1. E-book – An electronic book is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as a version of a printed book. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated e-reader devices, however, almost any sophisticated computer device that features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With e-books, users can browse through online, and then when they select and order titles. At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online than were distributed in hardcover, the main reasons that people are buying e-books online are due to possibly lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, and e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages, although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is especially suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied, E-book reading is increasing in the U. S. by 2014, 28% of adults had read an e-book, compared to 23% in 2013. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, E-books are also referred to as ebooks, eBooks, e-Books, e-journals, e-editions or as digital books. The devices that are designed specifically for reading e-books are called e-readers, the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen came to Bob Brown after watching his first talkie. In 1930, he wrote a book on this idea and titled it The Readies, although Brown came up with the idea intellectually in the 1930s, early commercial e-readers did not follow his model. Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or a new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not widely agreed upon and her idea behind the device was to decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school. The first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a heavily annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa beginning in 1949, although originally stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. In 2005, the Index was published online, augment ran on specialized hardware, while FRESS ran on IBM mainframes. All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinking, graphics, and other capabilities, van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term electronic book, and it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts online, as well as for annotation and online discussions in several courses, browns faculty made extensive use of FRESS, for example the philosopher Roderick Chisholm used it to produce several of his books. Thus in the Preface to Person and Object he writes The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval, despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S. Hart as the inventor of the e-bookE-book – Amazon's Kindle Keyboard e-reader displaying an e-book
2. Content delivery network – A content delivery network or content distribution network is a globally distributed network of proxy servers deployed in multiple data centers. The goal of a CDN is to serve content to end-users with high availability, CDNs serve a large fraction of the Internet content today, including web objects, downloadable objects, applications, live streaming media, on-demand streaming media, and social networks. The term CDN means many things to different people and is a term that covers a lot of different types of content delivery services. It’s a complex ecosystem with a lot of both large and small and some CDN vendors cross over into other industries like security and WAN optimization. Content owners such as companies and e-commerce vendors pay CDN operators to deliver their content to their end-users. In turn, a CDN pays ISPs, carriers, and network operators for hosting its servers in their data centers, CDN nodes are usually deployed in multiple locations, often over multiple backbones. Benefits include reducing bandwidth costs, improving page load times, or increasing global availability of content. The number of nodes and servers making up a CDN varies, depending on the architecture, others build a global network and have a small number of geographical PoPs. Requests for content are typically directed to nodes that are optimal in some way. When optimizing for performance, locations that are best for serving content to the user may be chosen, when optimizing for cost, locations that are least expensive may be chosen instead. In an optimal scenario, these two tend to align, as edge servers that are close to the end-user at the edge of the network may have an advantage in performance or cost. Most CDN providers will provide their services over a varying, defined, set of PoPs, depending on the desired, such as United States, International or Global, Asia-Pacific. These sets of PoPs can be called edges, edge nodes or edge networks as they would be the closest edge of CDN assets to the end user, the CDNs Edge Network grows outward from the origin/s through further acquisitions of co-locations facilities, bandwidth, and servers. The Internet was designed according to the end-to-end principle and this principle keeps the core network relatively simple and moves the intelligence as much as possible to the network end-points, the hosts and clients. As a result, the network is specialized, simplified. Content Delivery Networks augment the end-to-end transport network by distributing on it a variety of intelligent applications employing techniques designed to optimize content delivery, the resulting tightly integrated overlay uses web caching, server-load balancing, request routing, and content services. These techniques are described below. Web caches store popular content on servers that have the greatest demand for the content requested and these shared network appliances reduce bandwidth requirements, reduce server load, and improve the client response times for content stored in the cacheContent delivery network – (Left) Single server distribution (Right) CDN scheme of distribution
