Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Ferrari Dino engine
The Ferrari Dino engine is a line of mechanically similar V6 and V8 engines produced by Ferrari for the past 40 years Alfredo Dino Ferrari, was the son of Enzo Ferrari. Dino suggested to Enzo Ferrari the development of a V6 engine for F2 at the end of 1955, soon afterwards, Alfredo fell ill, suffering from muscular dystrophy. While in hospital, he discussed technical details with the engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino would never see the engine, he died on June 30,1956 at the age of 24. The Dino V6 was Ferraris first V6 engine, the Dino V8 engine was introduced later. The V8 engines all used a crankshaft configuration. The production Dino V6 began as a discussion between Vittorio Jano and Enzo and Dino Ferrari about the ideal 1.5 L engine for use in the 1958 Formula Two auto racing series. Jano, formerly of Alfa Romeo and Lancia, pressed for a conventional 60° V6 but the Ferraris were open-minded. Janos 60° design incorporated some of his ideas from the Lancia Aurelia, and were used in a number of Formula One, Formula Two, appearing in 1958, it used a 77x71 mm bore and stroke for 1984 cc and produced 200 hp in the 196 S.
Two larger versions were produced, the 245 hp 2497 cc 246 S and 296 hp 2962 cc 296 S. These engines continued in the 1962196 SP and 286 SP, the latter had a 90 mm bore and 75 mm stroke for 2863 cc and 260 hp. This engine was so small that very little room was available for smooth intake tracts, the Ferraris were convinced that a freer-flowing intake could result in more power, so a new design was called for. Ferrari designers began work on the first Dino V6 engine in 1956 and this engine was installed in the Ferrari 156 F2 car and was first raced in the Grand Prix of Naples in April 1957, where it finished in third place behind two Lancia-Ferrari V8 Formula One cars. The result of the creativity was the worlds only 65° V6 engine. The extra 5° between cylinder banks gave Ferrari the straight intakes he wanted, as this engine was not a true V6 but had a separate crank pin for every connecting rod, the crank pins were offset by 55 degrees within every pair of cylinders. This ensured an even firing order for the engine as well as an even distance between firing pulses per cylinder bank.
Thus the engine was as smoothly running as a conventional 60 degree V6, although the Dino V6 was discontinued with the introduction of the V8, the 65° design continues to this day, It reappeared on Ferraris 1992456 V12. The 85x71 mm 2417 cc engine used in the 246 S/I produced 280 hp with dual overhead camshafts pushing two valves per cylinder, the mid-engined 1961246 SP used this same engine, as did the 156 F1. The 65° Dino V6 quickly replaced the 60° unit in racing, Ferrari needed to have the engine in 500 production vehicles to homologate it for racing use
A sports prototype, sometimes referred to as simply a prototype, is a type of race car that is used in the highest level categories of sports car racing. These purpose-built racing cars, unlike street-legal and production-based racing cars, are not intended for purchase or production beyond that required to compete. Prototype racing cars have competed in car racing since before World War II. In historic racing, they are called sports racing cars. Sometimes, they are referred to as Le Mans cars. Since the 1960s, various championships have allowed prototypes to compete, most championships have had their own set of rules for their prototype classes. Listed here are some of the commonly known types of prototypes. Group 7 Group 6 Group C Grand Touring Prototype Le Mans Prototype Le Mans Prototype Challenge Daytona Prototype Sports 2000
Berlinetta is an especially sporty form of coupé. Typically a two-seater, the type may include 2+2s, the original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have used the Berlinetta label. In North America, Chevrolet produced a version of the Chevrolet Camaro called the Berlinetta, the model offered European styling touches to emphasize the interior rather than the performance of the car, which had long been the main selling point of the Camaro
The Dino 308 GT4 and 208 GT4 were mid-engined V8 2+2 cars built by Ferrari. The Dino 308 GT4 was introduced in 1973 and supplemented by the 208 GT4 in 1975, the cars were sold with Dino badging until May 1976, when they received Ferrari badging. The GT4 was replaced by the Mondial 8 in 1980 after a run of 2,826 308s and 840 208s. Pininfarina was upset by the decision to give cross-town rival Bertone the design, the styling featured angular lines entirely different from its curvaceous 2-seater brother, the Dino 246, and was controversial at the time. Some journalists compared it to the Bertone-designed Lancia Stratos and Lamborghini Urraco, from the cockpit the driver sees only the road. It has perfect 360 degree visibility, no spots and comfortable seating position, a real trunk, a back seat for soft luggage. Enzo Ferrari himself took a role in its design, even having a mock-up made where he could sit in the car to test different steering, pedals. The chassis was a tubular spaceframe based on the Dino 246, the suspension was fully independent, with double wishbones, anti-roll bars, coaxial telescopic shock absorbers and coil springs on both axles.
