Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk
Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk was the sixth child and third daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. She was a sister of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, Edward IV of England and Edmund. She was a sister of Margaret of York, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. Sometime before February 1458, Elizabeth was married to John de la Pole, John was the eldest son of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Chaucer and Maud Burghersh and her father-in-law had served as the principal power behind the throne for Henry VI of England from 1447 to 1450. His three years in this position saw the loss of the English possessions in northern France. Suffolk could not avoid taking the fall for the failure and he had been imprisoned in the Tower of London and had been attainted. Consequently, John had not succeeded to his titles when his father was executed on 2 May 1450 and her older brother Edward IV of England restored his brother-in-law to the title of Duke of Suffolk in 1463.
She remained the Duchess of Suffolk until his death in 1491/1492 and they were settled in Wingfield Suffolk. She survived her husband by almost a decade and she is last mentioned alive in January 1503. She was mentioned being deceased by May 1504 and her death is placed in the sixteen months in between the two reports. With Suffolk, she had the children, John de la Pole. He was designated heir to his maternal uncle Richard III, married to Lady Margaret FitzAlan and had a son, Edward de la Pole, who died young. Rebelled against Henry VII and was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field, married to Henry Lovel, 8th Baron Morley, without issue. Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, yorkist pretender in succession to his brother John. Beheaded by order of Henry VIII, married to William Stourton, 5th Baron Stourton, without issue. Sir William de la Pole, Knight, of Wingfield Castle, William was kept in the Tower of London, his date of death is generally regarded as being during late 1539, either October or November.
Yorkist pretender in succession to Edmund, killed at the Battle of Pavia
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville, born in Shrewsbury. Richard and his brother, who briefly reigned as King Edward V of England. Prince Richard was created Duke of York in May 1474 and made a Knight of the Garter the following year, from this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. He was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 June 1476, in January 1483 Parliament passed an act that gave the Mowbray estates to Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk, for his lifetime, and at his death to his heirs, if he had any. The rights of the two co-heirs at law were extinguished, Viscount Berkeley had financial difficulties and King Edward IV paid off those debts, Berkeley renounced his claims to the Mowbray estate before parliament in 1483. Nothing was done for Lord Howard and his father died on 9 April 1483. Thus his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, became King of England and was acclaimed as such, a priest, now generally believed to have been Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, testified that Edward IV had agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Talbot in 1461.
Lady Eleanor was still alive when Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464, under Gloucesters influence, both Edward and Richard were declared illegitimate and removed from the line of succession on 25 June 1483. The Duke of Gloucester, as the surviving brother of Edward IV. The Duke of York was sent to the Tower of London, a residence, by King Richard III in mid-1483. They were sometimes seen in the garden of the Tower, what happened to the two of them—the Princes in the Tower—after their disappearance remains unknown. Tudor History was quick to blame his uncle, subsequent re-evaluations of Richard III have questioned his guilt, beginning with William Cornwallis early in the 17th century. Bones reportedly belonging to two children were discovered in 1674 by workmen rebuilding a stairway in the Tower, on the orders of King Charles II, these were subsequently placed in Westminster Abbey, in an urn bearing the names of Edward and Richard. The bones were re-examined in 1933 at which time it was discovered the skeletons were incomplete and had been interred with animal bones and it has never been proven that the bones belonged to the princes.
In 1789, workmen carrying out repairs in St Georges Chapel, Windsor and accidentally broke into the vault of Edward IV, adjoining this was another vault, which was found to contain the coffins of two children. This tomb was inscribed with the names of two of Edward IVs children, Duke of Bedford, who had died at the age of 2, and Mary of York who had died at the age of 14. However, the remains of two children were found elsewhere in the chapel, leaving the occupants of the childrens coffins within the tomb unknown. In 1486 Richards sister Elizabeth married Henry VII, thereby uniting the Houses of York, as son of the king, Richard was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent, on the first point a canton gules
Catherine of York
Catherine or Katherine of York was the ninth child and sixth daughter of King Edward IV by his wife Elizabeth Woodville. From birth to death, she was daughter to Edward IV, sister to Edward V, niece to Richard III, sister-in-law to Henry VII and she was born in Eltham Palace. The alliance was still being negotiated when her father died on 9 April 1483 and her brother-in-law Henry VII, husband of her sister Elizabeth, negotiated with James III of Scotland to obtain a possible husband for her. According to an agreement drawn up in November 1487, Catherine would marry James Stewart, Duke of Ross, the same agreement promised the hand of her mother Elizabeth Woodville to James III and the hand of one of her sisters to the future James IV of Scotland. James III was killed in the Battle of Sauchieburn and his son and successor, James IV, never pursued this agreement. By late October 1495, Catherine was already married to William Courtenay and he was the eldest son and heir-apparent of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, and his wife and distant cousin Elizabeth Courtenay.