3. Amazon Kindle – The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. com. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, all Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content and as of January 2017, the store has over five million e-books available in the US. Founder and CEO of Amazon. com Jeff Bezos commanded his deputies in 2004 to build the worlds best e-reader before Amazons competitors could, in reference to this e-reader, Amazon originally used the codename Fiona. The Kindle name was devised by branding consultants Michael Cronan and Karin Hibma, lab126 tasked them to name the product, so Cronan and Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire. They felt this was an apt metaphor for reading and intellectual excitement, Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and the Kindle DX introduced in 2009. The range includes devices with a keyboard, devices with high resolution and contrast screens, a tablet with the Kindle app. Amazon has also introduced Kindle software for use on devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, iOS, BlackBerry, Mac OS X, Android, webOS. Amazon also has a reader to allow users to read. Content for the Kindle can be purchased online and downloaded wirelessly in some countries, through a service called Whispersync, customers can synchronize reading progress, bookmarks, and other information across Kindle hardware and other mobile devices. Amazon released the Kindle, its first e-reader, on November 19,2007 and it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008, the device features a 6 inches 4-level grayscale display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold approximately 200 non-illustrated titles. It also has a speaker and a jack that allows the user to listen to audio files on Kindle. It is the only Kindle with expandable storage, via an SD card slot, the devices Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, and Kindle was the first device to include free US-wide 3G access to download e-books from Amazons Kindle Store. Amazon did not sell the first generation Kindle outside the US, on February 10,2009, Amazon announced the Kindle 2, the second generation Kindle. It became available for purchase on February 23,2009, the Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, and 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazons estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books, unlike the first generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards. It was slimmer than the original Kindle, the Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-1190 nm processor,32 MB main memory,2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery. To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King made UR, his then-new novella, on July 8,2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from $359 to $299Amazon Kindle – Kindle Paperwhite
4. FanFiction.Net – FanFiction. Net is an automated fan fiction archive site. It was founded in 1998 by Los Angeles computer programmer Xing Li, as of 2010, FanFiction. Net is the largest and most popular fan fiction website in the world. It has nearly 2.2 million registered users and hosts stories in over 30 languages, the site is split into nine main categories, Anime/Manga, Books, Cartoons, Miscellaneous, Games, Comics, Movies, Plays/Musicals, and TV Shows. The site also includes the Crossover category, added on March 27,2009, there are centralized communities and forums. In lieu of signing up with a new account, FanFiction. Net allows users to use their Google, Facebook, in 1998, Xing Li, a software designer in Los Angeles, created FanFiction. Net. The site was created as a repository for fan-created stories that revolved around characters from literature, television, comics. Registration was open to all people who claimed to be over 18, at that time, one-third of the registrants self-identified as 18 or younger, and 80% were female. Writers may upload their stories to the site and assign them a category, the ratings are no longer done on the MPAA system, due to cease-and-desist demands from the Motion Picture Association of America in 2005. A list of explanations for the system currently employed is available from the drop-down rating menu in each of the individual archives on the site. The MA rating is not permitted on this site, the site does not pay money to people for posting content or charge money for posting on the website, and it uses advertisements to pay for costs. FanFiction. net does not operate a screening or editorial board, many users leave short reviews after reading stories, most of which are positive. While reviews can be left by those without accounts, it is an option for all writers on the site to moderate anonymous reviews, the stories are based on books, television series, films, and video games. Stories are about recent works and older works, by 2001, almost 100,000 stories were posted on the website. A. S. Berman of USA Today said in 2001 that FanFiction. net reads like the 21st century successor to the poetry slams of the Beat Generation and it is the most popular erotica website for women. In October 2008, the site underwent a redesign of its admin/user area. Changes to how users check hits and reviews, post chapters, as of November 16,2016, the top 20 fandoms on FanFiction. Net are, FanFiction. net is also home to one of the longest works of fiction ever written. FanFiction. Net instituted several changes as it grew in size. These policies frequently led to the deletion of fanfiction based on the works of certain published authors or containing specifically targeted contentFanFiction.Net – Screenshot of homepage on May 27, 2011
