Imperial Free City of Trieste
Trieste was part of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, of the German Confederation and the Austrian Littoral. The city administration and economy were dominated by the citys Italian population element, in the 19th and early 20th century, the city attracted the immigration of workers from the citys hinterlands, many of whom were speakers of Slovene. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Trieste was a Byzantine military outpost, in 567 AD the city was destroyed by the Lombards, in the course of their invasion of northern Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop, from 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century. After two centuries of war, Trieste came with the signing of a treaty on 30 October 1370 in front of St. Bartholomews Church in the village of Šiška under the Republic of Venice. The Venetians retained the town until 1378, when it became the property of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
Discontent with the rule, the main citizens of Trieste in 1382 petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains. This united Charlemagnes southern marches under Habsburg rule, subsequently consolidated as the Austrian Littoral, the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over a year later, when conflict resumed. Austro-Venetian rivalry over the Adriatic weakened each states efforts to repel the Ottoman Empires expansion into the Balkans, on the Habsburgs annexation, Trieste had a patriciate, a bishop and his chapter, two municipal chapters totalling 200 people, armed forces and institutions of higher education. Trieste became an important port and trade hub, from June 1734, Charles VI began assembling a navy in the city. In 1768, the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797,1805 and in 1809. The restoration of Istria to the Austrian Empire was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna, following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the free imperial city of Trieste, a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
By 1913, Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons, the Austrian monarch Franz Josef I gently rejected this idea. The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Triestes shipbuilding facilities for construction and as a base, the importance of Trieste as a trading and shipbuilding city to the Empire is testified by the expenditure made. The construction of Porto Nuovo cost 29 million crowns over 15 years, up until 1914, over 14 million crowns of subsidies were paid to Austrian shipping companies using Trieste. The city was the port of the Austrian Riviera. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day. Together with Trento, Trieste was a focus of the irredentist movement
Margraviate of Moravia
The Margraviate of Moravia or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet and it was variously a de facto independent state, and subject to the Duchy, the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic, the Margraviate lay east of Bohemia proper, with an area about half that region’s size. In the north, the Sudeten Mountains, which extend to the Moravian Gate, formed the border with the Polish Duchy of Silesia, in the east and southeast, the western Carpathian Mountains separated it from present-day Slovakia. In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria, usually considered a Czech people that speak Moravian dialects, made up the main part of the population. According to a 1910 Cisleithanian census,27. 6% identified themselves as German Moravians and these ethnic Germans would be expelled after the Second World War.
Other ethnic minority groups included Poles and Slovaks, King Otto I of Germany officially granted it to Duke Boleslaus I in turn for his support against the Hungarian forces in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. As heir apparent, the future King Ottokar II of Bohemia was appointed Moravian margave by his father Wenceslaus I in 1247, along with Bohemia, Moravia was ruled by the House of Luxembourg from the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty until 1437. Jobst, nephew of Emperor Charles IV inherited the Margraviate in 1375, shaken by the Hussite Wars, the Moravian nobles remained loyal supporters of the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund. The rivalry with King Vladislaus II was settled in the 1479 Peace of Olomouc, whereby Matthias renounced the royal title but retained the rule over the Moravian lands. With the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, the Margraviate was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy upon the death of King Louis II in the 1526 Battle of Mohács, Moravia was ruled as a crown land within the Austrian Empire from 1804 and within Cisleithanian Austria from 1867.