Her nephew Henry VIII apparently had greater trust for William and created him Earl of Devon on 10 May 1511 and he was Earl for less than a full month. Their son Henry succeeded his father, being created Marquess of Exeter. Catherine was still only 31 years old and would be expected to again, however she took a voluntary vow of chastity in the presence of Richard FitzJames. As a widow, Catherine reportedly went through periods of wealth and adversity but was reportedly favoured by her nephew Henry VIII who brought her into a sure estate. She outlived her husband by sixteen years before she died at Tiverton Castle aged forty-eight and she was the last of Edward IVs children to die. These arms may be seen, exposed to the elements and thus very worn, sculpted above the porch of St Peters Church. Familysearch. org Accessed 26 January 2008 Plantagenet family Accessed 26 January 2008 Possible discovery of Catherines tomb
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York KG, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in offices of state in Ireland and England. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, but within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle. Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV, Anne Mortimer was the great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of King Edward III. On his fathers side, Richard had a claim to the throne in a male line of descent from his grandfather Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. Although the Earls title was forfeited, he was not attainted, Richard had an only sister, Isabel of Cambridge, who became Countess of Essex upon her second marriage in 1426. Within a few months of his fathers death, Richards childless uncle, Edward of Norwich, after some hesitation, King Henry V allowed Richard to inherit his uncles title and the lands of the Duchy of York.
The lesser title but greater estates of the Earldom of March descended to him on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, during his lifetime, Mortimer remained a faithful supporter of the House of Lancaster. The Valor Ecclesiasticus shows that Yorks net income from Mortimer lands alone was £3,430 in the year 1443–44, as he was an orphan, Richards income became the property of, and was managed by, the crown. Ralph Neville had fathered an enormous family and had many daughters needing husbands, as was his right, in 1424 he betrothed the 13-year-old Richard to his daughter Cecily Neville, aged 9. In October 1425, when Ralph Neville died, he bequeathed the wardship of York to his widow, by now the wardship was even more valuable, as Richard had inherited the Mortimer estates on the death of the Earl of March. These manors were concentrated in Wales, and in the Welsh Borders around Ludlow, little is recorded of Richards early life. On 19 May 1426 he was knighted at Leicester by John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, in October 1429 his marriage to Cecily Neville took place.
On 6 November he was present at the coronation of King Henry VI in Westminster Abbey. He followed Henry to France, being present at his coronation as king of France in Notre Dame on 16 December 1431, finally, on 12 May 1432, he came into his inheritance and was granted full control of his estates. In May 1436, a few months after Bedfords death, York was appointed to succeed him as Lieutenant in France. Yorks appointment was one of a number of stop-gap measures after the death of Bedford to try to retain French possessions until the young King Henry VI could assume personal rule, the fall of Paris led to his army being redirected to Normandy. Working with Bedfords captains, York had some success, recapturing Fecamp and holding on to the Pays de Caux, while establishing good order and justice in the Duchy of Normandy
Mary of York
Mary of York was the second daughter of Edward IV of England and his queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. Little is known about the second York princess except that she was born in Windsor Castle, there were reportedly plans to marry her to John, King of Denmark but nothing came of them, John married Christina of Saxony in 1478. In 1480, Mary was named a Lady of the Garter along with her younger sister Cecily of York and their older sister Elizabeth had already been a Lady of the Garter since 1477. Mary died at Greenwich on 23 May 1482, and was buried in St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle and this vault was found to contain the coffins of two mysterious, unidentified children. The coffin of Mary was opened, the girl of fourteen who had died a year before her father. A shock of her pale gold hair had insinuated itself through the chinks of the coffin, the eyes were blue and open. Some of the hair was cut off by Henry Halford, who in turn passed it to Agnes Strickland, with modern scientific testing methods it might be possible to determine who else is buried next to Edward IVs tomb.