5. Google Play Books – Google Play Books is an ebook digital distribution service operated by Google. Users can purchase and download ebooks from Google Play, which offers over five million titles, users may also upload up to 1,000 ebooks in the PDF or EPUB file formats. Google Play Books is available in 75 countries, Google Play Books was launched in December 2010, with a reseller program letting independent booksellers sell Google ebooks on their websites for a cut of sales. It also launched a program in June 2011, allowing website owners to earn a commission by referring sales to the then-named Google eBookstore. However, the program ended in April 2012, with Google stating that it had not gained the traction that we hoped it would. The affiliate program closed for new signups in February 2012, with Google announcing that it would scale down the initiative, making it private and invitation-only. The Google eBookstore was launched on December 6,2010, with more than three titles available, making it the largest ebooks collection in the world. At the time of launch, the service was partnered with 100 independent booksellers and this increased to 250 independent booksellers and 7,000 publishers in May 2011, along with three million free Google eBooks available in the United States, up from two million at launch. The service was codenamed Google Editions, the name under which it was assumed that the service would be launched. Google Books director Dan Clancy had talked about Googles vision to open an ebookstore for in-print books in a back in July 2009. Then-named TechHive reported in October 2009 that the service would be launched in the first half of 2010, the actual launch, however, took place in December. The store was headed by Dan Clancy, who also directed Google Books, Clancy also stressed that Googles ebooks would be readable on any device, indicating the open nature of the platform. It would also make available for bookstores to sell, giving the vast majority of revenues to the store. Having already digitized 12 million physical books at the time, including out-of-print titles, Google offered a far greater selection than Amazon, in June 2011, Google introduced an affiliate program for ebooks, allowing websites to earn commissions by referring sales to the Google eBookstore. Google eBooks became listed on the Google Affiliate Network, in March 2012, Google revamped all of its digital distribution services into a single platform called Google Play, with the Google eBookstore becoming Google Play Books. In April 2012, Google announced that its reseller partner program would be discontinued by the end of January 2013. The website also reported that Google had dropped support for a variety of ebook file formats it used to accept, including DOC, XML, HTML, MOBI and PDB. Website writer Nate Hoffelder noted that this change represented a paradigm shift for GoogleGoogle Play Books – Formats
6. IBooks Store – IBooks is an e-book application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices. It was announced in conjunction with the iPad on January 27,2010, initially, iBooks was not pre-loaded onto iOS devices, but users could install it free of charge from the iTunes App Store. With the release of iOS8, it became an integrated app, on June 10,2013, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Craig Federighi announced that iBooks would also be provided with OS X Mavericks in fall 2013. It primarily receives EPUB content from the iBooks Store, but users can add their own EPUB. Additionally, the files can be downloaded to iBooks through Safari or Apple Mail and it is also capable of displaying e-books that incorporate multimedia. According to product information as of March 2010, iBooks will be able to read the contents of any page using VoiceOver. On January 19,2012 at a special event in New York City, Apple announced the free release of iBooks 2. The iBooks Author Conference, the gathering of digital content creators around Apples iBooks Author, has convened since 2015. A2017 conference has been announced for later this year, with keynote from NASA, iBooks was announced alongside the iPad at a press conference in January 2010. The store itself, however, was released in America three days before the iPad with the introduction of iTunes 9.1 and this was supposedly to prevent too much traffic on Apples servers, as they have been overloaded with previous releases of the iPhone. On the day of its launch, on March 31,2010, on April 8,2010, Apple announced that iBooks would be updated to support the iPhone and iPod Touch with iOS4. As a result, iBooks will not be supported on first-generation iPhones, on June 8,2010 at the WWDC Keynote it was announced that iBooks would be updated that month to read PDF files as well as have the ability to annotate both PDFs and eBooks. As of July 1, Apple expanded iBooks availability to Canada, upon its release for older devices running iOS4, such as the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch, iBooks received criticism for its slow performance. However, a July 19 update from Apple offered several improvements, on September 27,2011, Apple expanded the premium store to the Republic of Ireland. On January 19,2012, Apple announced the release of the iBooks 2 app, allowing users to purchase, the new app will support digital textbooks that can display interactive diagrams, audio and video on the iPad. Apple also released a tool called iBooks Author. The software allows users to create these interactive textbooks themselves, on October 23,2012, Apple announced iBooks 3. On June 10,2013, Apple announced iBooks for OS X MavericksIBooks Store – The iPad displaying an e-book on iBooks.
