Soviet sphere, Poland was to be partitioned in the event of its political rearrangement—the areas east of the Narev, Vistula and San Rivers going to the Soviet Union while Germany would occupy the west. According to this protocol, Lithuania would regain its historical capital Vilnius. Following the end of Soviet invasion of Poland on 6 October, the Soviets pressured Finland, the Soviets questioned the neutrality of Estonia after the escape of an interned Polish submarine on 18 September. A week later on 24 September, the Estonian foreign minister was given an ultimatum in Moscow, the Soviets demanded the conclusion of a treaty of mutual assistance to establish military bases in Estonia. The Estonians had no choice but to accept naval, air, the corresponding agreement was signed on 28 September 1939. Latvia followed on 5 October 1939 and Lithuania shortly thereafter, on 10 October 1939, in September and October 1939, the Soviet government compelled the Baltic states to conclude mutual assistance pacts which gave it the right to establish Soviet military bases. In May 1940, the Soviets turned to the idea of military intervention. Their model was the Finnish Democratic Republic, a puppet regime set up by the Soviets on the first day of the Winter War, the Soviets organised a press campaign against the allegedly pro-Allied sympathies of the Baltic governments. In May 1940, the Germans invaded France, which was overrun, in late May and early June 1940, the Baltic states were accused of military collaboration against the Soviet Union by holding meetings the previous winter. On 15 June 1940, the Lithuanian government had no choice but to agree to the Soviet ultimatum, president Antanas Smetona proposed armed resistance to the Soviets but the government refused, proposing their own candidate to lead the regime. However, the Soviets refused this offer and sent Vladimir Dekanozov to take charge of affairs while the Red Army occupied the state, on 16 June 1940, Latvia and Estonia also received ultimataOccupation of the Baltic states – Schematics of the Soviet military blockade and invasion of Estonia in 1940. (Russian State Naval Archives)
17. Cursed soldiers – These clandestine organisations continued their armed struggle against the Stalinist government of Poland well into the 1950s. Most of the Polish anti-communist groups ceased to exist in the late 1940s or 1950s, hunted down by agents of the Ministry of Public Security and Soviet NKVD assassination squads. However, the last known cursed soldier, Józef Franczak, was killed in an ambush as late as 1963, similar Eastern European anti-communists fought on in other countries that were occupied by the Soviet Union. The new regime was aware that the Polish Resistance and Underground State loyal to the Polish government-in-exile would have to be destroyed before they could gain control over Poland. Future General Secretary of the Polish United Workers Party Władysław Gomułka pronounced that Soldiers of the Armia Krajowa are an element which must be removed without mercy. Another prominent communist, Roman Zambrowski, said that the AK had to be exterminated, the Armia Krajowa officially disbanded on 19 January 1945 to prevent a slide into armed conflict with the Red Army and the increasing threat of civil war over Polands sovereignty. However, many resistance units decided to continue with their struggle for Polish independence, Soviet partisans in Poland had already been ordered by Moscow on 22 June 1943 to engage Polish Leśni partisans in combat. They commonly fought against the Polish resistance more often than against the Germans, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin aimed to ensure that an independent Poland would never reemerge in the postwar period. The first AK structure designed primarily to deal with the Soviet threat was NIE, nIEs goal was not to engage Soviet forces in combat, but rather to observe and conduct espionage while the Polish government-in-exile decided how to deal with the Soviets. At that time, the government still believed that a solution leading to Polands post-war independence could be found through negotiations. On 7 May 1945, NIE was disbanded and transformed into the Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych na Kraj, however, this organization lasted only until 8 August 8,1945, when the decision was made to disband it and to stop partisan resistance on Polish territory. In March 1945 a staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Underground State and they were presented with a warrant of safety, but the NKVD arrested them in Pruszków on 27 and 28 March. Leopold Okulicki, Jan Stanisław Jankowski and Kazimierz Pużak were arrested on the 27th and 12 more the following day, alexander Zwierzynski had already been detained earlier. They were all taken to the Lubyanka prison in Moscow for interrogation prior to the trial, after several months of brutal interrogation and torture they were charged with false accusations of collaboration with Nazi Germany and of planning a military alliance with Nazi Germany. The Polish Committee of National Liberation declined jurisdiction over former AK soldiers, consequently, for more than a year, it was Soviet agencies like the NKVD that dealt with the AK. By the end of the war, approximately 60,000 soldiers of the AK had been arrested, other veterans were arrested when they decided to approach the communist authorities after being promised amnesty. In 1947, the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland proclaimed an amnesty for most of the resistance fighters. The authorities expected around 12,000 people to give up their arms, many of them were arrested despite promises of freedom, and after repeated broken promises during the first few years of communist rule, former AK members refused to trust the governmentCursed soldiers – The 'Cursed soldiers' of the anti-communist underground. Left to right: Henryk Wybranowski "Tarzan" (killed Nov. 1948), Edward Taraszkiewicz (pl) "Żelazny" (killed Oct. 1951), Mieczysław Małecki "Sokół" (killed Nov. 1947), and Stanisław Pakuła pseudonym "Krzewina". Photo: June 1947
18. Operation Unthinkable – Operation Unthinkable was a code name of two related plans of a conflict between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. The plannings were ordered by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1945, the first of the two assumed a surprise attack on the Soviet forces stationed in Germany in order to impose the will of the Western Allies on the Soviets. The will was qualified as square deal for Poland, when the odds were judged fanciful, the original plan was abandoned. The study became the first Cold War-era contingency plan for war with the Soviet Union, both plans were highly secret at the time of their creation and it was not until 1998 that they were made public. The initial primary goal of the operation was declared as to impose upon Russia the will of the United States, even though the will of these two countries may be defined as no more than a square deal for Poland, that does not necessarily limit the military commitment. The word Russia is used throughout the document, as during the Imperial period the term was used to refer to the Russian Empire. The Soviet numerical superiority was roughly 4,1 in men and 2,1 in tanks at the end of hostilities in Europe. The hypothetical date for the start of the Allied invasion of Soviet-held Europe was scheduled for 1 July 1945, the plan assumed a surprise attack by up to 47 British and American divisions in the area of Dresden, in the middle of Soviet lines. This represented almost half of the roughly 100 divisions available to the British, the majority of any offensive operation would have been undertaken by American and British forces, as well as Polish forces and up to 100,000 German Wehrmacht soldiers. Any quick success would be due to surprise alone, if a quick success could not be obtained before the onset of winter, the assessment was that the Allies would be committed to a protracted total war. In the report of 22 May 1945, an operation was deemed hazardous. The report concluded that if the United States focused on the Pacific Theatre, the Joint Planning Staff rejected Churchills notion of retaining bridgeheads on the continent as having no operational advantage. It was envisaged that Britain would use its air force and navy to resist, although a threat from mass rocket attack was anticipated, by 1946 tensions and conflicts were developing between Allied-occupied and Soviet-occupied areas of Europe. These were seen as being potential triggers for a wider conflict, routledge,2008, pp. xxx-xl Operation Unthinkable, Churchill’s plan to start World War III Sam Hines, Operation Unthinkable, Its significance in the development of the Cold War,2016Operation Unthinkable – Life
19. Potsdam Conference – The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States, the three powers were represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and, later, Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman. The goals of the conference included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaty issues. In the five months since the Yalta Conference, a number of changes had taken place which would affect the relationships between the leaders. Firstly, the Soviet Union was occupying Central and Eastern Europe, by July, the Red Army effectively controlled the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, and fearing a Stalinist take-over, refugees were fleeing from these countries. Stalin had set up a communist government in Poland and he insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks and claimed that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence. Secondly, Britain had a new Prime Minister, a general election was held in the UK on 5 July, the results of which became known during the conference, with a Labour Party majority, Labour leader Clement Attlee became the new Prime Minister. During the war and in the name of Allied unity, Roosevelt had brushed off warnings of a potential domination by a Stalin dictatorship in part of Europe, while inexperienced in foreign affairs, Truman had closely followed the allied progress of the war. With the end of the war, the priority of allied unity was replaced with a new challenge, the two leading powers continued to sustain a cordial relationship to the public but suspicions and distrust lingered between them. As the suspicion grew between the two rising powers, Stalin proposed that America will use their advantage and success in order to entices other nations into expanding their U. S. policies. Truman became much more suspicious of communist moves than Roosevelt had been, Truman and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism which was incompatible with the agreements Stalin had committed to at Yalta the previous February. However, the Potsdam Conference marks the first and only time Truman would ever meet Stalin in person, at the end of the conference, the three Heads of Government agreed on the following actions. All other issues were to be answered by the peace conference to be called as soon as possible. Allied Chiefs of Staff at the Potsdam Conference decided to temporarily partition Vietnam at the 16th parallel for the purposes of operational convenience. It was agreed that British forces would take the surrender of Japanese forces in Saigon for the half of Indochina. The Allies issued a statement of aims of their occupation of Germany, Germany and Austria were to be divided respectively into four occupation zones, and similarly each capital, Berlin and Vienna, was to be divided into four zones. It was agreed that the Nazi war criminals would be put to trial, all German annexations in Europe were to be reversed, including Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, and the westernmost parts of Poland. Germanys eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder–Neisse line, the territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia, Silesia, West Prussia, and two thirds of PomeraniaPotsdam Conference – A picture of a conference session including Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, Joseph Stalin, William D. Leahy, Joseph E. Davies, James F. Byrnes, and Harry S. Truman.