Royal consent would be necessary to any royal tomb, so it was felt best to leave the medieval mystery unsolved for at least the next few generations. 3. Vetusta Monumenta, Volume III, page 4, ^ Lysons & Lysons, Magna Britannia,1812 supplement p.471. Also in Brittons Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain,1812 page 45, the move to Edward IVs crypt mentioned in Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain 1831. ^ Art Ramirez, A Medieval Mystery, Ricardian Bulletin, September 2001, lives of the queens of England from the Norman conquest, p.372 Remarks on the Privy Purse Expenses and Memoirs of the Siblings of Elizabeth of York The Peerage. com
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses. Though a member of the House of York, he switched sides to support the Lancastrians and he was convicted of treason against his brother, Edward IV, and was executed. He appears as a character in William Shakespeares plays Henry VI, Part 3 and Richard III, George was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father, the Duke of York, had begun to challenge Henry VI for the crown. His godfather was James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond and he was the third of the four sons of Richard and Cecily who survived to adulthood. In 1461 his elder brother, became King of England as Edward IV, despite his youth, he was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the same year. Clarence joined Warwick in France, taking his pregnant wife and she gave birth to their first child, a girl, on 16 April 1470, in a ship off Calais. Warwicks efforts to keep Henry VI on the ultimately failed.
The re-instated King Edward IV restored his brother Clarence to royal favour, Edward intervened and eventually divided the estates between his brothers. Clarence was created first Earl of Warwick on 25 March 1472, in 1475 Clarences wife Isabel gave birth to a son, Earl of Warwick. Isabel died on 22 December 1476, two months after giving birth to a son named Richard, and they are buried together at Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire. Their surviving children and Edward, were cared for by their aunt, Anne Neville, until she died in 1485 and she was hanged immediately after trial with John Thursby, a fellow defendant. Clarences mental state, never stable, deteriorated from that point, in 1477 Clarence was again a suitor for the hand of Mary, who had just become duchess of Burgundy. Edward objected to the match, and Clarence, jealous of Gloucesters influence and he implicated one Thomas Burdett, and one Thomas Blake, a chaplain at Staceys college. All three were tried for treason and condemned to be drawn to Tyburn and hanged, Blake was saved at the eleventh hour by a plea for his life from James Goldwell, Bishop of Norwich, but the other two were put to death as ordered.
This was a warning to Clarence, which he chose to ignore. He appointed Dr John Goddard to burst into Parliament and regale the House with Burdett, Goddard was a very unwise choice, as he was an ex-Lancastrian who had expounded Henry VIs claim to the throne. Edward summoned Clarence to Windsor, severely upbraided him, accused him of treason, shakespeare portrays Clarence as weak-willed and changeable, his initial defection from Edward IV to Warwick is prompted by outrage at Edward IVs unwise marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Several lines reference his penchant for wine, Gloucester nimbly stage-manages Clarences death, fast-tracking the order of execution and intercepting Edward IVs pardon when he changes his mind
Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York was queen consort of England from 1486 until her death. As the wife of Henry VII, she was the first Tudor queen and she was the daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III, and she married the king following Henrys victory at the Battle of Bosworth which started the last phase of the Wars of the Roses. She was the mother of King Henry VIII, she was the daughter, niece, wife and grandmother of successive Kings of England. Her two brothers disappeared, the Princes in the Tower, their fate unknown and she was welcomed back to court by her Uncle Richard III, along with all of her sisters. Her marriage seems to have successful, though her eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales, died at age 15 in 1502. She seems to have played part in politics. Her surviving children became a King of England and queens of France and Scotland, Elizabeth of York was born at the Palace of Westminster as the eldest child of King Edward IV and his wife, Elizabeth Woodville. Her christening was celebrated at Westminster Abbey, sponsored by her grandmothers Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford and her third sponsor was her cousin, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick.
At three, she had been betrothed to George Neville in 1469. His father John supported Georges uncle the Earl of Warwick in rebellion against King Edward IV, in 1475, Louis XI agreed to the marriage of 9 year old Elizabeth of York and his son Charles, the Dauphin of France. In 1482, Louis XI reneged on his promise, as an 11 year old, she was named a Lady of the Garter in 1477, along with her mother and her paternal aunt Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk. On 9 April 1483, Elizabeths father unexpectedly died and her brother, Edward V. Her uncle, Duke of Gloucester, was appointed regent and her mother, Elizabeth Woodville, tried to deny Gloucester his right to be Lord Protector and keep power within her family. Gloucester opted to take steps to isolate his nephews from their Woodville relations and he intercepted Edward V while he was travelling from Ludlow, where he had been living as Prince of Wales, to London to be crowned king. Edward V was placed in the residence of the Tower of London.