7. Kindle Direct Publishing – Kindle Direct Publishing is Amazon. coms e-book publishing unit launched in 2007, concurrently with the first Amazon Kindle device. Amazon launched Kindle Direct Publishing to be used by authors and publishers to publish their books directly to Kindle and Kindle Apps worldwide. Authors can upload documents in formats for delivery via Whispernet. These documents may be written in 34 languages, Kindle Direct Publishing was in open beta testing in late 2007 and the platform was promoted to established authors by e-mail and by advertisements at Amazon. com. In a December 5,2009 interview with The New York Times, the remaining 35% is split between the author and publisher. Amazon has the KDP Select publishing option that requires 100 percent exclusivity — e-book publishing under this option cannot be anywhere else. While under KDP Select, an author can offer the free for five days or discount it for up to seven days through a countdown deal. Outside of limited deals, e-books permanently priced below $2.99 only get 35% royalties, all KDP Select books are included in Kindle Unlimited, which is a monthly subscription that allows unlimited reading of e-books. Amazon initially paid authors in its KDP Select program a set fee per book, in July 2015, the company changed its Kindle Select payment structure to a per-page model. Every time an authors e-book is borrowed and pages are read, the author earns a share of a monthly fund, during 2016, Amazon released four million e-books and 40% of those titles were self-published under KDP. In 2014, Amazon released the Kindle Scout platform that allows readers to nominate e-books to be published by Kindle Press, as of November 2016,197 books have been published through this program. Readers nominate works they would like to see published by looking through categories, such as romance, fantasy, science fiction or mystery and picking an excerpt of a work to read. The reader is able to read up to 5,000 words of any e-book listed, nominations can be changed at will. After the books 30-day campaign ends, Kindle Press editors decide within fifteen days whether to give it a contract, readers who nominated the book on the final day of its campaign are given a free copy of the e-book when it is published. Submitted manuscripts must be non-published works of 50,000 or more words, genres accepted are science fiction, fantasy, mystery, and romance. Once a book has been accepted for a campaign on Kindle Scout, a page for the book is created, the author submits his/her work with the title, cover, tag and blurb, plus the entire text of the book. If the book is chosen the author is paid a $1,500 advance, when the book has earned out, Amazon pays royalties monthly. Chosen books are given a professional edit, with the free to accept or reject changesKindle Direct Publishing – Kindle Paperwhite
9. Kobo Inc. – Rakuten Kobo Inc. is a Canadian company which sells e-books, e-readers and tablet computers. It is headquartered in Toronto and is a subsidiary of the Japanese e-commerce conglomerate Rakuten, the name Kobo is an anagram of book. It originated as Shortcovers, a cloud e-reading service launched by the Canadian bookstore chain Indigo Books, in December 2009, Indigo renamed the service Kobo and spun it off into an independent company. Indigo remained the majority owner, with investors including Borders Group, Cheung Kong Holdings, as of March 2010, Indigo Books & Music owned 58% of Kobo Inc. Rakuten acquired the company from these owners in January 2012, on May 23,2016, Waterstones announced it had sold its ebook business to Rakuten Kobo Inc. and as of June 14,2016, users must access their ebooks via Kobos ebook site. Kobo produces several e-readers with e-paper screens, on the cheaper end, its lineup consists of the base model Kobo Touch, the smaller Kobo Mini, and the Kobo Glo, which has an illuminated screen. On the higher end, it includes the Kobo Aura, the Kobo Aura HD, which adds a higher resolution screen, and these e-readers compete with the Amazon Kindle and Barnes & Noble Nook product lines. Kobo also produces the Kobo Arc family of Android tablets, which it introduced in 2012 and it previously sold the Kobo Vox, a 7-inch Android tablet released in 2011. Kobo offers free reading applications for Windows and OS X computers and Android, iOS, BlackBerry, in June 2015, Kobo received a Top Developer badge in the Google Play store. Kobos bookstore was opened in 2010 and it is currently localized for 16 countries and comprises 4 million titles. Content sold on the Kobo Bookstore include eBooks, newspapers, the majority of titles are sold in the open ePub format, albeit with DRM. Several digital book stores have closed down and transferred their users to Kobos bookstore and this includes the defunct Borders eBook Store, as well as the Sony Reader Store. Both have provided tools for users to migrate purchases and information to Kobos offering, on 17 July 2012, Kobo launched a self-publishing platform called Kobo Writing Life. By July 2014,250,000 books written by 30,000 authors have been published through this program, Kobo sells its devices online and through physical retail channels. The company has partnerships with Cheung Kong Holdings, W H Smith, Whitcoulls, FNAC. Kobo also has a program partnering with independent bookstores to sell their devices, according to the EVP of business development, Todd Humphrey, From day 1, we made it our goal and a priority to be international. If we werent international, we were not going to get the scale and we were not going to be able to get the pricing that some of our competitors would get to. In the middle of 2014, Kobo claimed to serve 18 million readers in over 190 countries with over 17,600 online and physical retail channelsKobo Inc. – Formats
