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1. Islamic culture – Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture were predominantly Arab, Islamic culture generally includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam, including Quranic ones such as prayer and non-Quranic such as divisions of the world in Islam. It includes as the Baul tradition of Bengal, and facilitated the conversion of most of Bengal. There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different cultures, Islamic culture is itself a contentious term. Muslims live in different countries and communities, and it can be difficult to isolate points of cultural unity among Muslims. Anthropologists and historians nevertheless study Islam as an aspect of, and influence on, the noted historian of Islam, Marshall Hodgson, noted the above difficulty of religious versus secular academic usage of the words Islamic and Muslim in his three-volume work, The Venture Of Islam. He proposed to resolve it by using these terms for purely religious phenomena. However, his distinction has not been widely adopted, early Muslim literature is in Arabic, as that was the language of Muhammads communities in Mecca and Medina. As the early history of the Muslim community was focused on establishing the religion of Islam, see the articles on Quran, Hadith, and Sirah, which formed the earliest literature of the Muslim community. With the establishment of the Umayyad empire, see The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. While having no content, this secular literature was spread by the Arabs all over their empires. By the time of the Abbasid empire, Persian had become the language of Muslim World. Much of the most famous Muslim literature was written in Persian, from Rumi in Anatolia, to Nizami in the Caucasus, to Jami in Samarkand, from the 11th century, there was a growing body of Islamic literature in the Turkic languages. However, for centuries to come the official language in Turkish-speaking areas would remain Persian, in Anatolia, with the advent of the Seljuks, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Persian language, art and they adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, after a period of several centuries, Ottoman Turkish had developed towards a fully accepted language of literature, which was even able to satisfy the demands of a scientific presentation. However, the number of Persian and Arabic loanwords contained in those works increased at times up to 88%. With the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish grew in importance in both poetry and prose becoming, by the beginning of the 18th century, the language of the EmpireIslamic culture – World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
2. Islamic architecture – Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Persian, Roman, Byzantine, further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia. The principal Islamic architectural types are, the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, from these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. Symbolic views of scholars on Islamic architecture have consistently been criticized by historians for lacking historical evidence. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture and it is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background. The great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style, the Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. After the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711 AD the form was taken by the Umayyads who accentuated the curvature of the horseshoe. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer. The Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, the shift to Baghdad influenced politics, culture, and art. The Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital, other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the despotic, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos. The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque, the Hagia Sophia also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Domes are a structural feature of Islamic architecture. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques, the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture, also originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st centuryIslamic architecture – The interior side view of the main dome of Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey.
3. Architecture of Azerbaijan – Architecture of Azerbaijan refers to the architecture development in Azerbaijan. Architecture in Azerbaijan typically combines elements of East and West, many ancient architectural treasures such as the Maiden Tower and Palace of the Shirvanshahs in the walled city of Baku survive in modern Azerbaijan. In the nineteenth and early centuries, little monumental architecture was created. Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor, the urban planning and architectural activities are regulated by the State Committee for City Building and Architecture of Azerbaijan Republic. The Shirvanshahs ruled the state of Shirvan in northern Azerbaijan from the 6th to the 16th centuries and their attention shifted to Baku in the 12th century, when Shirvanshah Manuchehr III ordered that the city be surrounded with walls. In 1191, after an earthquake destroyed the capital city of Shamakhi, the residence of the Shirvanshahs was moved to Baku. This complex, built on the highest point of Ichari Shahar, the various sections of the Shirvanshah complex were not all created at the same time, and there was not a general plan for the entire complexs construction. Rather, each building was added as the need arose, ornamental designs found on the buildings of the Shirvanshah Palace. Below, Drop-like medallion from the Royal Tomb with the name of