Elizabeth Woodville fled with her younger son Richard and her daughters into sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, Gloucester asked to take Richard with him, so the boy could reside in the Tower and keep his brother Edward company. Two months later, on 22 June 1483, Edward IVs marriage was declared invalid and it was claimed that Edward IV had at the time of his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville already been betrothed to Lady Eleanor Butler. Parliament issued a bill, Titulus Regius, in support of this position, Gloucester ascended the throne as Richard III on 6 July 1483, and Edward V and his brother are believed to have disappeared shortly afterwards
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485, at the age of 32, in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty and his defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare, when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edwards son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed the claims. The following day, Richard III began his reign, and he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richards orders, there were two major rebellions against Richard.
The first, in October 1483, was led by allies of Edward IV and Richards former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor landed in southern Wales with a small contingent of French troops and marched through his birthplace, recruiting soldiers. Henrys force engaged Richards army and defeated it at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Richard was struck down in the conflict, making him the last English king to die in battle on home soil and the first since Harold Godwinson. Henry ascended the throne as Henry VII, after the battle Richards corpse was taken to Leicester and buried without pomp. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the Reformation, in 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on a city council car park on the site once occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church. Richards remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015 and they returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton and participated in the coronation of Richards eldest brother as King Edward IV in June 1461.
At this time Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath, by the age of seventeen, he had an independent command. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, while at Warwicks estate, he probably met Francis Lovell, a strong supporter in his life, and Warwicks younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match, during Warwicks lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the kings permission. George joined his father-in-laws revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward, in 1468, Richards sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. Although only eighteen years old, Richard played crucial roles in the battles of Barnet, during his adolescence, Richard developed idiopathic scoliosis.
Following a decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard married Anne Neville, by the end of 1470 Anne had previously been wedded to Edward of Westminster, only son of Henry VI, to seal her fathers allegiance to the Lancastrian party
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter
Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter was the first child and eldest surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. Anne married twice and divorced her first husband, In 1447 aged eight years old, Anne was married to Henry Holland, during the Wars of the Roses Exeter sided with the House of Lancaster against his wifes family the House of York. Exeter was a commander at the great Lancastrian victories at the Battle of Wakefield and he was a commander at the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton. He fled to the Kingdom of Scotland after the battle, and joined Margaret of Anjou in her exile in France, on 4 March 1461 Annes younger brother Edward, Duke of York, was declared in London as King Edward IV. Exeter was attainted but the new king gave his estates to Anne and Exeter separated in 1464 and divorced in 1472. If not decisive, her arguments certainly had some effect and thus she played some part in Edwards restoration, lady Dorset died sometime between 26 August 1467 and 6 June 1474 without children.
Grey subsequently married Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington, another rich young heiress, Anne married secondly in about 1474 to Thomas St. Leger, a loyal follower of his brother-in-law King Edward IV. He took part in the Duke of Buckinghams attempted rebellion against King Edwards younger brother and eventual successor King Richard III, on the failure of which he was executed in 1483. King Edward IV had however in 1467 extended the remainder of most of the former Duke of Exeters lands to his sister Anne, thus, if she remarried any future children could inherit them. Anne died giving birth to her daughter by Thomas, Anne St. Leger. She married George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros, and was mother of the royal favourite Thomas Manners, in August 2012, a dig to find the remains of King Richard III took place in Greyfriars, Leicester. In September, it was reported that remains had found during the dig. The remains were tested using the mitochondrial DNA of Canadian Michael Ibsen, mitochodrial DNA is inherited unbroken from mother to offspring along a female line.
Michael is a 17th generation descendant of Anne of York by his mother Joy and it was named the Rutland Chantry in honour of her son-in-law George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros, father of Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland. And the body of syr Thomas Sellynger knyght her husband which hathe funde within thys College a Chauntre with too prestys sy’gyng for ev’more, on whose soule god have mercy. Cawley, Earls of Kent –1408, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, ladies of the Bower & Lords of the Tower A Medieval Re-enactment Society based in London, featuring members of the Neville/Plantagenet family
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace, the other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmunds elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward IIIs third son. On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the lands north of the Trent. In 1359, he joined his father King Edward III on a military expedition to France and was made a knight of the Garter in 1361. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by his father, Edmund took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s. In 1369, he brought a retinue of 400 men-at-arms and 400 archers to serve with John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, on campaigns in Brittany and Angouleme. In 1375, he sailed with the Earl of March to relieve Brest, but after initial success.