Niki Lauda helped set up the chassis, the 3.0 L V8 was mounted transversally integrally joined with the 5-speed transaxle gearbox. The engine had an alloy block and heads, 16-valves and dual overhead camshafts driven by toothed belts. The induction system used four Weber 40 DCNF carburetors, the Dino 308 GT4 was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in November 1973. The 308 GT4 finally gained the Prancing Horse badge in May 1976, which replaced the Dino badges on the hood, rear panel and this has caused major confusion over the years by owners and judges. During the energy crisis at that time many prospective owners were hesitant to buy such an expensive automobile not badged Ferrari being confused at the significance of the Dino name. Dino was Enzo Ferraris son who died in 1956, and his name was to honor his memory on the models it was placed. In an effort to improve sales until the 1976 official re-badging, Ferrari sent out factory update #265/1 on July 1,1975 with technical, some of these revisions were implemented piecemeal by dealers.
Some made all the revisions while some just made a few and this leaves many 1975 GT4s with a variety of modifications which are hard to document as correct to aficionados who may not understand the complicated series of events surrounding this model year. Some of the revisions included adding Prancing Horse badges, repainting in the Boxer two-tone scheme, air conditioning fixes and it included bumper modification and exhaust changes for North American versions. The GT4 was the only 2+2 Ferrari ever raced with factory support, there were two series of GT4, the earlier cars featured a twin distributor engine and foglamps mounted in the front valance
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, shorter than the inline 4, because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an engine where an inline 4 is standard. Modern V6 engines commonly range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon. This firm became something of a V-engine specialist, beginning with V2 engines, V4s, V6s, V8s, and, in the 1930s, Marmon was one of the few automakers of the world to offer a V16-powered automobile. From 1908 to 1913 the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced benzene electric train sets used a V6 as generator engine.
Another V6-powered car was designed in 1918 by Leo Goosen for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr, only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918, it was long used by the Marr family. The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model, Lancia sought a smoother and more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. A Lancia engineer, Francesco De Virgilio, began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943 and he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion, because the V6 was a virtually unknown engine type in the 1950s and his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed, the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. To save design time and expense, it was much like a V8 that had two cylinders chopped off. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967, later, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement a version of this engine in which cylinders fired consistently every 120°. The V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. This causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine and this results in an engine which is short and relatively smooth, but too wide for most engine compartments
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
A roadster, sometimes referred to as a spider or spyder, is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a car with no weather protection. The roadster is a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500 and this type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars. In the nineteenth century, the word denoted a horse suitable for traveling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as and it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck. Additional seating in the deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. The main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car, Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, by the 1920s they were appointed similarly to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, and side curtains.
When roadsters of this era were equipped with seats, the seats folded into the body when not in use. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles, the term roadster as applied to automobiles is American in origin, before World War II, the British equivalent was a two-seat tourer. By the 1970s, the roadster was applied to open two-seat cars of sporting appearance or character. Roadsters had become almost as well-equipped as convertibles, including side windows that retract into the doors, Roadsters of that time included the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB, and Triumph TR4. A roadster is still defined as a car with two seats, with some roadsters having power tops or retractable hardtops. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the older definitions and these include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. The American hot rod is based on pre–World War II roadsters, late run Model Ts and 1932 Fords were the most popular starting points.
The term roadster applies to front-engined AAA/USAC Championship cars, associated with the Indianapolis 500, the roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car. This allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset which is beneficial on oval tracks, one story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a roadster is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a relatively low-cost sports car. The Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976,246 being a 2. 4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3. 0-litre 8-cylinder. The Dino marque was created to market a lower priced, affordable sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911, Ferraris expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both performance and price. Enzo did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, the name Dino honours the founders late son, Alfredo Dino Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used by the marque. Along with famed engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino influenced Enzo Ferraris decision to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s, with V6, history shows that Alfredo Ferrari did not have a hand in the actual design of the V6 motor that made its way into the Dino.
Ferrari wished to race in the new 1.6 L Formula 2 category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine, the company could not meet the homologation rules which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, and it used a 2.0 L version of the Dino V6, allowing Ferrari to compete in the category. At the time, the thought of using a layout in a production car was quite daring. A mid-engined layout placed more of the weight over the driven wheels, and allowed for a streamlined nose. Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, eventually he relented, and allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept for the 1965 Paris Motor Show, but demanded that it wear the Dino badge alone. The 1966 Turin car show featured a refined Dino 206S, the Turin 206S was a closer prototype to the actual production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, the Dino 246 was the first Ferrari model produced in high numbers.
The first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured a body, full independent suspension. 152 were built in total during 1968 and 1969, in left hand drive only, in 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT. The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2.4 L V6 engine, initially available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, and engine ventilation