During the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, the Margraviate was transformed into “Moravia Land” and this autonomy was eliminated in 1949 by the communist government and has not been re-established since. The Margrave held ultimate authority in Moravia, throughout the history of the Margraviate and this meant that as its Margraves became more foreign, so too did governance of the Margraviate. Moravia possessed a legislature, known as the Moravian Diet, the assembly has its origins in 1288, with the Colloquium generale, or curia generalis. This was a meeting of the nobility, the Bishop of Olomouc, abbots. These meetings gradually evolved into the diet, the power of this diet waxed and waned throughout history. By the end of the Margraviate, the diet was almost powerless, the diet consisted of three estates of the realm, the estate of upper nobility, the estate of the lower nobility, and the estate of prelates and burghers. With the February Patent of 1861, the diet was reformed into a more egalitarian body and it still retained the same structure, but the members changed
Not to be confused with the Duchy of Silesia. Austrian Silesia, officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, was a region of the Kingdom of Bohemia. It is largely coterminous with the region of Czech Silesia. Austrian Silesia consisted of two territories, separated by the Moravian land strip of Moravská Ostrava between the Ostravice and Oder rivers, in the west the Golden Mountains formed the border with the County of Kladsko. The area originally formed the part of the Medieval Duchy of Silesia. During the 14th century most Dukes of Silesia had declared themselves Bohemian vassals and his campaign was concluded in 1742 with the Prussian victory at the Battle of Chotusitz leading to the treaties of Breslau and Berlin, in which Silesia was divided. The southern part of the Lower Silesian Duchy of Nysa around Jeseník forming the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, the Nysa territory was held by the Bishops of Wrocław with their residence at Castle Jánský vrch. When in 1804 the Habsurg emperor Francis II established the Austrian Empire, Austrian Silesia was connected by rail with the Austrian capital Vienna, when the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway line was extended to Bohumín station in 1847.
In the course of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia became a land of Cisleithanian Austria. Smaller parts of the duchy became a part of Poland. In eastern Teschen, the autonomous Duchy of Bielsko was established in 1754, for example, in 1900, there were 8 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Austrian Silesia
Duchy of Bukovina
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is used in poetry. In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor is sometimes used, in English, an alternative form is The Bukovina, increasingly an archaism, however, is found in older literature. After the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Bukovina lands since the 14th century had been part of the Principality of Moldavia, in the 16th century, Moldavia came under Ottoman influence, but still retaining its autonomy. During the early 18th century, Moldavia became the target of the Russian Empires southwards expansion, in 1769, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, Moldavia was occupied by Russian troops. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Habsburg Monarchy had aimed at a connection from the Principality of Transylvania to the newly acquired Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.
On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka and Ottomans signed a convention, Austria giving back 59 of the previously occupied villages. For opposing and protesting the annexation of the part of Moldavia by the Habsburg Empire. So far, the Moldavian nobility had traditionally formed the class in that territory. In the mid 19th century the town of Sadhora became the centre of the Hasidic Sadigura dynasty, the immigration process promoted the further economic development of the multi-ethnic country, though it remained a remote eastern outpost of the Danube Monarchy. In 1804, the became part of the newly established Austrian Empire. After the political turmoil of the 1848 revolutions, the estates urged the Vienna government to elevate the Bukovina to a separate Austrian Kronland. With effect of 4 March 1849, the former Kreis was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina and it was governed by a k. k. Statthalter appointed by the emperor, with his residence at Czernowitz from 1850. In 1860 the Bukovina was again amalgamated with Galicia, but reinstated as a province once again according to the 1861 February Patent issued by Emperor Franz Joseph I.
The reinstated crown land received its own Landtag diet including a Landesausschuss executive authority, in 1867, with the re-organisation of the Austrian Empire as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it became part of the Cisleithanian territories. Nine delegates represented the Bukovina in the Austrian House of Deputies, the main military force in the region during peace time was the 22nd Infantry Regiment at Czernowitz, at that time the only k. k. Landwehr regiment with a Romanian majority, as soon as hostilities began, new units were formed from the locally-recruited population
Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar
It was a separate crown land named after two former provinces, Serbian Vojvodina and Banat of Temes. Its former area is now divided between Serbia and Hungary, the Voivodeship gave its name to the present Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. In contemporary German, the duchy was known as Woiwodschaft Serbien und das Temescher Banates or Woiwodschaft Serbien und das Temeser Banat. In contemporary Serbian it was known as Vojvodina Srbska i Tamiški Banat, in Hungarian it was known as Szerb Vajdaság és Temesi Bánság, and in Romanian as Voivodina Sârbească și Banatul Timișan. Also in modern English use, the term Temes Banat or Banat of Temes is sometimes replaced with term Banat of Temeschwar or Temeschwar Banat. In the original name in all languages, there is no mention of the city of Temeschwar in the title of Voivodeship. As shown above, the reference to the Temes region is always used, the Voivodeship was formed by a decision of the Austrian emperor in November 1849, after the Revolutions of 1848/1849.