the architect, Mohammad Ali, much of the construction was done in the 15th century, during the reign of Khalilullah I and his son Farrukh Yassar in 1435-1442. All of these buildings except for the premises and bathhouse are fairly well preserved. The Shirvanshah complex itself is currently under reconstruction and it has 27 rooms on the first floor and 25 on the second. The actual original function of the Shirvanshah complex is still under investigation, though commonly described as a palace, some experts question this. The complex simply doesnt have the grandeur and huge spaces normally associated with a palace, for instance. Most of the rooms seem more suitable for offices or monks living quarters. This unique building, located on the level of the grounds. The filigree portal entrance is elaborately worked in limestone, the central inscription with the date of the Assemblys construction and the name of the architect may have been removed after Shah Ismayil Khatai conquered Baku in 1501. However, there are two very interesting hexagonal medallions on either side of the entrance, each consists of six rhombuses with very unusual patterns carved in stone. Each elaborate design includes the fundamental tenets of the Shiite faith, Ali is the head of the believersArchitecture of Azerbaijan – Divankhana
4. Indo-Islamic architecture – It has left influences on modern Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture. Indo-Islamic architecture into three classes, consisting of monuments built by the Delhi Sultans, the Mughals and the regional emperors. The Delhi Sultanate is the given to an Islamic Kingdom based mostly in North India around Delhi. The monuments built by these Sultans were the first examples of Indo-Islamic Architecture, the most important of these are in the Qutb Complex. The Qutb Complex is an array of monuments located at Delhi, the Qutb Minar, the tallest brick minaret in the world, is the most influential of these structures. The minar was built by Qutbuddin Aibak to celebrate Turkish victory, the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque and the Alai Darwaza are some other monuments located in the complex. A major aspect of Mughal architecture is the nature of buildings. Akbar, who ruled in the 16th century, made contributions to Mughal architecture. He systematically designed forts and towns in similar styles that blended Indian styles with outside influences. The gate of a fort Akbar designed at Agra exhibits the Assyrian gryphon, Indian elephants and it was built for the wife of Shah Jahan, who died in 1631. The main ideas and themes of garden tombs had already explored by earlier Mughal emperors. The 171 meter white tomb rises above a pool and a fine garden. Four minarets on the frame the tomb which has a giant white dome in the center. The Red Fort is also a brilliant example of Mughal Architecture and it was built during the zenith of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007, as one of the largest forts in India, it served as the official residence of the emperor for nearly 200 yearsIndo-Islamic architecture – Islam in India
5. Moorish architecture – Moorish architecture is the architectural tradition that appeared in the Maghreb region and the Iberian peninsula after the Arab Islamic conquest. Other notable buildings include the palace city of Medina Azahara, the church San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo. The term is used to include the products of the Islamic civilisation of Southern Italy. The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily was begun in the 9th century by the Emir of Palermo, there is archeological evidence of an eighth-century mosque in Narbonne, France. Arabic architecture Islamic architecture Arab-Norman culture Islamic influences on Christian art Moorish Revival* Moroccan architecture Mudéjar Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Curl, a Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureMoorish architecture – Paderne Castle, Portugal.
6. Moroccan architecture – Moroccan architecture is a term describing Moroccan architectural style. Morocco is in Northern-Africa bordering the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, the countrys diverse geography and the land’s long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Moroccos architecture. Its architecture reflects the rich cultural and historical heritage. Morocco’s first independent state called the Berber kingdom of Mauretania was ruled by the Berbers clan and it was first documented during 110 BC. During the time of the Berbers, the country has been through several sieges by a number of invaders, nevertheless, the Berbers ritual and beliefs still remained and became the country’s cultural heritage including its antique architecture. The Berbers are known for their use of earth or mud brick called pisé, many of the massive pisé buildings had defensive functions as main trading posts and ports or guard walls against pirates and rivals. This ancient building method prevails in all sizes of buildings, moreover, Moroccan traditional architecture also gained influences from neighboring countries and intruders. Morocco was not originally an Islamic country, the conversion of the Berber tribes in Morocco to Islam by Idris I of Morocco greatly influenced the architectural style of the country. The elegance of Islamic features is blended in and adapted into buildings and interior designs such as the use of tiling, fountains, geometric design, which could be seen in mosques, palaces, plazas as well as homes. The materials chosen for the interiors of Moroccan classical architecture, are due in part to the necessity of cooling in the arid climate of Morocco. Tiles – Zellige tiling, often wrongly labelled mosaic, is used to decorate the surfaces of buildings and objects, principally interior walls, floors, modern use of