20. Igor Gouzenko – Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. He defected on September 5,1945 – just three days after the end of World War II – with 109 documents on Soviet espionage activities in the West and this forced Prime Minister Mackenzie King to call a Royal Commission to investigate espionage in Canada. Gouzenko exposed Joseph Stalins efforts to steal nuclear secrets, and the technique of planting sleeper agents, the New York Times described Gouzenkos actions as having awakened the people of North America to the magnitude and the danger of Soviet espionage. Gouzenko was born to a Ukrainian family on January 13,1919, in the village of Rogachovo near Dmitrov, at the start of World War II, he joined the military where he trained as a cipher clerk. In 1943, he was stationed in Ottawa, where for two years he enciphered outgoing messages and deciphered incoming messages for the GRU and his position gave him knowledge of Soviet espionage activities in the West. In September 1945, hearing that he and his family were to be sent home to the Soviet Union and dissatisfied with the quality of life, Gouzenko walked out of the embassy door carrying with him a briefcase with Soviet code books and deciphering materials. He initially went to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, but the RCMP officers on duty refused to believe his story. He then went to the Ottawa Journal newspaper, but the night editor was not interested. Terrified that the Soviets had discovered his duplicity, he went back to his apartment, Gouzenko, hidden by a neighbour, watched through the keyhole as a group of Soviet agents broke into his apartment. They began searching through his belongings, and only left when confronted by Ottawa police, the next day Gouzenko was able to find contacts in the RCMP who were willing to examine the evidence he had removed from the Soviet embassy. Gouzenko was transported by the RCMP to the secret World War II Camp X, while there, Gouzenko was interviewed by investigators from Britains internal security service, MI5 and by investigators from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. It has been alleged that, though the RCMP expressed interest in Gouzenko, even with Gouzenko in hiding and under RCMP protection, King reportedly pushed for a diplomatic solution to avoid upsetting the Soviet Union, still a wartime ally and ostensible friend. Gouzenko and his wife Svetlana, they told him, had appeared at the office of Justice Minister Louis St. Laurent with documents unmasking Soviet perfidy on Canadian soil and it was like a bomb on top of everything else, King wrote. Kings diaries assembled after his death were missing a volume for November 10 to December 31,1945, according to Library. Robertson told the Prime Minister that Gouzenko was threatening suicide, but King was adamant that his government not get involved, robertson ignored the prime ministers wishes and authorized granting asylum to Gouzenko and his family, on the basis that their lives were in danger. In February 1946 word got out in the media that Soviets operated a spy network in Canada in which Canadians gave classified information to the Soviet government, Gouzenkos defection ushered in the modern era of Canadian security intelligence. Among those convicted were Fred Rose, who was the only Communist Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons, Sam Carr, the Communist Partys national organizer, and scientist Raymond Boyer. Chapman was later acquitted, the judge in her case announced that No case has made out and, as far as this trial is concernedIgor Gouzenko – Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity
21. Operation Beleaguer – Operation Beleaguer was a major United States military operation that took place in northeastern Chinas Hopeh and Shantung Provinces between 1945 and 1949. During the course of four years, American forces engaged in several small battles with the Communists. The United States government also attempted to mediate a treaty with the opposing Nationalist and Communist forces. During World War II, China was a battlefield with three opposing armies, the government, or Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shek, the Communists under Mao Zedong, and the Japanese. When Japan surrendered in 1945, over 630,000 Japanese and Korean military personnel and civilians were still in China, the Marines were not to take sides in the fighting, and were only allowed to engage in combat if fired upon first. Major General Keller E. Rockey, IIIAC, was placed in command of the operation, Wedemeyer was in command of the China Theater. IIIAC was preparing for the invasion of Japan when the war ended on September 2,1945, within the next forty-eight hours, IIIAC received new orders to ship out to China. Tentative plans for operations were issued on August 29, setting the mounting-out date for September 15. The 3rd Marine Division on Guam and the 4th Marine Division on Maui were designated area reserve for the operation, the Hopeh Province occupation force was the first to get underway. Loading of the troopships began on September 11 and was completed on September 19, sailing from their base on Guam, the Americans anchored off the bay of Chinas Hai River on September 30. Disembarkation began soon after, and the Americans were greeted by swarms of sampans, whose crews were eager for trade, the Americans who went to occupy Tientsin were also greeted by crowds of Chinese who were anxious to be liberated from the Japanese. Shaw, Jr. the streets were packed with Chinese of all classes, trucks and marching troops literally had to force their way through the happy, flag-waving throngs to reach their assigned billets in the former International Concessions. To many of the men, it seemed that their welcome must have out shone and out shouted any welcome given to any time, any place. The first element of IIIAC to see action in China was 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, former Japanese puppet troops, as Henry I. Shaw called them, were engaged in fighting with Communist forces who held most of the surrounding area. Cooperation between the Americans and the Communists did not last long, however, according to Shaw, the Communists were sabotaging railroads leading into Chinwangtao and ambushing American-held trains by the end of the month. Before long, Chinwangtao would prove to be one of the centers for Communist resistance to the American occupation, most of the Japanese military personnel in Hopeh Province surrendered to Allied forces within days of the Americans arrival in country. On October 6, General Rockey accepted the surrender of 50,000 Japanese at Tientsin, four days later, an additional 50,000 Japanese surrendered to General Lien Ching Sun, Chiang Kai Sheks personal representative in northern ChinaOperation Beleaguer – Marines in Tsingtao during Operation Beleaguer.
22. Operation Blacklist Forty – Operation Blacklist Forty was the codename for the United States occupation of Korea between 1945 and 1948. However, when this proved unsuccessful, the United States. The partition of Korea into occupation zones was proposed in August 1945 and their superiors endorsed the partition line and the proposal was accepted by the Soviets. The Americans hoped to establish a representative government supportive of American policy in the region, the American occupation force composed of 45,000 men from the United States Armys XXIV Corps. The first of the American forces to arrive in Korea was an advanced party that landed at Kimpo Airfield near Seoul on September 4,1945. Another small advanced party, consisting of fourteen men of the 7th Infantry Division, sailed into Inchon on September 8, Hodge was considered a great battlefield commander, but a poor diplomat. There is little doubt he disliked Koreans, and was ignorant of their culture, as a result, Hodge made many mistakes, including issuing an order to his men to treat the Koreans as enemies. Furthermore, due to a shortage of manpower, Hodge allowed the old Japanese police force to remain on duty for crowd control and he also retained the colonial Japanese government, at least initially, until he could find suitable American replacements. However, following a complaint from the Korean people, the American military government in Tokyo officially had Korea removed from Japans political, thus, the Japanese administrators were removed from power, although many were henceforth employed as advisors to their American replacements. Author E. Takemae says that the American forces were greeted as occupiers, according to Takemae, n the eyes of many Koreans, the Americans were as bad as the Japanese. However, the Soviets refused to accept any idea that did not involve the creation of a communist state, as result of this disagreement, the United States sent the Korean question to the United Nations. The United Nations agreed to take up the challenge in September 1947, nevertheless, the elections were held, and the exiled Korean leader, Syngman Rhee, was inaugurated president of the new Republic of Korea on July 24,1948. The American and Soviet occupations of Korean ended soon after, leaving the Korean peninsula divided, according to Edwards, most Americans were glad to be gone. Autumn Uprising of 1946 Aftermath of World War II History of South Korea Operation Beleaguer Operation MasterdomOperation Blacklist Forty – American forces in Korea on September 8, 1945
23. Iran crisis of 1946 – In 1941, Iran had been jointly invaded and occupied by the Allied powers of the Soviet Red Army in the north and by the British in the centre and south. Iran was used by the Americans and the British as a route to provide vital supplies to the Soviet Unions war efforts. As of August 1941, the United States was a nation and had not yet entered as a belligerent in World War II. In the aftermath of the occupation of Iran, those Allied forces agreed to withdraw from Iran within six months after the cessation of hostilities. However, when this came in early 1946, the Soviets, under Joseph Stalin, remained in Iran. In late 1945, in addition to the Peoples Republic of Azerbaijan, negotiation by Iranian premier Ahmad Qavam and diplomatic pressure on the Soviets by the United States eventually led to Soviet withdrawal. The crisis is seen as one of the conflicts in the growing Cold War at the time. As a result, Rezā Shāh was forced to abdicate and exiled to Mauritius, his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, throughout the rest of the war, the United Kingdom and the United States used Iran as an important supply line to the Soviet war effort against Nazi Germany. Thirty thousand non-combatant US troops arrived to move supplies. Following VJ Day in September 1945, first the US and then the UK withdrew their forces within the treaty-stipulated period, the Soviets not only violated the March 2 withdrawal deadline, in that time they had expanded their military presence southward. The Azerbaijani Democratic Party was formed in September 1945 and headed by Jafar Pishevari, the ADP expanded throughout Iranian Azerbaijan, and initiated a local coup détat with help from the Soviet army, who prevented the Iranian army from intervening. The only Prime Minister of this republic was Ahmad Kordary. Though the Soviets initially supported the new entity and prevented the Iranian army from restoring governmental control over the area. After the Soviet withdrawal, Iranian troops entered the region in December 1946 and Pishevari, the Mahabad Republic was proclaimed in December 1945. Leading the nascent Kurdish republic and fully endorsed by the Soviets, was Qazi Muhammad, despite Soviet opposition, Mullah Mustafa Barzani came to play an important role in the newly created military force of the Mahabad Republic - the Peshmerga. With Barzanis support secured, along with some 60 tribal Kurdish leaders, the Kurdish forces were advised and organized by Soviet military officer Captain Salahuddin Kazimov. The Soviets extended their influence by sending at least 60 Kurds to Soviet Azerbaijan for additional military training, in total, the Mahabad army consisted of 70 active duty officers,40 non-commissioned officers, and 1,200 lower-enlisted privates. The Mahabad peshmerga also engaged Iranian reconnaissance teams in the region throughout early May 1946, Kurdish offensives were limited to minor skirmishes due to the removal of Soviet influence in the region that month, possibly due to a Soviet-Iranian oil agreementIran crisis of 1946 – Jafar Pishevari in 1946