It was formed in accordance with privilege given to Serbs by the Habsburg emperor in 1691 and it consisted of the regions of Banat, Bačka and northern Syrmian municipalities of Ilok and Ruma. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of Voivode belonged to the emperor himself, the full title of the emperor was Grand Voivod of the Voivodeship of Serbia. Even after the Voivodeship was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, unlike Banat and Bačka, in 1860 Syrmia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Slavonia, another separate Habsburg crown land. The two official languages of the Voivodeship were German and Illyrian. According to another source, in 1850/1851, the population of the voivodeship numbered 1,426,221 inhabitants, ferdinand Mayerhofer, Johann Coronini-Cronberg, Josip Šokčević, Karl Bigot de Saint-Quentin, Vojvodina Serbian Vojvodina May Assembly History of Serbia Dušan J. Popović. Srpska Vojvodina i njene manjine, demografsko-etnografska studija, srpska Vojvodina u Habsburškoj Monarhiji 1690-1920.
Iz prošlosti Srema, Bačke i Banata, bahovo doba - Vojvodstvo Srbija i Tamiški Banat
Duchy of Salzburg
The Duchy of Salzburg was a Cisleithanian Kronland of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary from 1849–1918. Its capital was Salzburg, while other towns in the duchy included Zell am See, the Archbishopric of Salzburg was secularized in 1803 as the Electorate of Salzburg, but the short-lived principality was annexed by the Austrian Empire in 1805. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Salzburg territory was administered from Linz as the department of Salzach within the Archduchy of Upper Austria, by the Treaty of Schönbrunn of 1809, Salzburg became French and was released in 1810 to the Kingdom of Bavaria, where it formed the Salzachkreis. After the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas, the Salzburg territory was separated from Upper Austria and became a new Kronland and it became part of Austria-Hungary in 1867. With the fall of the House of Habsburg in 1918, the duchy was succeeded by the state of Salzburg, part of first German Austria and the First Austrian Republic
The Military Frontier was a province straddling the southern borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire, when created in the 16th century by Ferdinand I, the region was divided into two districts under special military administration, the Croatian Military Frontier and the Slavonian Military Frontier. Initially, the Military Frontier came under the jurisdiction of the Croatian Sabor and ban but, in 1627, for more than two centuries, they would retain complete civilian and military authority over the area, up to the abolition of the Military Frontier in 1881. During the 17th century, the territory was expanded towards the East, by then, it stretched from Croatia proper in the west to eastern Transylvania in the east and included parts of present-day Croatia, Serbia and Hungary. During, this period, the system was changed. The inhabitants of the area were known as the Grenzer, or Frontiersmen and they were colonists, mostly ethnic Serbians and Germans, who undertook to defend the Monarchy in return for their land-grants.
Germans had been recruited by Hungary in the late 18th century to resettle and develop the Danube River Valley, the military regiments formed by the settlers had a vested reason to stand and fight and were familiar with local terrain and conditions. They soon gained a military reputation. Much of the old Croatian territory either became Ottoman land or bordered the new Ottoman domain, in 1435, in an attempt to strengthen the defences against the Ottomans and Venice, King Sigismund founded the so-called tabor, a military encampment, each in Croatia and Usora. In 1463 King Matthias Corvinus founded the banovina of Jajce and Srebrenik, all these actions aimed to improve defence, but ultimately proved unsuccessful. But, they did lead to development of the Croatian Pandur infantry, soon the Habsburg Empire founded another captaincy in Bihać. In the short term, all this was ineffective, as in 1529 the Ottomans swept through the area, captured Buda and besieged Vienna, the nobility of Styria financed the Upper Slavonian Frontier while the others financed the Croatian Frontier.
By the end of the 16th century, the Croatian Military Frontier became known as the Karlovac generalat, despite the financial support of the Inner Austrian nobility, the financing of the Military Frontier was not efficient enough. The military leadership in Graz decided to try solutions other than mercenary units, in the 1630s the Imperial Court decided to give land and certain privileges to immigrants into the Frontier at the area of Žumberak. In return they would serve in the Imperial army, the remaining local population was encouraged to remain by receiving the status of free peasants and other privileges. These new units were organized into ten or more voivodeships per each captaincy, in 1627, the Military Frontier was removed from the control of the Croatian Sabor and put under direct rule of the Habsburg military. It would have complete civilian and military authority over it until abolition of the Military Frontiers, by creating the new military class in the Frontier, the territory of the Frontier eventually became fully detached from the Croatian Parliament and the ban.