10. Lulu (company) – Lulu Press, Inc. is an online print-on-demand, self-publishing and distribution platform. Since its founding in 2002, Lulu has published nearly two million titles by authors in over 225 countries and territories, the companys founder is Red Hat co-founder Bob Young. Lulus CEO is Nigel Lee and its headquarters are in Raleigh, on July 12,2015, Michael Mandiberg completed his art project Print Wikipedia and the 7, 600-volume Wikipedia database has been uploaded to Lulu. com and is available for printout. Lulu. com focuses on print and digital format books. Printed books are available in formats and sizes including paperback, coil bound. Books can be printed, in black-and-white or full-color, in 2009, Lulu. com began publishing and distributing eBooks. Lulu. com also prints and publishes calendars and photobooks, material is submitted in digital form for publication. Authors can then buy copies of their own book and/or make it available for purchase in the Lulu Bookstore, by applying a free ISBN and meeting distribution requirements, books can also be distributed to online retail outlets such as Amazon. com, Barnes & Noble and Apples iBookstore. The author of a title receives an 80% royalty for print books, copyright of works uploaded and distributed via Lulu. com remains with the author. In January 2014, Lulu announced that it had acquired Durham-based sports photography company Replay Photos, Replay Photos sells licensed images of collegiate and professional sports teams as photographic prints, custom framed photos, photos on canvas, and original wall art. In 2014, Lulu launched Lulu Jr. which enables children to become published authors, Lulu Jr. products include My Awesome Book, My Comic Book, IlluStory, and IlluStory Junior. These book-making kits include materials that allow children to create their own books, such as blank story pages, finished stories and artwork can be submitted digitally or mailed to Lulu Jr. to be printed as a hardcover or a softcover book. In November 2014, Lulu announced a partnership with Crayola to produce new book-making kits, in December 2015, Lulu relaunched Picture. com, a site dedicated to the creation of photo books and picture on canvas wall décor. This site is directed towards the consumer who is creating high quality photo-centric products for personal use. The Lulu Blooker Prize was an award for blooks. It was awarded in 2006 and 2007 and sponsored by Lulu. com, an overall prize was awarded, based on the winners of three subsidiary categories, non-fiction, fiction and comics. The Lulu Blooker Prize was open to any blook that had published to date by any publisher. The first competition saw 89 entries from over a dozen countries, a panel of three judges decided the winners, Cory Doctorow, Chair of Judges, Paul Jones, and Robin Roblimo MillerLulu (company) – Lulu Press Inc.
11. OverDrive, Inc. – OverDrive, Inc. is an American digital distributor of eBooks, audiobooks, music, and video titles. The company provides management, digital rights management and download fulfillment services for publishers, libraries, schools. OverDrives catalog includes more than 2 million digital titles from more than 5,000 publishers, the companys global network includes more than 27,000 libraries and schools. OverDrive was founded in 1986 and is located in Cleveland, Ohio, OverDrive was founded in 1986 and initially converted analog media to digital formats, such as interactive diskettes and CD-ROMs. As the Internet became a form of digital media distribution. In 2000, the company opened Content Reserve, an online ebook, in 2015, it was reported that Japans Rakuten was planning to buy out OverDrive for $410 million, with the deal set to close in April 2015. OverDrive CEO Steve Potash will remain in his current position and OverDrive will keep its name while operating under Rakuten USA, OverDrive launched its Digital Library Reserve, a digital download platform for public libraries, in 2002. The eBook distribution service included a download website and access to the Content Reserve collection development portal. In 2004, the platform evolved into a provider of DRM-protected audiobook downloads, by 2005, OverDrive was installing download stations into public libraries and adding music to its library platform. OverDrive added downloadable videos in April 2006, in 2007, the company launched its School Download Library, an eBook service for K–12 schools based on Digital Library Reserve. In March 2008, the announced plans to provide MP3 audiobooks to public libraries as well as retailers. As of October 2013, OverDrive content includes a selection of more than 1.8 million eBooks, audiobooks, and other digital content available in more than 64 languages. OverDrive is globally compatible with most major ereading devices, including Android, BlackBerry, ChromeOS, iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, Kobo, Mac, NOOK, Palm, Sony Reader, and Windows. It is, however, not compatible with the most popular eReader, before entering the library market, OverDrive distributed eBooks to a number of e-tailers. In 2002, OverDrive was selected as the distributor of HarperCollins’ eBooks to the online retail stores. OverDrive launched web stores for Harlequin Enterprises in 2005, in 2008, OverDrive announced that it would provide download services for Borders Books. OverDrive has entered into partnerships with companies including Adobe Systems, Microsoft, Mobipocket. In 2008, Adobe and OverDrive jointly announced that OverDrive would be the co-developer and operator of Adobe ADEPT, in 2012, OverDrive partnered with Nokia to launch Nokia Reading, an eReading app and service for Nokia’s Lumia 900,800,710, and 610 Windows Phone devicesOverDrive, Inc. – OverDrive, Inc.