24. Greek Civil War – The Greek Civil War was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army, and the Democratic Army of Greece. The fighting resulted in the defeat of the Communist insurgents by the government forces, the civil war resulted from a highly polarized struggle between left and right ideologies that started in 1943. From 1944 each side targeted the power vacuum that the end of German-Italian occupation during World War II left, the struggle became one of the first conflicts of the Cold War and represents the first example of Cold War power postwar involvement in the internal politics of a foreign country. The first signs of the war occurred in 1942 to 1944. The immediate prelude of the war took place in Athens, on December 3,1944. A bloody battle erupted after Greek government gendarmes, with British forces standing in the background, opened fire on a massive unarmed pro-EAM rally, killing 28 demonstrators and injuring dozens. The rally had been organised against the impunity of the collaborators and the general disarmament ultimatum, signed by Ronald Scobie, the battle lasted 33 days and resulted in the defeat of the EAM after the heavily reinforced British forces sided with the Greek government. All the while, White Terror was unleashed against the supporters of the left, the war erupted in 1946, when forces of former ELAS partisans who found shelter in their hideouts and were controlled by the KKE organized the DSE and its High Command headquarters. The Communists formed a government in December 1947 and used the DSE as the military branch of this government. The neighboring communist states of Albania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria offered logistical support to this provisional government, the final victory of the western-allied government forces led to Greeces membership in NATO and helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean Sea for the entire Cold War. Western leaders encouraged and even coerced King George II of Greece to appoint a moderate cabinet, nevertheless, the exiled governments inability to influence affairs inside Greece rendered it irrelevant in the minds of most Greek people. At the same time, the Germans set up a collaborationist government in Athens, the puppet regime was further undermined when economic mismanagement in wartime conditions created runaway inflation, acute food shortages and famine among the civilian population. The power vacuum that the occupation created was filled by several resistance movements that ranged from royalist to communist ideologies, resistance was born first in eastern Macedonia and Thrace, where Bulgarian troops occupied Greek territory. Soon large demonstrations were organized in cities by the Defenders of Northern Greece. However, the largest group to emerge was the National Liberation Front, proclaiming that it followed the Soviet policy of creating a broad united front against fascism, EAM won the support of many noncommunist patriots. These resistance groups launched attacks against the powers and set up large espionage networks. When liberation came in October 1944, Greece was in a state of crisis, although controlled by the KKE, the organization had democratic republican rhetoric. Its military wing, the Greek Peoples Liberation Army was founded in February 1942, Aris Velouchiotis, a member of KKEs Central Committee, was nominated Chief of the ELAS High CommandGreek Civil War – Greek Civil War
25. Corfu Channel incident – The Corfu Channel Incident consists of three separate events involving Royal Navy ships in the Channel of Corfu which took place in 1946, and it is considered an early episode of the Cold War. During the first incident, Royal Navy ships came under fire from Albanian fortifications and this series of incidents led to the Corfu Channel case, where the United Kingdom brought a case against the Peoples Republic of Albania to the International Court of Justice. The Court rendered a decision under which Albania was to pay £844,000 to the United Kingdom and this is equivalent to £26.9 million in 2015 terms. Because of the incidents, Britain, in 1946, broke off talks with Albania aimed at establishing relations between the two countries. Diplomatic relations were restored in 1991. The incidents started on 15 May 1946 when two Royal Navy ships, HMS Orion and HMS Superb, crossed the Corfu Channel following a prior inspection, while crossing they came under fire from fortifications situated on the Albanian coast. Although the ships suffered no damage and no human casualties occurred, Britain issued a formal demand for an immediate. Such apology was not forthcoming, however, and the Albanian Government claimed that the British ships had trespassed into Albanian territorial waters, the second incident was more serious. The crews were instructed to respond if attacked and they were passing close to the Albanian coast in what they considered to be a mine-free zone with Mauritius leading and Saumarez following closely. Leander was about one and two-thirds of a mile or three kilometres away accompanied by Volage. Near the bay of Saranda, just prior to 3 p. m. the destroyer Saumarez struck a mine and was heavily damaged, the destroyer Volage was ordered to tow the Saumarez south to a Corfu harbour. At approximately 4,16 p. m. while towing, Volage also struck a mine, forty-four men died and forty-two were injured in the incident. Between thirty-two and forty-three of the dead are estimated to have belonged to the crew of Saumarez, the Saumarez was damaged beyond repair while the damage to Volage was repairable. The Albanian coastal batteries did not fire during this incident and an Albanian Navy vessel approached the scene flying the Albanian flag and a white flag. Since Albania had no vessels at that time, the mines were probably laid by Yugoslavian minelayers Mljet and Meljine on Albanian request. The British Minister of Pensions at the time of the incident awarded full military pensions to the disabled, the third and final incident occurred on 12 November –13 November 1946 when the Royal Navy carried out an additional mine sweeping operation in the Corfu channel, codenamed Operation Retail. There was also present a French naval officer who, at the invitation of the Mediterranean Zone Board, an aircraft carrier, HMS Ocean, cruisers and other warships provided cover. Twenty-two contact mines were discovered and cut from their undersea moorings, the placement of the mines was such that the minefield was deemed to have been deliberately designed and not simply a random aggregation of isolated minesCorfu Channel incident – HMS Orion was one of the ships fired on in the first incident
26. Turkish Straits crisis – The Turkish Straits crisis was a Cold War-era territorial conflict between the Soviet Union and Turkey. As the Turkish government would not submit to the Soviet Unions requests, tensions arose in the region, the incident would later serve as a deciding factor in the issuing of the Truman Doctrine. At its climax, the tensions would cause Turkey to turn to the United States and NATO, for protection and membership, the result of this action contributed to the European post-war status quo that remains to this day. The conflict has its roots in Soviet-Turkish relations, both just prior to and during the Second World War, until the last half of the 1930s, Russian-Turkish relations were warm and somewhat fraternal. The previous incarnations of the two nations, the Ottoman Empire and Bolshevist Russia, had promised to cooperate with other in the Treaty of Moscow. It was the latest of several negotiations regarding the two waterways, previous treaties and conferences had materialized over the spans of the 19th and 20th centuries. The issue had been revived again with the rise of Fascist Italy, upon the treatys signing, on July 20,1936, Turkey was permitted to rearm and regulate the straits. The treaty also forbade the traversing of the straits by ships not belonging to any of the Black Sea states. Throughout the late 1930s and into the 1940s, Stalin repeatedly challenged the agreements reached by the 1936 convention and he proposed joint Turkish and Soviet control of the straits. The Soviet Union wished for the Turkish-USSR border within the Eastern Anatolia Region to be normalized in a way beneficial to themselves and the Armenian and Georgian SSRs. Deputy premier Lavrentiy Beria got in Stalins ear, claiming that Turkish territory to the southwest of Georgia was stolen from the Georgians by the Turks during the Ottoman period, the argument was retracted along with Soviet reservations over the regime of the straits in May 1953. After the Allied defeat of Nazi Germany, the Soviets returned to the issue in 1945 and 1946, throughout 1946, American and Turkish diplomats frequently conversed on the issue. The Soviets grew angry over Turkeys allowing of non-Black Sea naval vessels to cross the straits during the course of the war, the April 6,1946 visit of the American battleship USS Missouri further angered the Soviets. The ship had come to the region under the explanation that it was delivering the mortuary urn of the late Turkish Ambassador home and this drew attention to the occasions in which Italian and German warships had passed through the straits without conflict. The note concluded that the regime of the straits was no longer reliable and demanded that the Montreux Treaty be re-examined, in a secret telegram sent by US Under Secretary of State Dean Acheson to diplomats in Paris, he explained the American position on the matter. On August 20,1946, Undersecretary Acheson met with fifteen journalists to explain the urgency of the situation and make the opinions of the United States Government known. In the period of months from summer to autumn of 1946, a substantial number of ground troops were dispatched to the Balkans. Buckling under the pressure from the Soviets, in a matter of days Turkey appealed to the United States for aidTurkish Straits crisis – The location of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits.