zellige has extended the use to furniture and other interiors. Thus, fountains, also representing paradise, could be everywhere in order to serve everyone. Mosques – Following the introduction of Islam, mosques were built in Morocco with their architectural features. Geometric Design and Floral Motifs Arabesque – Based on Islamic beliefs, avoiding the use of human or animal images is preferable resulting in the spread of floral motifs, the motifs in Moroccan architectural decor are chiefly carved into stone, plaster and wood. Modern day Spain was a Moorish domain from the early 8th century to the late 15th century and was known as Al-Andalus 711 AD to 1492 AD, the Almoravid dynasty ruled Morocco and the southern half of Spain through the 12th century. The Marinid dynasty from the 13th through the 15th century, rule both Moroccan and Southern Spain until the Reconquista with the fall of Granada in 1492, effectively ending the Moorish era in Iberia, Moorish architecture therefore evolved into a distinct form. The elements of which are as follows Arches – Arches are common feature in Morocco, the first arch is the horseshoe which is clover shaped. The second is cusped like a rounded keyhole, tiling – Overlapping roof tiling became popular after the influence of Spain, the tiles are mostly hand glazedMoroccan architecture – Landscape of Morocco
7. Mughal architecture – Mughal architecture is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in Medieval India. It was an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkic and South-Asian architetcure, Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. Examples of the style can be found in India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings and his grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were Humayuns Tomb, Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, akbars son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir. While Shah Jahans son Aurangzeb commissioned buildings such as the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore, his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture, Agra fort is a UNESCO world heritage site in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. The major part of Agra fort was built by Akbar The Great during 1565 AD to 1574 AD, the architecture of the fort clearly indicates the free adoption of the Rajput planning and construction. Some of the important buildings in the fort are Jahangiri Mahal built for Jahangir and his family, the Moti Masjid, the Jahangir Mahal is an impressive structure and has a courtyard surrounded by double-storeyed halls and rooms. Akbar’s greatest architectural achievement was the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, his Capital City near Agra, the religious edifices worth mentioning are the Jami Masjid and Salim Chisti’s Tomb. The tomb built in 1571 A. D. in the corner of the compound is a square marble chamber with a verandah. The cenotaph has an exquisitely designed lattice screen around it,14 years after the death of Humayun, his widow- Hamida Banu Begum built the Humayun’s tomb in Delhi. The mausoleum of Humayun is located in the centre of a surrounded by typical Mughal garden in Fatehpur Sikri. It is said to be first mature example of Mughal architecture, Buland Darwaza, also known as the Gate of Magnificence, was built by Akbar in 1576 A. D. at Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar built the Buland Darwaza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat and it is 40 metres high and 50 metres from the ground. The total height of the Structure is about 54 metres from the ground level, the Haramsara, the royal seraglio in Fatehpur Sikri was an area where the royal women lived. The opening to the Haramsara is from the Khwabgah side separated by a row of cloiters and this is the largest palace in the Fatehpur Sikri seraglio, connected to the minor haramsara quarters. The main entrance is double storied, projecting out of the facade to create a kind of leading into a recessed entrance with a balcony. Inside there is a surrounded by roomsMughal architecture – An 1858 illustration of Old Delhi in India, the capital city of the Mughal Empire
8. Ottoman architecture – Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries. For almost 400 years Byzantine architectural artifacts such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques, overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as Byzantine architecture synthesized with architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in their lands hence or since, today, one finds remnants of Ottoman architecture in certain parts of its former territories under decay. With the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, the years 1300–1453 constitute the early or first Ottoman period and this period witnessed three types of mosques, tiered, single-domed and subline-angled mosques. The Hacı Özbek Mosque in İznik, the first important center of Ottoman art, is the first example of an Ottoman single-domed mosque, the domed architectural style evolved from Bursa and Edirne. The Holy Mosque in Bursa was the first Seljuk mosque to be converted into a domed one, among these are the Fatih Mosque, Mahmutpaşa Mosque, the tiled palace and Topkapı Palace. The Ottomans integrated mosques into the community and added soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths, during the classical period mosque plans changed to include inner and outer courtyards. The inner courtyard and the mosque were inseparable, the master architect of the classical period, Mimar Sinan, was born in 1489/1490 in Kayseri and died in Istanbul in the year 1588. Sinan started a new era in world architecture, creating 334 buildings in various cities, Mimar Sinans first important work was the Şehzade Mosque completed in 1548. His second significant work was the Süleymaniye