12. PocketBook International – PocketBook is a multinational company which produces e-book readers based on E Ink technology, as well as multimedia readers and Android-based tablet computers, under the PocketBook brand. The company was founded in 2007 in Kyiv, Ukraine and its headquarters is located at Lugano in Switzerland. PocketBook is the fourth largest global manufacturer of e-readers, the devices are assembled at the Foxconn, Wisky, Yitoa and other factories. As of December 2013, PocketBook claimed it had sold two million e-reader and tablet devices. BookLand – an electronic platform from PocketBook with a goal to sell fiction, educational, BookLand offers more than 1,500,000 titles of electronic content in 17 languages. KidRead – a project which helps to manage the time a child spends on a mobile device and this application was created to get children more involved in reading as well as to monitor and test a childs literary knowledge. The KidRead project consists of the website kidread. com and Android application for multimedia readers, ReadRate – a search-and-recommend service whose main goal is to help users to select books. The ReadRate online platform may help users with information on the most popular books and inform them about book ratings, literary preferences, feedback, Comparison of e-book readers Comparison of tablet computers Tablet computer Official PocketBook International website Official BookLand website Official KidRead website Official ReadRate websitePocketBook International – PocketBook International S.A.
13. Scribd – Scribd /ˈskrɪbd/ is a digital library and e-book and audiobook subscription service that includes one million titles. In addition, Scribd hosts 60 million documents on its publishing platform. Scribds e-book subscription service is available on Android and iOS smartphones and tablets, as well as the Kindle Fire, Nook, Scribd has 80 million users, and has been referred to as the Netflix for books. Scribd began as a site to host and share documents, while at Harvard, Trip Adler was inspired to start Scribd after learning about the lengthy process required to publish academic papers. His father, a doctor at Stanford, was told it would take 18 months to have his research published. Adler wanted to create a way to publish and share written content online. He co-founded Scribd with Jared Friedman and attended the class of Y Combinator in the summer of 2006. There, Scribd received its initial $12,000 in seed funding, Scribd was called the Youtube for documents, allowing anyone to self-publish on the site using its document reader. The document reader turns PDFs, Word documents, and PowerPoints into Web documents that can be shared on any website that allows embeds, in its first year, Scribd grew rapidly to 23.5 million visitors as of November 2008. It also ranked as one of the top 20 social media sites according to Comscore, in June 2009. Scribd launched the Scribd Store, enabling writers to easily upload and sell digital copies of their work online. That same month, the site partnered with Simon & Schuster to sell e-books on Scribd, the deal made digital editions of 5,000 titles available for purchase on Scribd, including books from bestselling authors like Stephen King, Dan Brown, and Mary Higgins Clark. In October 2009, Scribd launched its branded reader for media companies including The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, The Huffington Post, TechCrunch, proQuest began publishing dissertations and theses on Scribd in December 2009. In October 2013, Scribd officially launched its subscription service for e-books. This gave users unlimited access to Scribd’s library of books for a flat monthly fee. The company also announced a partnership with HarperCollins which made the entire backlist of HarperCollins’ catalog available on the subscription service, according to Chantal Restivo-Alessi, chief digital officer at HarperCollins, this marked the first time that the publisher has released such a large portion of its catalog. In March 2014, Scribd announced a deal with Lonely Planet, in May 2014, Scribd further increased its subscription offering with 10,000 titles from Simon & Schuster. These titles included works from such as, Ray Bradbury, Mary Higgins Clark, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Ernest Hemingway, Walter Isaacson, Stephen King, Chuck Klosterman. Scribd added audiobooks to its service in November 2014 and comic books in February 2015Scribd
14. Smashwords – Smashwords, based in Los Gatos, California, is an e-book-distribution platform founded by Mark Coker for independent authors and publishers. The company began operation in 2008. Authors and independent publishers upload their manuscripts as electronic files to the Smashwords service, once published, the books are made available for sale online at a price set by the author or indie publisher. Coker began work on Smashwords in 2005 and officially launched the website in May 2008, within the first seven months of launching, the website published 140 books. Due to initially low profits, Coker switched to a model that offered retailers a 30% commission in exchange for digital shelf space. Smashwords achieved a profit in 2010 and has partnered with Apple, Barnes & Noble, Kobo, Smashwords also uploaded books into KDP, Amazon. coms e-book publishing website, but until February 2014 no longer offered the service, due to a falling out with Amazon. As of February 2014, limited distribution to Amazon via Smashwords resumed, theres no cost, no frills, its a quick way to get your e-book into print, and you can do it in a day. In keeping with this mission, Smashwords applies no editorial screening, the only e-books Coker refuses to distribute are ones that contain plagiarism, illegal content or incitement to racism, homophobia or violence. Smashwords does not use digital rights managementSmashwords – Formats