27. Restatement of Policy on Germany – Restatement of Policy on Germany is a speech by James F. Byrnes, the United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6,1946. The Western powers worst fear by now was that the poverty, american Occupation General Lucius Clay stated, There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand. The speech was seen as a first firm stand against the Soviet Union as it stated the intention of the United States to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. But the heart of the message was as Byrnes stated a month later The nub of our program was to win the German people and it was a battle between us and Russia over minds. So far as the United States is aware the people of the Ruhr area, and the United States is not going to oppose their desire. A stated exception to US support for self-determination was the support given in the speech to the French claim to the Saarland, as a result of the agreement at Yalta, Poland ceded to the Soviet Union territory east of the Curzon Line. Because of this, Poland asked for revision of her northern and western frontiers, the United States will support revision of these frontiers in Polands favor. However, the extent of the area to be ceded to Poland must be determined when the settlement is agreed upon. Byrnes in fact did not state that such a change would take place, the Polish government responded to the speech with loud rhetoric, with claims that the US was supporting remnants of the Hitler regime and officially claimed that the border set at Potsdam was final. In a speech, Władysław Gomułka condemned Byrnes speech and its implication of a revision in favor of Germany as reactionary. It made Gomulka see it as further need for a strong Polish-Soviet Union alliance, many years later, Polish leader Wojciech Jaruzelski would reflect on the implications of the speech, It was a shocking statement. It made us think that our western border was being questioned by the Germans and it was one of the most important things that strengthened our ties with the Soviet Union. Olszewski asked the US ambassador to Poland for an explanation, claiming that the speech would have a impact on the Poles from beyond Curzon Line that were moving into western territories. Ambassador Arthur Bliss Lane reassured Byrnes speech should not be interpreted as USs desire to avoid its obligations made at Potsdam. He underlined that Poland was given control over the area. Lane later continued to reassure Poles of US friendship and was disturbed by distortion of Byrnes speech, eventually, he learned, after discussing the issue with members of Department of State, that the speech was intended to smoke out Molotovs attitude on the eve of elections in Germany. From November 1946, onward the US military government in Germany prepared a number of new alternative border plans. The speech had a impact on US relations with Poland but made the Germans more positive to the USRestatement of Policy on Germany
28. First Indochina War – The First Indochina War began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946 and lasted until 1 August 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Viet Minh opponents in the South dated from September 1945, Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin and a small British task force landed at Saigon, the Chinese accepted the Vietnamese government under Ho Chi Minh, then in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do likewise in Saigon, and deferred to the French there from the outset, on V-J Day, September 2, Ho Chi Minh had proclaimed in Hanoi the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British Commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, guerrilla warfare began around Saigon immediately. The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French, French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire, French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming more unpopular at home. It was called the dirty war by leftists in France, the strategy of pushing the Viet Minh into attacking well-defended bases in remote parts of the country at the end of their logistical trails was validated at the Battle of Nà Sản. However, this base was relatively weak because of a lack of concrete and this combination proved fatal for this base defenses, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The south continued under Emperor Bảo Đại, a year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Soon an insurgency, backed by the North, developed against Diệms government, the conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War. Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between 1858 and 1887, nationalism grew until World War II provided a break in French control. Early Vietnamese resistance centered on the intellectual Phan Bội Châu, Châu looked to Japan, which had modernized and was one of the few Asian nations to successfully resist European colonization. With Prince Cường Để, Châu started two organizations in Japan, the Duy Tân hội and Vietnam Cong Hien Hoi, due to French pressure, Japan deported Phan Bội Châu to China. Witnessing Sun Yat-sens 1911 nationalist revolution, Châu was inspired to commence the Viet Nam Quang Phục Hội movement in Guangzhou, from 1914 to 1917, he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikais counterrevolutionary government. In 1925, he was captured by French agents in Shanghai, due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest until his death in 1940. In September 1940, shortly after Phan Bội Châus death, Japan launched its invasion of French Indochina, keeping the French colonial administration, the Japanese ruled from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France. As far as Vietnamese nationalists were concerned, this was a double-puppet government, Emperor Bảo Đại collaborated with the Japanese, just as he had with the French, ensuring his lifestyle could continueFirst Indochina War – A French Foreign Legion unit patrols in a communist-controlled area.
29. Truman Doctrine – The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy created to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12,1947 and further developed on July 12,1948 when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. American military force was not involved, but Congress appropriated free gifts of financial aid to support the economies. More generally, the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations threatened by Soviet communism, the Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, a military alliance that is still in effect. Historians often use Trumans speech to date the start of the Cold War, Truman told Congress that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Truman reasoned that because the totalitarian regimes coerced free peoples, they represented a threat to international peace, Truman made the plea amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War. He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they urgently needed, because Turkey and Greece were historic rivals, it was considered necessary to help both equally even though the threat to Greece was more immediate. For years, Britain had supported Greece, but was now near bankruptcy and was forced to reduce its involvement. In February 1947, Britain formally requested for the United States to take over its role in supporting the Greeks, the policy won the support of Republicans who controlled Congress and involved sending $400 million in American money but no military forces to the region. The effect was to end the communist threat, and in 1952, the Truman Doctrine was informally extended to become the basis of American Cold War policy throughout Europe and around the world. It shifted American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union from détente to a policy of containment of Soviet expansion as advocated by diplomat George Kennan and it was distinguished from rollback by implicitly tolerating the previous Soviet takeovers in Eastern Europe. As the Turkish government would not submit to the Soviet Unions requests, tensions arose in the region, since British assistance to Turkey had ended in 1947, the U. S. dispatched military aid to ensure that Turkey would retain chief control of the passage. Turkey received $100 million in economic and military aid and the U. S sent the aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt, the postwar period from 1946 started with a multi-party period and the Democratic Party government of Adnan Menderes. In the second stage of the war in December 1944. In the third phase, guerrilla forces controlled by the Greek Communist Party fought against the internationally recognized Greek government which was formed after 1946 elections boycotted by the KKE. By late 1946, Britain informed the United States that due to its own weakening economy, it could no longer continue to provide military, in 1946–47, the United States and the Soviet Union moved from being wartime allies to Cold War adversaries. The breakdown of Allied cooperation in Germany provided a backdrop of escalating tensions for the Truman Doctrine, to Truman, the growing unrest in Greece began to look like a pincer movement against the oil-rich areas of the Middle East and the warm-water ports of the Mediterranean. Aid would be given to both Greece and Turkey, to cool the long-standing rivalry between themTruman Doctrine – Bilateral relations
30. Asian Relations Conference – The Asian Relations Conference took place in New Delhi in March-April 1947. It was hosted by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who headed a provisional government that was preparing for Indias Independence. The Asian Relations Conference brought together leaders of the independence movements in Asia. In his writings and speeches, Nehru had laid great emphasis on the manner in which post-colonial India would rebuild its Asia connections, one of the notable consequences of the European domination of Asia has been the isolation of the countries of Asia from one another. Today this isolation is breaking down because of reasons, political. This Conference is significant as an expression of that deeper urge of the mind, in this Conference and in this work there are no leaders and no followers. All countries of Asia have to meet together in a common taskAsian Relations Conference – Gandhi at the Asian Relations Conference in 1947
31. Marshall Plan – The plan was in operation for four years beginning April 8,1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, the Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states roughly on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, the largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom, followed by France and West Germany. Some 18 European countries received Plan benefits, although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, and also blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as East Germany and Poland. The United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not called Marshall Plan, the initiative is named after Secretary of State George Marshall, who also served as the United States Army Chief of staff during WWII. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress, Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the recovery of nations after WWII as well as to antagonize the Soviet Union. In order to combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan and it was not as effective as the Marshall Plan, and in some ways contradictory to eastern block countries that served alongside the axis powers in WWII. The phrase equivalent of the Marshall Plan is often used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program, the reconstruction plan, developed at a meeting of the participating European states, was drafted on June 5,1947. It offered the aid to the Soviet Union and its allies. In fact, the Soviet Union prevented its satellite states from accepting, Secretary Marshall became convinced Stalin had no interest in helping restore economic health in Western Europe. President Harry Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3,1948, the Marshall Plan was replaced by the Mutual Security Plan at the end of 1951, that new plan gave away about $7 billion annually until 1961 when it was replaced by another program. The ERP addressed each of the obstacles to postwar recovery, the plan looked to the future, and did not focus on the destruction caused by the war. By 1952, as the funding ended, the economy of every participant state had surpassed pre-war levels, for all Marshall Plan recipients, by the end of World War II, much of Europe was devastated. Sustained aerial bombardment during the war had badly damaged most major cities, the regions trade flows had been thoroughly disrupted, millions were in refugee camps living on aid from United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and other agencies. Food shortages were severe, especially in the winter of 1946–47. From July 1945 through June 1946, the United States shipped 16.5 million tons of food, primarily wheat, to Europe and JapanMarshall Plan – The hunger-winter of 1947, thousands protest in West Germany against the disastrous food situation (March 31, 1947). The sign says: We want coal, we want bread