Mosque and the surrounding complex, the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne was built during the years 1568–74, when Sinan was in his prime as an architect. The Rüstempaşa, Mihriman Sultan, Ibrahimpasa Mosques and the Şehzade, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Roxelana, most classical period design used the Byzantine architecture of the neighboring Balkans as its base, and from there, ethnic elements were added creating a different architectural style. During the reign of Ahmed III and under the impetus of his grand vizier İbrahim Paşa, due to its relations with France, Ottoman architecture began to be influenced by the Baroque and Rococo styles that were popular in Europe. The Baroque style is noted as first being developed by Seljuk Turks, examples of the creation of this art form can be witnessed in Divriği hospital and mosque a UNESCO world heritage site, Sivas Çifteminare, Konya İnce Minare museum and many more. It is often called the Seljuk Baroque portal, from here it emerged again in Italy, and later grew in popularity among the Turks during the Ottoman era. Various visitors and envoys were sent to European cities, especially to Paris, to experience the contemporary European customs, the decorative elements of the European Baroque and Rococo influenced even the religious Ottoman architecture. On the other hand, Mellin, a French architect, was invited by a sister of Sultan Selim III to Istanbul and depicted the Bosphorus shores and the pleasure mansions placed next to the sea. During a thirty-year period known as the Tulip Period, all eyes were turned to the West, however, it was about this time when the construction on the Ishak Pasha Palace in Eastern Anatolia was going on. Beginning with this period, the class and the elites in the Ottoman Empire started to use the openOttoman architecture – Blue Mosque in Istanbul, a World Heritage Site and example of the classical style period of Ottoman architecture, showing Byzantine influence.
9. Pakistani architecture – Pakistani architecture refers to the various structures built during different time periods in the modern day region of Pakistan. This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from Ancient Greece and these remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila. The majority of the discovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses, wood and loam served as construction materials. Large scale temples, such as found in other ancient cities are missing. With the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization the architecture also suffered considerable damage, view of Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath. Surviving evidence indicates a sophisticated civilization, cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had populations of some 35,000, they were laid out according to grid system. Inhabitants lived in windowless baked brick houses built around a central courtyard, the latter rivaled the engineering skill of the Romans some 2,000 years later. With the rise of Buddhism outstanding architectural monuments were again developed, in addition, the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century AD. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style, a particularly beautiful example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province. The arrival of Islam in todays Pakistan - first in Sindh - during the 8th century AD meant an end of Buddhist architecture. However, a transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The way early mosques were built with decorations oriented them strongly to the Arab style. The earliest example of a mosque from the days of infancy of Islam in South Asia is the Mihrablose mosque of Banbhore, from the year 727, under the Delhi Sultan the Persian-centralasiatic style ascended over Arab influences. Most important characteristic of this style is the Iwan, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open, further characteristics are wide prayer halls, round domes with mosaics and geometrical samples and the use of painted tiles. The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan, at the start of the 16th century, the Indo-Islamic architecture was at the height of its boom. During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with, also the Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the epoch of the Mughals. However, it exhibits partially different stylistic characteristics, singularly, the innumerable tombs of the Chaukhandi are of eastern influence. Although constructed between 16th and 18th centuries, they do not possess any similarity to Mughal architecture, the stonemason works show rather typical Sindhi workmanship, probably from before Islamic timesPakistani architecture – Pakistan Monument, Islamabad
10. Tatar mosque – Tatar mosque — is the typical mosque architecture in Tatarstan and other Volga Tatar-populated areas of Russia. Occasionally found in regions of Russia, modern Tatar religious architecture was developed in the late 18th century. The earliest examples of Islamic Tatar architecture are located in Bolghar and they reflect strong similarities to Central Asian Islamic architecture from which the designs were derived. However, it is believed that design of rural mosques, opposing to Central Asian-like mosques of capital cities, many mosques, both stone and wooden were built, according to this style. The oldest of the active modern Tatar mosques is the Märcani mosque in the Tatar capital of Kazan. Dating from the reign of Catherine the Great, the minaret is placed in the center of a gabled roof. It is believed that the concept was adopted from traditional rurual Tatar mosques, the Märcani mosque is an example of revival Tatar religious architecture as most mosques were destroyed due to the Christianization edict of 1742. Tatar mosques, such as Märcani and Apanay were built in baroque style, İske Taş and Pink Mosques were contributed to classicism style. In 1844 another exemplary mosque project was introduced, which was used mostly for urban mosques, the minaret was placed at the northern part of the building, under the door. However, mosques with minarets in the roof are constructed till todayTatar mosque – Märcani Mosque