15. Wattpad – Wattpad is an online storytelling community where users post written works such as articles, stories, fan fiction, and poems, either through the website or the mobile app. The user-generated content is submitted by writers of all levels who are given a chance to write popular works. Users are able to comment and like stories or join groups associated with the website. Around half of the users are US based, other users come from the UK, Canada, Wattpad originated in 2006, as the result of a collaboration between Allen Lau and Ivan Yuen. In February 2007, Wattpad announced the addition of over 17,000 e-books from Project Gutenberg making them available to mobile users, according to a June 2009 Wattpad press release, the mobile application had been downloaded over 5 million times. In March 2009, a version was released. This was followed by the launch on BlackBerry App World in April 2009, Google Android in June 2009, in December 2015, Windows Phone 8.1 and Windows 10 Mobile Version was released. Currently, Wattpad is being used by more than 45 million people, to date, Wattpad has received almost $70M in funding from investors. In 2011, Wattpad announced that it received $3, then in June 2012, Wattpad raised $17. 3M from a group of venture funds led by Khosla Ventures. The latest round of financing happened in April 2014, where Wattpad announced $46M in Series C funding led by OMERS ventures, in December 2011, Toronto-based Wattpad was selected as the hottest Digital Media company in the country at the Canadian Innovation Exchange. In the same year, co-founder and CEO Ivan Yuen was also recognized as a top Canadian entrepreneur at the Impact Infused Awards, in March 2014, Wattpad signed a contract with Pop Fiction, an imprint of Summit Media, to print Filipino Wattpad stories in the Philippines. Other publishers from the Philippines also publish stories from Wattpad, since then, some Wattpad stories have also been adapted into numerous teleseries. Filipino television network TV5, in partnership with Wattpad and Life is Beautiful Publishing Company launched Wattpad Presents, the movie adaptation was produced by ABS-CBNs film production arm, Star Cinema. Liza Soberano and Enrique Gil also starred on the film Just The Way You Are, in February 2015, Wattpad launched a second standalone app called After Dark. The app focuses specifically on the genre and is for readers 17+. The most frequently voted stories appear on the Whats Hot List, according to the profiles visible on the site, many of these authors are teenagers. Wattpad section also has a Featured Story list, which promotes content reviewed and approved by staff, many of these featured stories are written by self-published and professional writers from different genres. Latest updated version of Wattpad help the writers to promote their stories through social media websitesWattpad – Wattpad
16. Wikibooks – Wikibooks is a wiki-based Wikimedia project hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation for the creation of free content textbooks and annotated texts that anyone can edit. In June 2016, Compete. com estimated that Wikibooks had 1,478,812 unique visitors, the wikibooks. org domain was registered on July 19,2003, and launched to host and build free textbooks on subjects such as organic chemistry and physics. In August 2006, Wikiversity became an independent Wikimedia Foundation project, Wikijunior is a subproject of Wikibooks that specializes in books for children. The project consists of both a magazine and a website, and is currently being developed in English, Danish, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Spanish and it is funded by a grant from the Beck Foundation. While some books are original, others began as text copied over from other sources of free content textbooks found on the Internet, all of the sites content is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. The project is working towards completion of textbooks on numerous subjects, cK-12 Foundation Digital library e-book European Library Free High School Science Texts Global Text ibiblio LibriVox, an online digital library of free public domain audiobooks. Open Content Alliance Project Gutenberg Universal library Wikibooks, What is Wikibooks, all Systems Go, The Newly Emerging Infrastructure to Support Free Books. An Interview with Curtis Bonk, A Look at Wikibooks and Wikibookians, English Wikibooks Main Page Wikijunior Main Page Wikibooks multilingual portal Wikibooks Language Editions, list of Wikibooks for various languages ordered by size. Wikibooks page on Meta-Wiki Wikibooks takes on textbook industryWikibooks – Formats
17. Sony Reader – The Sony Reader was a line of e-book readers manufactured by Sony, who invented the first commercial E Ink e-reader with the Sony Librie in 2004. It used an electronic paper display developed by E Ink Corporation, was viewable in direct sunlight, required no power to maintain a static image, and was usable in portrait or landscape orientation. Sony sold e-books for the Reader from the Sony eBook Library in the US, UK, Japan, Germany, Austria, Canada and was reported to be coming to France, Italy and Spain starting in early 2012. The Reader also could display Adobe PDFs, ePub format, RSS newsfeeds, JPEGs, some Readers could play MP3 and unencrypted AAC audio files. Compatibility with Adobe digital rights management protected PDF and ePub files allowed Sony Reader owners to borrow ebooks from lending libraries in many countries. The DRM