32. Berlin Blockade – The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies railway, road, the Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, the Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict. By the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly succeeding, on 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin. The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe. These zones were located roughly around the then-current locations of the allied armies, also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located 100 miles inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions of the city, factories, equipment, technicians, managers and skilled personnel were removed to the Soviet Union. Stalin and other leaders told visiting Bulgarian and Yugoslavian delegations in early 1946 that Germany must be both Soviet and communist, a further factor contributing to the Blockade was that there had never been a formal agreement guaranteeing rail and road access to Berlin through the Soviet zone. At the end of the war, western leaders had relied on Soviet goodwill to them with access. The Soviets also granted only three air corridors for access to Berlin from Hamburg, Bückeburg and Frankfurt, in response, the Soviets started a public relations campaign against American policy and began to obstruct the administrative work of all four zones of occupation. Until the blockade began in 1948, the Truman Administration had not decided whether American forces should remain in West Berlin after the establishment of a West German government, Berlin quickly became the focal point of both US and Soviet efforts to re-align Europe to their respective visions. As Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov noted, What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany, what happens to Germany, Berlin had suffered enormous damage, its prewar population of 4.3 million people was reduced to 2.8 million. After harsh treatment, forced emigration, political repression and the hard winter of 1945–1946. Local elections in 1946 resulted in a massive anti-communist protest vote, Berlins citizens overwhelmingly elected non-Communist members to its city council. Meanwhile, to coordinate the economies of the British and United States occupation zones, after March 1946 the British zonal advisory board was established, with representatives of the states, the central offices, political parties, trade unions, and consumer organisations. As indicated by its name, the advisory board had no legislative power. The Control Commission for Germany – British Element made all decisions with its legislative power and it created its own central bodies headed by a secretariat seated in Stuttgart. Eventually the London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement, was concluded, in response to the announcement of the first of these meetings, in late January 1948, the Soviets began stopping British and American trains to Berlin to check passenger identitiesBerlin Blockade – Berliners watch a US Air Force Douglas C-54 Skymaster land at Tempelhof Airport, 1948
33. Western betrayal – It also sometimes refers to the treatment of other Central and Eastern Europe nations at the time. In a few cases deliberate duplicity is alleged, whereby secret agreements or intentions are claimed to have existed in conflict with understandings given publicly, an example is Churchills covert concordance with the USSR that the Atlantic Charter did not apply to the Baltic states. Roosevelt apparently trusted Stalins assurances, and he was unwilling to support Churchill in ensuring the liberation of all of Central and Eastern Europe west of the USSR. Without American backing, the United Kingdom, with its strength exhausted by six years of war, was unable to take any actions in that part of Europe. According to Ilya Prizel, the preoccupation with their sense of damaged self fueled resentment towards the west generally. Colin Powell has stated that he doesnt think betrayal is the appropriate word regarding the Allies role in the Warsaw Uprising, historian Athan Theoharis maintains betrayal myths were used in part by those opposing US membership in the United Nations. The word Yalta came to stand for the appeasement of world communism, the term Western betrayal was coined after the 1938 Munich Conference when Czechoslovakia was forced to cede the mostly German-populated Sudetenland to Germany. The region contained the Czechoslovak border fortifications and means of defence against German invasion. Germany invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia a year later, along with Italy and Nazi Germany, the Munich treaty was signed by Britain and France - Czechoslovakias allies. Czechoslovakia was allied by treaty with France, and Great Britain was in turn allied with France, the Munich treaty and the subsequent occupation exposed Czechoslovak citizens to the Nazi regime and its atrocities. Czech politicians joined the newspapers in regularly using the term Western betrayal and it, along with the associated feelings, the Czech terms Mnichov, Mnichovská zrada, Mnichovský diktát and zrada spojenců were coined at the same time and have the same meaning. Poet František Halas published a poem with verse about ringing bell of betrayal, then Member of Parliament for Epping, Winston Churchill said, Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonour. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, a set of alliances was established among the nations of Europe. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, this system of alliances was strengthened by the signing of a series of mutual assistance alliances between France, Britain, and Poland. This agreement stated that in the event of war the allies were to fully mobilize. In the commentary on the Anglo-Polish Alliance, Polish publicist Stanisław Mackiewicz wrote in his 1964 book Polityka Becka, England does not need the existence of Poland, it has never needed it. Sometimes the British push us to fight against Russia, sometimes against Germany, as happened in 1939, on the contrary, it was a speculation, whose purpose was the fastest possible liquidation of the Polish state. England wanted Poland to fight Germany first, and to lose that war as quickly as possible, upon the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in September 1939, Britain and France declared war on GermanyWestern betrayal – The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin
34. Iron Curtain – The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. A term symbolizing the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West, on the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. The most notable border was marked by the Berlin Wall and its Checkpoint Charlie, the events that demolished the Iron Curtain started in discontent in Poland, and continued in Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. Romania became the only communist state in Europe to overthrow its government with violence. The use of the iron curtain as a metaphor for strict separation goes back at least as far as the early 19th century. It originally referred to fireproof curtains in theaters, various usages of the term iron curtain pre-date Churchills use of the phrase. The term iron curtain has since been used metaphorically in two different senses - firstly to denote the end of an era and secondly to denote a closed geopolitical border. The source of these metaphors can refer to either the safety curtain deployed in theatres or to roller shutters used to secure commercial premises. The first metaphorical usage of iron curtain, in the sense of an end of an era, perhaps should be attributed to British author Arthur Machen, who used the term in his 1895 novel The Three Impostors. The door clanged behind me with the noise of thunder, and I felt that an iron curtain had fallen on the passage of my life. Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians used the term Iron Curtain in the context of World War I to describe the situation between Belgium and Germany in 1914. The passage runs, With clanging, creaking, and squeaking, time to put on your fur coats and go home. We looked around, but the fur coats and homes were missing, chesterton used the phrase in a 1924 essay in The Illustrated London News. Chesterton, while defending Distributism, refers to that iron curtain of industrialism that has cut us off not only from our neighbours condition, how, a moment before the iron curtain was wrung down on it, did the German political stage appear. All German theatres had to install an iron curtain as a precaution to prevent the possibility of fire spreading from the stage to the rest of the theatre. Such fires were common because the decor often was very flammable. In case of fire, a wall would separate the stage from the theatre. Douglas Reed used this metaphor in his book Disgrace Abounding, The bitter strife had only hidden by the iron safety-curtain of the Kings dictatorshipIron Curtain – Swedish book " Behind Russia's iron curtain " from 1923
35. Eastern Bloc – The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact. The terms Communist Bloc and Soviet Bloc were also used to denote groupings of states aligned with the Soviet Union, although these terms might include states outside Central and Eastern Europe. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a socialist island, Eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Bessarabia in northern Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence. Lithuania was added in a secret protocol in September 1939. During the Occupation of East Poland by the Soviet Union, the Soviets liquidated the Polish state, Soviet authorities immediately started a campaign of sovietization of the newly Soviet-annexed areas. Soviet authorities collectivized agriculture, and nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property, the international community condemned this initial annexation of the Baltic states and deemed it illegal. In June 1941, Germany broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by invading the Soviet Union, from the time of this invasion to 1944, the areas annexed by the Soviet Union were part of Germanys Ostland. Thereafter, the Soviet Union began to push German forces westward through a series of battles on the Eastern Front, from 1943 to 1945, several conferences regarding Post-War Europe occurred that, in part, addressed the potential Soviet annexation and control of countries in Central Europe. I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he wont try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace. While meeting with Stalin and Roosevelt in Tehran in 1943, Churchill stated that Britain was vitally interested in restoring Poland as an independent country, Britain did not press the matter for fear that it would become a source of inter-allied friction. In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of influence in Central Europe. Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany, after resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current pro-Soviet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland. He stated that the new primary task would be to prepare elections. In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for war booty, which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. At first, the Soviets concealed their role in other Eastern Bloc politics, as a young communist was told in East Germany, its got to look democratic, but we must have everything in our control. Moscow-trained cadres were put into crucial power positions to fulfill orders regarding sociopolitical transformation, elimination of the bourgeoisies social and financial power by expropriation of landed and industrial property was accorded absolute priority. These measures were publicly billed as reforms rather than socioeconomic transformations, the bloc system permitted the Soviet Union to exercise domestic control indirectly. Crucial departments such as responsible for personnel, general police, secret policeEastern Bloc – The Big Three: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Premier of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin at the Yalta Conference, February 1945.