The Territory of the Frontier had a large Serb population, who fled from their south-eastern lands, as freedom of faith was granted to them, they preserved their Orthodox faith in spite of their living in a Catholic country
Kingdom of Slavonia
The Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868. The province included parts of present-day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia. The southern parts of regions were part of the Slavonian Military Frontier. The Kingdom of Slavonia was bounded by the Kingdom of Croatia to the west, the Kingdom of Hungary to the north and the east, together with the Slavonian Military Frontier it had about 6600 sq. miles. It was divided into the three counties of Požega and Syrmia, besides a chain of mountains in the middle of the province, the remaining part of Slavonian Kingdom consisted of fertile eminences planted with vines and fruit trees and extensive plains. The Kingdom of Slavonia was formed from territories that Habsburg Monarchy gained from Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Karlowitz, initially, it was a separate Habsburg land under joint civil-military administration that lasted from 1699 to 1745. The inhabitants were exempted from taxes, but were bound to military service, after the end of the Great Turkish War, Slavonia was left desolated as around 80% of its pre-war population fled.
In order to improve its demographics, people fled from Slavonia. Settlers from Bosnia started migrating to Slavonia, fleeing from the Ottomans, in 1691 around 22,300 Catholics from Bosnian Posavina moved to Slavonia. It is estimated that around 40,000 people lived in Slavonia in 1696, in 1698 its population increased to 80,000. The 1802 Austrian population data for the Kingdom of Slavonia recorded 148,000 Catholics,135,000 Orthodox and 3,500 Protestants, only men were counted in that census. There were,74,671 Roman Catholics,68,390 Orthodox Christians,1,744 Calvinists,97 Lutherans and 160 Jews, number of Orthodox Christians was higher in Syrmia,32,090 Orthodox Christians and 12,633 Roman Catholics. In other two counties of Slavonia, Požega and Virovitica, as in city of Požega, Roman Catholics outnumbered Orthodox population and the breeding of cattle were the most profitable occupations of the inhabitants. It produced corn of all kinds, flax, the quantity of wine produced was large, especially in the county of Srijem.
In 1857 industrial employment was highest in the County of Osijek, Kingdom of Croatia Sanjak of Požega Slavonian Military Frontier Kingdom of Dalmatia Timeline of Croatian history
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two urban centers and Gradisca dIsonzo. The province stretched along the Soča/Isonzo River, from its source at Mt. Jalovec in the Julian Alps down to the Gulf of Trieste near Monfalcone. In the northwest, the Predil Pass led to the Duchy of Carinthia, in the northeast Mts. Mangart, Razor, in the south the province bordered on the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and the Margraviate of Istria. The medieval County of Görz had been acquired by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1500, Habsburg suzerainty was interrupted briefly by the Venetians in 1508/09, before Görz was finally incorporated into the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1647 Emperor Ferdinand III elevated the Görz town of Gradisca to a county for the descendants of privy councillor Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg.
After the princely House of Eggenberg had become extinct, Gradisca was re-unified with Gorizia in 1754, creating the County of Gorizia, during the Napoleonic Wars and Gradisca fell under French rule. In 1805, all of its territories on the bank of the Isonzo river were assigned to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. The majority of its territory remained part of the Austrian Empire until 1809, in 1813, Austrian rule was restored. The county was established again in its borders, including the enclaves of Monfalcone and Grado. Already in 1816, the county was included in an administrative unit, called Kingdom of Illyria. In 1849, the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved, and the Austrian Littoral was formed, comprising the County of Gorizia and Gradisca and Istria. In 1861, the territory of the County gained autonomy as the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, in 1915, Italy entered in war against Austria-Hungary. The western part of the county was devastated by the Battles of the Isonzo, in August 1916, Gorizia was occupied by Italian troops for the first time in its history, but in November 1917 the Austro-Hungarian Army threw the Italian forces back in the Battle of Caporetto.
Large numbers of population were interned in camps around the Austria-Hungary and Italy. In Spring 1918, two political movements emerged in the county, demanding larger autonomy within a federalized Habsburg Monarchy. The two movements did not clash, since they did not contend the same territories, the only open issue was the town of Gorizia, claimed by both the Slovenes and the Friulians. An underground movement, known as Italia irredenta, demanded the unification of Gorizia with Italy, with the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in late October 1918, a short interim period followed, in which no movement was able to establish its authority