In the 1370s, English envoys entered into an alliance with Fernando I of Portugal, as a consequence of The Caroline War in France, the Duke of Lancaster was forced to postpone the invasion of Castille. In 1381, Edmund finally led an expedition to press The Duke of Lancasters claim to the Castile. After months of indecisiveness, a peace was declared between Castile and Portugal, and Edmund had to lead his malcontented troops home. Edmund was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports on 12 June 1376 and he acted as Keeper of the Realm in 1394/95 when his nephew, King Richard II of England, campaigned in Ireland and presided over Parliament in 1395. He was keeper of the realm in 1396 during the brief visit to France to collect his child-bride Isabella of Valois. The duke was left as Custodian of the Realm in the summer of 1399 when Richard II departed for another extended campaign in Ireland, in late June of that year, the exiled Henry Bolingbroke landed at Bridlington in Yorkshire.
He raised an army to resist Bolingbroke, decided instead to join him and he thereafter remained loyal to the new Lancastrian regime as Bolingbroke overthrew Richard II to become King Henry IV. On 6 August 1385, Edmund was elevated to Duke of York, in Richard IIs will, Edmund was highly emphasised as the kings heir despite the stronger claims of Henry of Bolingbroke and Edmund Mortimer. This was not due to any preference Richard had for Edmund, towards the end of his life, in 1399, he was appointed Warden of the West March for a short period. Edmund of Langley died in his birthplace and was buried there in the church of the mendicant friars and his dukedom passed to his eldest son, Edward. Langleys first wife, was a daughter of King Peter of Castile and she was the sister of the Infanta Constance of Castile, the second wife of Langleys brother John of Gaunt
Margaret of York
Margaret of York – by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy – was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Charles the Bold and acted as a protector of the Duchy after his death. She was a daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and she was born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire and she died at Mechelen in the Low Countries. She believed that Burgundian trade, from which the Duchy drew its vast wealth, for this reason she was prepared to favour any English faction which was willing to favour Burgundy. By 1454, she favoured the House of York, headed by Margarets father, the negotiations petered out, due to power struggles in England, and the preference of Charles father, Philip the Good, for a French alliance. Philip had Charles betrothed to Isabella of Bourbon, the daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes of Burgundy, in late March 1454, and the pair were married on 31 October 1454. Margaret, being a useful bargaining tool to her family, was unmarried at age 19.
She had borne Charles only a daughter, which made it an imperative for him to remarry and father a son. Because of this, Charles sent his advisor, Guillaume de Clugny, to London weeks after the death of his wife. The marriage did not take place immediately, but added problems were introduced by the French, Louis XI did not want an alliance between Burgundy and England, his two greatest enemies. Edward showed interest in the two propositions, offending Charles the Bold, and delaying the Anglo-Burgundian relations. Instead, in 1466, Margaret was betrothed to Peter, Constable of Portugal, Peter was himself a nephew of Duchess Isabella of Burgundy, and the betrothal thus signified an attempt to placate Burgundy. It was not to be, worn out by illness, disappointments and overwork, Peter died on 29 June 1466, by 1467, the situation had changed again. Philip the Good had died, and Charles the Bold had become Duke of Burgundy, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, had turned against Edward IV, and was plotting against him with French support.
Edward in such circumstances needed the support of Charles, and provided no further obstacles to the marriage negotiations, negotiations between the Dukes mother and the King of Englands in-laws, Lord Scales and Earl Rivers, proceeded between December 1467 and June 1468. By the terms of the contract, Margaret retained her rights to the English throne. For his own part, Charles dowered Margaret with the cities of Mechelen, the marriage contract was completed in February 1468, and signed by Edward IV in March. The Papal dispensation arrived in late May, and preparations to send Margaret to Burgundy began, Margaret left Margate for Sluys on 23 June 1468. Lord Scales and Richard Boyville were among those who escorted her to meet her future bridegroom, despite Louis XI having ordered his ships to seize her on her journey, her convoy crossed without incident, reaching Sluys on the evening of the 25th