36. Western Bloc – The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc, a common term in English than Western Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the Free World or the Western world, new York, Simon & Schuster,1994Western Bloc – Political situation in Europe during the Cold War
37. Chinese Civil War – The Chinese Civil War was fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang -led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China. The civil war began in August 1927, with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-sheks Northern Expedition and it can generally be divided into two stages, the first being from 1927 to 1937, and the second being from 1946 to 1950 with the Second Sino-Japanese War separating them. The war represented a split between the Communist CPC and the KMTs brand of Nationalism. It continued intermittently until late 1937, when the two came together to form the Second United Front to counter the Japanese threat and prevent the country from crumbling. Chinas full-scale civil war resumed in 1946, a year after the end of hostilities with Japan, to this day no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, and there is debate about whether the Civil War has legally ended. The ROC mutually claims mainland China, and they continue the fight over diplomatic recognition. The Qing Dynasty, the last of the ruling Chinese dynasties, collapsed in 1911 and finally fell in 1912 with the abdication of the last emperor, Puyi. China fell into what became known as the era, when control of much of the country was divided among a group of powerful independent warlords. Sun Yat-sens efforts to aid from the Western countries were ignored, however. Thus the struggle for power in China began between the KMT and the CPC, in 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for Chinas unification. The Sun-Joffe Manifesto was a declaration of cooperation among the Comintern, KMT, Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front, in 1923, Sun Yat-sen sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants from his Tongmeng Hui days, for several months of military and political study in Moscow. By 1924 Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy, the Soviets provided the academy with much educational material, organization and equipment, including munitions. They also provided education in many of the techniques for mass mobilization, with this aid, Sun Yat-sen was able to raise a dedicated army of the party, with which he hoped to defeat the warlords militarily. CPC members were present in the academy, and many of them became instructors, including Zhou Enlai. Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis, the CPC itself was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. The KMT in 1923 had 50,000 members, however, after Sun died, the KMT split into left- and right-wing movements. KMT members worried that the Soviets were trying to destroy the KMT from inside using the CPC, the CPC then began movements in opposition of the Northern Expedition, passing a resolution against it at a party meetingChinese Civil War – Clockwise from the top: Communist troops at the Battle of Siping, Muslim soldiers of the NRA, Mao Zedong in the 1930s, Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers, CCP general Su Yu investigating the front field shortly before the Menglianggu Campaign
38. Malayan Emergency – Malayan Emergency was the colonial governments term for the conflict. The MNLA termed it the Anti-British National Liberation War, the rubber plantations and tin-mining industries had pushed for the use of the term emergency since their losses would not have been covered by Lloyds insurers if it had been termed a war. Despite the communists defeat in 1960, communist leader Chin Peng renewed the insurgency against the Malaysian government in 1967 and he fled to exile in Thailand, where he lived until his death on 16 September 2013. The Malayan economy relied on the export of tin and rubber, when the British took control of the Malayan economy, they imposed taxes on some Malayan goods, affecting their traditional industries. This led to an increase in poverty for the Malayan people, many Chinese people found employment in tin mines or fields responsible for the trade of materials. This heightened inter-ethnic tensions as the Malay people found that ethnic Chinese had replaced them in certain jobs and this forced many Malays into the rubber industry, which in turn was heavily dependent upon volatile world prices. Economic tension intensified during the Second World War. The Japanese occupation of Malaya began in 1941 and from that point onwards the “export of primary products was limited to the small amounts required for the Japanese economy. ”This led to large areas of rubber plantations being abandoned. The latter was progressively affected by a shortage of parts for machines. Rice imports, which made up a portion of the Malayan diet, fell rapidly due to limited trade. Many people believed that the British would soon return and ‘save’ them so they did not attempt to learn the skills that would be essential for survival. This then led to famine in Malaya from 1942. The withdrawal of Japan at the end of World War II left the British Malayan economy disrupted, problems included unemployment, low wages, and high levels of food inflation, well above the healthy rate of 2–3%. The Malayan Communist Party began to use the failing economy as a tool of propaganda against the British, the British had not addressed the underlying economic problems that were now worse within Malaya than they had ever been. There was considerable labour unrest and a number of strikes occurred between 1946 and 1948. One example of this was a 24-hour general strike organised by the MCP on 29 January 1946, during this time, the British administration was attempting to organise Malayas economy, as revenue from Malayas tin and rubber industries was important to Britains own post-war recovery. Protesters were dealt with harshly, by measures including arrests and deportations, in turn, protesters became increasingly militant. In 1947, alone, the communists in Malaya organised a further 300 strikes, on 16 June 1948, the first overt act of the war took place when three European plantation managers were killed at Sungai Siput, PerakMalayan Emergency – Australian Avro Lincoln bomber dropping 500lb bombs on communist rebels in the Malayan jungle (c. 1950)
39. Albanian Subversion – The Albanian Subversion is one of the earliest and most notable failures of the Western covert paramilitary operations in the Eastern Bloc. The British SIS and the American CIA launched a joint subversive operation, other anti-communist Albanians and many nationalists worked as agents for Greek, Italian and Yugoslav intelligence services, some supported by the UK and U. S. secret services. A Soviet mole, and, later, other spies tipped off the missions to Moscow, consequently, many of the agents were caught, put on trial, and either shot or condemned to long prison terms at hard labor. The Albanian subversion cost the lives of at least 300 men and these documents are available at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. The reason behind the operation in Albania was that Albania was separated from the Eastern Bloc by Yugoslavia, Albania was also the poorest European nation, and was home to about one million people, many still divided along semi-feudal lines. There were three major groups and two distinct classes, those people who owned land and claimed feudal privileges and those who did not. The landowners, only about 1% of the population, held 95% of the land as well as the principal ruling posts in the countrys central. During World War II, the Albanian society was split into several amorphous groups, however, Albania was in an unenviable position after World War II. Greece hungered for Albanian lands it claimed, while Yugoslavia wanted Albania merged into a Balkan confederation, the Allies recognized neither King Zog nor a republican government-in-exile, nor did they ever raise the question of Albania or its borders at major wartime conferences. Albanian official statistics claim somewhat higher losses, in this post-war chaos of 1949 the allies decided to launch their operation. The plan called for parachute drops of royalists into the Mati region in Central Albania, the region was traditionally known as a bastion of Albanian traditionalism and moreover praised for their loyalty to King Zog, himself an offspring of one of the regional clans. The original plan was that, if Britain could parachute in enough well-trained agents, they could organize a popular revolt. In time, this revolt would spill out a civil war, the project appeared so appealing that the Secret Intelligence Service had no hesitation in putting in into operation. It was run in detail by an agent who had come into SIS and Special Operations Executive. The chief of SIS, Stewart Menzies, was not enthusiastic about the operation but saw it as a way to appease the former SOE “stinks and bangs people. ”In addition. Intelligence officials such as James McCargar and Frank Lindsay, McCargar was assigned to liaise with Philby on joint operational matters. Unbeknownst to the SIS and CIA, though, Philby was a communist, there was no scarcity of anti-communist Albanians and the recruiters promptly found them in the Displaced Persons camps in Greece, Italy, and Turkey. A dozen Albanian emigrés were recruited and taken to Libya to train for a project that would become known as Operation ValuableAlbanian Subversion – Fort Binġemma, where Albanian recruits were trained.
40. Bamboo Curtain – People in Asian Communist nations were said to be behind the Bamboo Curtain. The term was derived from Iron Curtain, a term used widely in Europe from the 1940s to the early 90s to refer to that regions Communist boundaries. The term Bamboo Curtain was only applied to the Korean Demilitarized Zone dividing North and South Korea. Many would-be refugees attempting to flee to capitalist countries were prevented from escaping, occasional relaxations led to several waves of refugees into the then-British crown colony of Hong Kong. It was also an accurate description of the political situation in Asia because of the lack of cohesion within the East Asian Communist Bloc. After the Korean War, North Korea avoided taking sides between the Soviets and China, today, the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea is typically described as the DMZ. Bamboo Curtain is used most often to refer to the enclosed borders, the Bamboo Curtain has since given way to the business model called the bamboo network. Cactus Curtain Ice Curtain Iron Curtain Great Firewall of China, a form of the Bamboo CurtainBamboo Curtain – The Bamboo Curtain in 1959. The Curtain itself is in black. Note that at the time, Laos was allied with the United States, as the Communist Pathet Lao did not take over the country until later. Also, North and South Vietnam had not yet been united. The boundaries of the now-independent former Soviet republics are anachronistically shown.
41. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel. After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. SKorean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
42. McCarthyism – McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. It originated with President Trumans Executive Order 9835 of March 21,1947, McCarthyism soon took on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. The term is now used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators, many people suffered loss of employment or destruction of their careers, some even suffered imprisonment. McCarthyism was a social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate. The historical period that came to be known as the McCarthy era began well before Joseph McCarthys own involvement in it, many factors contributed to McCarthyism, some of them extending back to the years of the First Red Scare, inspired by Communisms emergence as a recognized political force. While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected. That same year, Mao Zedongs Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy American financial support of the opposing Kuomintang, in 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U. S. U. N. and South Korean forces against Communists from North Korea and China. The following year saw several significant developments regarding Soviet Cold War espionage activities. In January 1950, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury, in Great Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested in 1950 on charges of stealing atomic bomb secrets for the Soviets and were executed in 1953, there were also more subtle forces encouraging the rise of McCarthyism. It had long been a practice of conservative politicians to refer to progressive reforms such as child labor laws. This tendency increased in the 1930s in reaction to the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in general, the vaguely defined danger of Communist influence was a more common theme in the rhetoric of anti-Communist politicians than was espionage or any other specific activity. He produced a piece of paper which he claimed contained a list of known Communists working for the State Department and this speech resulted in a flood of press attention to McCarthy and established the path that made him one of the most recognized politicians in the United States. The first recorded use of the term McCarthyism was in a cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block. The cartoon depicted four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant to stand on a platform atop a stack of ten tar buckets. Block later wrote that there was nothing particularly ingenious about the term, if anyone has a prior claim on it, hes welcome to the word and to the junior senator from Wisconsin along with it. I will also throw in a set of dishes and a case of soapMcCarthyism – Herbert Block (aka Herblock) coined the term McCarthyism in this Washington Post cartoon of March 29, 1950.
43. Uprising of 1953 in East Germany – The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953. It turned into an uprising against the German Democratic Republic government the next day. In Germany, the revolt is often called Peoples Uprising in East Germany, in remembrance of it,17 June became a national holiday of West Germany, prevailing until reunification. The uprising in East Berlin was violently suppressed by tanks of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, in spite of the intervention of Soviet troops, the wave of strikes and protests was not easily brought under control. Even after 17 June there were demonstrations in more than 500 towns, in July 1952 the second party conference of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany took place in East Berlin. The party was acting on demands made by Soviet premier Joseph Stalin and this meant for example the division of the five Länder into 14 regions plus East Berlin. This decision was made amid the background of the economic situation in the country. In the course of the militarisation pushed by Soviet authorities, direct and indirect military expenditures rose, together with reparation payments, this totalled over 20% of the budget. Electricity was turned off in factories and public buildings at the onset of every evening. The dramatic increase of emigration in the first half of 1953, already high since the establishment of the GDR, constituted a serious economic, another factor that contributed to an already complicated political situation was the high number of political prisoners in the GDR. Suppression of the illegal organisation Junge Gemeinde, wrongly perceived as the youth organisation of the Evangelical Church. Ecclesiastic recreation centres were closed and taken over by the FDJ, high school students who belonged to a church were often expelled by the school authorities, sometimes even shortly before school graduation. Within this complicated background, the decision to raise the work norms was perceived as a provocation and these changes were coming into force by 30 June 1953, Ulbrichts 60th birthday. The decision was taken on 13–14 May 1953, and the Council of Ministers approved it on 28 May, following Stalins death in March 1953 and the massive increase in emigration the new Soviet government decided to ease the policies Stalin had demanded. On 4 June 1953, the Soviet government, alarmed at reports of unrest, georgy Malenkov warned them that if policy direction were not corrected immediately, there would be a catastrophe. After intense discussion the East German party eased policies and publicly admitted that mistakes had been made, however, according to the historian of East Germany, Manfred Wilke, that admission may have had the unintended effect of inflaming public opinion rather than easing tensions. Their numbers quickly swelled and a strike and protests were called for the next day. Early on 17 June 40,000 protesters had gathered in East Berlin, many protests were held throughout East Germany with at least some work stoppages and protests in virtually all industrial centers and large cities in the countryUprising of 1953 in East Germany – A Soviet IS-2 tank in Leipzig on 17 June 1953
44. Bricker Amendment – The Bricker Amendment is the collective name of a number of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution considered by the United States Senate in the 1950s. Some feared the loss of American sovereignty to these agencies, because of the Soviet Unions role in the spread of international Communism. Senator Bricker was influenced by the ABAs work and first introduced an amendment in 1951. With substantial popular support and the election of a Republican President and Congress in the elections of 1952 and it also limited the presidents power to enter into executive agreements with foreign powers. Three years later the Supreme Court of the United States explicitly ruled in Reid v. Covert that the Bill of Rights cannot be abrogated by agreements with foreign powers. Nevertheless, Senator Brickers ideas still have supporters, and new versions of his amendment have been reintroduced in Congress periodically, the Bricker Amendment controversy grew from the strong vein of non-interventionism, nationalism, and suspicion of foreign influences that has existed from the beginnings of the American republic. Non-interventionism was the response to foreign and domestic developments of a large, responsible. The pre-Revolutionary cry of no taxation without representation, under John Adams, his successor, the United States attempted to avoid the conflict between France and Britain, and passed the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 to control foreign citizens. President James Monroes doctrine announced the primacy of American influence in the Western Hemisphere, in the 20th century, America was initially neutral in World War I and avoided entering the conflict for three years. President Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, won reelection in 1916 with the slogan he kept us out of war, similarly, America long maintained a protectionist trade policy with high tariffs on foreign products, notably the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930. In the 1930s, legislators of both parties opposed American involvement in the conflicts in Asia and Europe. Between 1934 and 1936, Senator Gerald Nye held dramatic hearings attempting to show that America was forced into World War I by an alliance of merchants, bankers. In response, Congress passed, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed, several times after the conclusion of World War I, constitutional amendments were proposed in Congress to require a nationwide referendum on declaring war. Senator Wheeler was even thought to have leaked the United Statess war plan Rainbow 5 only days before the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7,1941, typical of American sentiment was the title of an anti-interventionist book, Why Meddle in Europe. The attack on Pearl Harbor temporarily silenced American non-interventionism, the America First Committee disbanded within days. Holman, a Utah native and Rhodes scholar, was elected president of the American Bar Association in 1947, Holman cautioned the Genocide Convention would subject Americans to the jurisdiction of foreign courts with unfamiliar procedures and without the protections afforded under the Bill of Rights. He said the Conventions language was sweeping and vague and offered a scenario where a white motorist who struck, Holmans critics claimed the language was no more sweeping or vague than the state and Federal statutes that American courts interpreted every day. Eisenhowers Attorney General Herbert Brownell called this scenario outlandish and they feared that, if ratified, the Genocide Convention could be used in conjunction with the Constitutions Necessary and Proper Clause to pass a Federal civil rights lawBricker Amendment – Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the "treaty power" of the United States government
45. Geneva Conference (1954) – The part of the conference on the Korean question ended without adopting any declarations or proposals. On Indochina, the conference produced a set of known as the Geneva Accords. A Conference Final Declaration, issued by the British chairman of the conference, although presented as a consensus view, this document was not accepted by the delegates of either the State of Vietnam or the United States. In addition, three separate ceasefire accords, covering Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, were signed at the conference, the conference was held at the Palace of Nations in Geneva, commencing on April 26,1954. The first agenda item was the Korean question to be followed by Indochina. ”After the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945, nationalist and communist movements in Vietnam fought for independence, resulting in the First Indochina War in 1946. This colonial war between the French Unions Expeditionary Corps and Hồ Chí Minhs Việt Minh guerrillas turned into a Cold War crisis in January 1950, the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ started on March 13,1954, and continued during the Geneva conference. The course of the hung over the conference, as both sides sought a strategic victory that would strengthen their negotiating position. The Chinese delegation proposed an amendment to have a group of “neutral nations” supervise the elections, the U. S. supported the South Korean position, saying that the USSR wanted to turn North Korea into a puppet state. Most allies remained silent and at least one, Britain, thought that the U. S. -South Korean proposal would be deemed unreasonable, the South Korean representative proposed all-Korea elections, to be held according to South Korean constitutional procedures and still under UN-supervision. The Belgian and British delegations said that while they were not going to accept “the Soviet and Chinese proposals, that did not mean a rejection of the ideas they contained. ”In the end, however, the conference participants did not agree on any declaration. While the delegates began to assemble in Geneva from late April, the Viet Minh had achieved their decisive victory over the French Union forces at Dien Bien Phu the previous day. The Western allies did not have a position on what the Conference was to achieve in relation to Indochina. Anthony Eden, leading the British delegation, favored a negotiated settlement to the conflict and its leaders had previously accused the Democratic Truman administration of having lost China when the communists were successful in dominating the country. The Eisenhower administration had considered air strikes in support of the French at Dien Bien Phu, Eisenhower was wary of becoming drawn into another Korea that would be deeply unpopular with the American public. U. S. domestic policy considerations strongly influenced the U. S. position at Geneva, at the time of the Geneva conference, the U. S. did not recognize the Peoples Republic of China. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, a strong anti-Communist, forbade any contact with the Chinese delegation, refusing to shake hands with Zhou Enlai, the State of Vietnam refused to attend the negotiations until Bidault wrote to Bao Dai assuring him that any agreement would not partition Vietnam. Pham Van Dong first proposed a partition of Vietnam on May 25. It appears that the DRV leadership thought the balance of forces was uncomfortably close and were worried about morale problems among their troops, in addition, there was a widespread perception that the Diem government would collapse, leaving the Viet Minh free to take control of the areaGeneva Conference (1954) – The Geneva Conference.