11. Iranian architecture – Iranian architecture or Persian architecture is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Its history dates back to at least 5,000 BCE with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden, in addition to historic gates, palaces, and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran has brought about a wave of demolition and new construction. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience, without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven. This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, according to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods, traditional Persian architecture has maintained a continuity that, although temporarily distracted by internal political conflicts or foreign invasion, nonetheless has achieved an unmistakable style. In this architecture, there are no buildings, even garden pavilions have nobility and dignity. In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid - even eloquent, the combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and, often, subtle proportions reward sustained observation. g. g. Anahita Temple, Khorheh, Parthian era e. g. Hatra, the compounds at Nysa, Sassanid era e. g. Ghaleh Dokhtar. Chehelsotoon, Ali Qapu, Agha Bozorg Mosque, Kashan, Shah Mosque, available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. This technique, used in Iran from ancient times, has never completely abandoned. The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a lime mortar, also facilitated the development. Certain design elements of Persian architecture have persisted throughout the history of Iran, the most striking are a marked feeling for scale and a discerning use of simple and massive forms. The consistency of decorative preferences, the high-arched portal set within a recess, columns with bracket capitals, through the ages these elements have recurred in completely different types of buildings, constructed for various programs and under the patronage of a long succession of rulers. Similarly, the dome on four arches, so characteristic of Sassanid times, is a still to be found in many cemeteries, the pre-Islamic styles draw on 3000 to 4000 years of architectural development from various civilizations of the Iranian plateau. Iran is recognized by UNESCO as being one of the cradles of civilization, each of the periods of Elamites, Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids were creators of great architecture that, over the ages, spread far and wide far to other cultures. Although Iran has suffered its share of destruction, including Alexander The Greats decision to burn Persepolis, the Achaemenids built on a grand scaleIranian architecture – Persian arts
12. Somali architecture – Some of the oldest known structures in the territory of modern-day Somalia consist of burial cairns. However, many of ancient structures have yet to be properly explored. Houses were constructed of dressed stone similar to the ones in Ancient Egypt, there are also examples of courtyards and large stone walls enclosing settlements, such as the Wargaade Wall. Near Bosaso, at the end of the Baladi valley, lies a 2 km to 3 km long earthwork, local tradition recounts that the massive embankment marks the grave of a community matriarch. It is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region, in addition, old temples situated in the northwestern town of Sheekh are reportedly similar to those in the Deccan Plateau in the Indian subcontinent. There also exist several ancient necropolises in Somalia, one such structured area is found on the countrys northeastern tip, in the Hafun peninsula. Booco in the Aluula District contains a number of ancient structures, two of these are enclosed platform monuments set together, which are surrounded by small stone circles. The circles of stone are believed to mark associated graves, mudun is situated in the Wadi valley of the Iskushuban District. The area features a number of ruins, which tradition holds belong to an ancient. Among the old structures are around 2,000 tombs, which possess high towers and are dome-shaped, port Dunford in the southern Lower Juba province contains a number of ancient ruins, including several pillar tombs. Prior to its collapse, one these structures pillars stood 11 meters high from the ground, the site is believed to correspond with the ancient emporium of Nikon, which is described in the 1st century CE Greco-Roman travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. In the southern town of Hannassa, ruins of houses with archways and courtyards have been found along with pillar tombs. Additionally, various pillar tombs exist in the southeastern Marca area, local tradition holds that these were built in the 16th century, when the Ajuran Sultanates naaibs governed the district. On the coastal plain 20 km to Alulas east are ruins of an ancient monument in a platform style. The structure is formed by a dry stone wall that is low in height. Relatively large standing stones are positioned on the edifices corners. Near the platform are graves, which are outlined in stones,24 m by 17 m in dimension, the structure is the largest of a string of ancient platform and enclosed platform monuments exclusive to far northeastern Somalia. Around 200 stone monuments are found in the northeastern Botiala site, the bigger cairns are covered in shingles and tend to be more sturdily constructedSomali architecture – Ancient cairns in Qa’ableh.