rules of the Reader allowed any purchased e-book to be read on up to six devices, although the owner could not share purchased eBooks on others devices and accounts, the ability to register five Readers to a single account and share books accordingly was a possible workaround. On August 1,2014, Sony announced that it would not make another consumer e-reader, in late 2014, Sony released the Sony Digital Paper DPTS1 that is only aimed at professional business users that only view PDFs and it has a stylus for making notes. The PRS-500 was made available in the United States in September 2006, on 1 November 2006, Readers went on display and for sale at Borders bookstores throughout the US. Borders had a contract for the Reader until the end of 2006. From April 2007, Sony Reader has been sold in the US by multiple merchants, including Frys Electronics, Costco, Borders, the eBook Store from Sony is only available to US or Canadian residents or to customers who purchased a US-model reader with bundled eBook Store credit. On July 24,2007, Sony announced that the PRS-505 Reader would be available in the UK with a date of September 3,2008. Waterstones is the retail partner and the Reader is available at selected stores such as Argos, Sony Centres and Dixons. On October 2,2008 the PRS-700, with touch screen, on August 5,2009 Sony announced two new readers, the budget PRS-300 Pocket Edition and the more advanced PRS-600 Touch Edition. On August 25,2009 Sony announced the Reader PRS-900 Daily Edition and this features a 7 diagonal screen to compete with the Amazon Kindle DX. Its also the first to feature free 3G wireless through AT&T to access the Sony eBookstore without the need of a computer, the launch of the new models also represented the introduction of the Sony Reader into the Australian and New Zealand markets for the first time. On August 31,2011, Sony announced a new reader replacing all of their previous models, on August 16,2012, Sony announced the PRS-T1 successor, the PRS-T2. On September 4,2013, Sony announced the PRS-T2 successor, unlike previous Sony reader models, the T3 is not sold in the US, and Sony has abandoned the North American market due to competition from Amazon, B&N and Kobo. On February 6,2014, Sony announced that it was closing its North American, Europe, on August 1,2014, Sony announced that it would not release another ereader but would keep selling its remaining stockSony Reader – PRS-T2
18. Oyster (company) – Oyster was a streaming service for digital e-books, available for Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, and NOOK HD/HD+ devices. It was also available on any web browser on a desktop or laptop computer, Oyster held over 1 million books in its library, and as of September 2015, the service was only available in the United States. In September 2015, Google acquired Oyster, no terms were disclosed but speculation put the price at somewhere between $20 million and $30 million. As a part of the acquisition it was reported that the founders would be leading Google Play Books in New York, in conjunction with the acquisition, Oyster shutdown its existing service in early 2016. The company was founded in 2012 by Eric Stromberg, Andrew Brown, and Willem Van Lancker, in October 2012, Oyster received $3 million in seed funding led by Founders Fund, a San Francisco-based venture capital firm founded by Peter Thiel and Ken Howery. On January 14,2014, Oyster announced a $14 million funding round, Oyster launched on September 5,2013, opening paid access, at $9.95 a month, via invitations available on a first-come, first-served basis. The service was the first subscription service to bring on a Big Five publisher in HarperCollins, common early criticisms included limited content and lack of multi-platform support, but its reading experience and design were widely praised. Within ten days, users had read over a million pages, on October 16,2013, Oyster launched support for the iPad. The company also removed invitations as a requirement to join, along with an iOS app redesign, the website additionally allowed for browsing of curated book lists. In June 2014, the company expanded its services to Android and Kindle Fire devices, and in July 2014, in November 2014, Oyster launched its online editorial magazine, The Oyster Review, and its Author Advisory Board. Oysters Author Advisory Board is composed of authors Roxane Gay, Megan Abbott, in March 2015, the company hired Jeannie Mun as its first CFO. Mun was previously the CFO of MediaMath, in September 2015, Oyster announced that it would sunset the existing Oyster service over the next several months and the company was to be acquired by Google. Google and Oyster did not comment but there is speculation that Google plans to enter the market for ebooks. Oyster offers several different reading modes, access to over 1 million titles, users can also take advantage of highlighting and notes features and share their activities with friends using the platform. In June 2015, Oyster added a new feature, called Lumin, the feature adjusts a readers phone or tablets light based on location and time of day, reducing the amount of blue light at night. Studies have shown that the light from smartphones and tablets can interfere with sleep. Oyster offers over 1,000,000 titles from over 1,600 publishers, smashwords, a self-publishing platform, also distributes to Oyster and appears to be the primary publisher of works available on Oyster Unlimited. All of the Big Five publishers offer books for purchase in Oysters ebook store, in January 2014, Oyster brought the entire Harry Potter series to the service through a partnership with J. KOyster (company) – The logo for Oyster, Inc.