46. First Taiwan Strait Crisis – The PRC seized the Yijiangshan Islands, forcing the ROC to abandon the Tachen Islands. The United States and the ROC Navies joined forces to evacuate ROC military personnel, though the Tachen Islands changed hands during the crisis, American news reports focused almost exclusively on the Kinmen and Matsu islands, which were the sites of frequent artillery duels. Hainan island fell to the Communists in April 1950 and the Choushan islands were evacuated by the Nationalists in May 1950, the islands off the shore of Zhejiang province were seen as a foothold to recover the mainland and housed the reduced provincial government of Chiangs native province. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace, accordingly, I have ordered the 7th Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action, I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air, the 7th Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific. According to the author George H. Kerr, a supporter of Taiwanese independence, in his book Formosa Betrayed and it would be the responsibility of the United Nations if this could not be resolved in near future as designed in the peace treaty. The Nationalist China Government maintained as its goal the recovery of control of mainland China, truman, a member of the Democratic Party, did not run for reelection in the presidential election of 1952, even though he was eligible to do so. This election was won by the Republican Dwight Eisenhower, a World War II general, on February 2,1953, the new President lifted the Seventh Fleets blockade in order to fulfill demands by anticommunists to unleash Chiang Kai-shek on mainland China. In August 1954, the Nationalists placed 58,000 troops on Kinmen and 15,000 troops on Matsu, the ROC began building defensive structures and the PRC began shelling ROC installations on Kinmen. Zhou Enlai, Premier of the Peoples Republic of China responded with a declaration on 11 August 1954 and he dispatched the Peoples Liberation Army to the area, and it began shelling both Kinmen and the Matsu Islands. This renewed Cold War fears of Communist expansion in Asia at a time when the PRC was not recognized by the United States Department of State, joint Chiefs of Staff recommended the use of nuclear weapons against mainland China. Eisenhower, however, resisted pressure to use weapons or involve American troops in the conflict. However, on December 2,1954, the United States and the ROC agreed to the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and this treaty was ratified by the U. S. Senate on February 9,1955. After two failed attempts, the PLA seized the Yijiangshan Islands on January 18,1955, fighting continued in nearby islands off the coast of Zhejiang, as well as around Kinmen and the Matsu Islands in Fujian. In response, the NATO foreign ministers warned at a meeting of the alliance against such action, in late March, U. S. Admiral Robert B. Carney said that Eisenhower is planning to destroy Red Chinas military potential. Others see the case as an example of application of extended deterrence by the United States. In any case, the Red Chinese government stated on April 23,1955, on May 1 the PLA temporarily ceased shelling Kinmen and MatsuFirst Taiwan Strait Crisis – Taiwan Strait
47. Bandung Conference – The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the Earths land surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people. The conference was organised by Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, Ceylon, the conferences stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nation. The conference was an important step toward the Non-Aligned Movement, the conference of Bandung was preceded by the Bogor Conference. This was the seed for the Colombo Plan and Bandung Conference, the 2nd Bogor Conference was held December 28–29,1954. Soekarno, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia, portrayed himself as the leader of group of states. His daughter, Megawati Soekarnoputri has been head of the PDI-P party during both summit anniversaries, and the President of Indonesia Joko Widodo during the 3rd summit is a member of her party, plans for the conference were announced in December 1954. The 2nd Asian-African Conference Summit took place in Jakarta and Bandung, the 2005 conference results in the NAWASILA and the establishment of the NAASP. Of the 106 nations invited to the summit,89 are represented by their heads of state or government or ministers. The 3rd, or 60th Anniversary Conference Summit was held in Bandung and Jakarta from 21–25 April 2015, with the theme Strengthening South-South Cooperation to Promote World Peace, delegates from 109 Asian and African countries,16 observer countries and 25 international organizations participated. Major debate centered around the question of whether Soviet policies in Eastern Europe, a consensus was reached in which colonialism in all of its manifestations was condemned, implicitly censuring the Soviet Union, as well as the West. China played an important role in the conference and strengthened its relations with other Asian nations, zhou also signed an agreement on dual nationality with Indonesian foreign minister Sunario. The US security establishment also feared that the Conference would expand Chinas regional power, the OIR and USIA followed a course of Image Management for the US, using overt and covert propaganda to portray the US as friendly and to warn participants of the Communist menace. The United States, at the urging of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, however, the administration issued a series of statements during the lead-up to the Conference. These suggested that the US would provide aid, and attempted to reframe the issue of colonialism as a threat by China. Representative Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. attended the conference, sponsored by Ebony, Powell spoke at some length in favor of American foreign policy there which assisted the United Statess standing with the Non-Aligned. When Powell returned to the United States, he urged President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Congress to oppose colonialism, African American author Richard Wright attended the conference with funding from the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Wrights essays on the trip appeared in several Congress for Cultural Freedom magazines, several of the artists and intellectuals with whom Wright interacted continued discussing Wrights visit after he left Indonesia. The conference was followed by the Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Conference in Cairo in September and the Belgrade Conference, in later years, conflicts between the nonaligned nations eroded the solidarity expressed at BandungBandung Conference – A snapshot during the first Conference in 1955
48. Hungarian Revolution of 1956 – Though leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building, calling out on the using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the building to try to broadcast the students demands, was detained. When the delegations release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police from within the building, one student died and was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd. This was the start of the revolution, as the news spread, disorder and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary and the government collapsed, thousands organised into militias, battling the ÁVH and Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned and former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working Peoples Party, a new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had almost stopped and a sense of normality began to return, after announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country, the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition, public discussion about this revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense study, at the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989,23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Romania, in 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army was able to back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began negotiations with the Allies. These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up its own pro-Axis regime, both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1945. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán TildyHungarian Revolution of 1956 – A destroyed Soviet T34-85 in Budapest, 1956. The turret is lying behind the hull.
49. Suez Crisis – The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression and the Kadesh Operation or Sinai War, was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal, after the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated Great Britain and France and strengthened Nasser, on October 29, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored, on November 5, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. The Egyptian forces were defeated, but they did block the canal to all shipping and it later became clear that the Israeli invasion and the subsequent Anglo-French attack had been planned beforehand by the three countries. The three allies had attained a number of their objectives, but the Canal was now useless and heavy political pressure from the United States. U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade, historians conclude the crisis signified the end of Great Britains role as one of the worlds major powers. The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957, Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, after ten years of work financed by the French, the canal instantly became strategically important, as it provided the shortest ocean link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. The canal eased commerce for trading nations and particularly helped European colonial powers to gain, in 1875, as a result of debt and financial crisis, the Egyptian ruler was forced to sell his shares in the canal operating company to the British government of Benjamin Disraeli. They were willing buyers and obtained a 44 percent share in the operations for less than £4 million. With the 1882 invasion and occupation of Egypt, the United Kingdom took de facto control of the country as well as the canal proper, the 1888 Convention of Constantinople declared the canal a neutral zone under British protection. In ratifying it, the Ottoman Empire agreed to international shipping to pass freely through the canal, in time of war. The Convention came into force in 1904, the year as the Entente cordiale between Britain and France. Following the Japanese surprise attack on the Russian Pacific Fleet based at Port Arthur, the British denied the Russian fleet use of the canal and forced it to steam around Africa, giving the Japanese forces time to consolidate their position in East Asia. The importance of the canal as an intersection was again apparent during the First World War. The attempt by German and Ottoman forces to storm the canal in February 1915 led the British to commit 100,000 troops to the defense of Egypt for the rest of the war. The canal continued to be strategically important after the Second World War as a conduit for the shipment of oil, petroleum business historian Daniel Yergin wrote of the period, In 1948, the canal abruptly lost its traditional rationaleSuez Crisis – Damaged Egyptian equipment
50. We will bury you – We Will Bury You is a comic book miniseries written by brother-sister team Brea Grant and Zane Grant. The first issue was published in the United States on February 24,2010, the fourth and final issue was published in June 2010. We Will Bury You is a story of two lovers, Miyah and Fanya, set in a zombie-ridden alternate version of the 1920s. Unlike many zombie stories, We Will Bury You does not focus on the main characters’ struggle to survive when besieged by a horde of zombies, instead, the story concentrates on the lovers relationship and their travels as the roles of women in society changeWe will bury you – WWBY Issue 3 cover. By Trevor Hutchison