13. Sudano-Sahelian architecture – This style is characterized by the use of mudbricks and adobe plaster, with large wooden-log support beams that jut out from the wall face for large buildings such as mosques or palaces. These beams also act as scaffolding for reworking, which is done at regular intervals, the earliest examples of Sudano-Sahelian style probably come from Jenné-Jeno around 250 BC, where the first evidence of permanent mudbrick architecture in the region is found. The earthen architecture in the Sahel zone region is different from the building style in the neighboring savannah. The old Sudanese cultivators of the savannah built their compounds out of several cone-roofed houses and this was primarily an urban building style, associated with centres of trade and wealth, characterised by cubic buildings with terraced roofs comprise the typical style. They lend a characteristic appearance to the villages and cities. Large buildings such as mosques, representative residential and youth houses stand out in the distance and they are landmarks in a flat landscape that point to a complex society of farmers, craftsmen and merchants with a religious and political upper class. The Sudano-Sahelian architectural style itself can be broken down into four smaller sub-styles that are typical of different ethnic groups in the region, the examples used here illustrate the construction of mosques as well as palaces, as the architectural style is concentrated around inland Muslim populations. As with the people, many of these styles cross-pollinate and produce buildings with shared features, any one of these styles is not exclusive to one particular modern countries borders, but are linked to the ethnicity of its builders or surrounding populations. For example, a Malian migrant community in traditionally Gur area may build in the characteristic of their ancestral homeland. These styles include, Malian - of the various Manden groups of southern, characterized by the Great Mosque of Djenne and the Kani-Kombole Mosque of Mali. Military aspect to construction of high protective compound walls built around a central courtyard, minaret is the only structure with support beams showing. Characterized by the Sankore Mosque of Timbuktu, the tomb of Askia in Gao Mali, characterised by its attention of stucco detail in abstract design and extensive use of parapets. Examples in the architecture of the Yamma Mosque and old town of Zinder, The Hausa quarter of Agadez Niger, the Gidan Rumfa of Kano, volta basin - of the Gur and Manden groups of Burkina Faso, northern Ghana and northern Cote dIvoire. The most conservative of the three styles, a single courtyard, characterized by high white and black painted walls, inward curved turrets supporting an exterior wall, and a larger turret nearer the center. Characterized by the Larabanga mosque of Ghana and the Bobo-Dioulasso Grand Mosque, Sankore University Larabanga Agadez Great Mosque of Djenné Aradeon, Suzan B. Al-Sahili, the myth of architectural technology transfer from North Africa, Journal des Africanistes,59, 99–131. Bourgeois, Jean-Louis, Pelos, Carollee, Davidson, Basil, Spectacular vernacular, prussin, Labelle, Hatumere, Islamic design in West Africa, Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03004-4. Schutyser, S. Dethier, J. Gruner, D. Banco, Adobe Mosques of the Inner Niger Delta, Milan,5 Continents Editions, ISBN 88-7439-051-3Sudano-Sahelian architecture – The Great Mosque of Djenne, Mali (Malian).
14. Islamic art – Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of an article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, painting, glass, pottery. Islamic art is not at all restricted to art, but includes all the art of the rich. It frequently includes secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, figurative painting may cover religious scenes, but normally in essentially secular contexts such as the walls of palaces or illuminated books of poetry. There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible. Mistakes in repetitions may be introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection. Human portrayals can be found in all eras of Islamic art, above all in the private form of miniatures. Human representation for the purpose of worship is considered idolatry and is forbidden in some interpretations of Islamic law. There are also depictions of Muhammad, Islams chief prophet. Small decorative figures of animals and humans, especially if they are hunting the animals, are found on pieces in many media from many periods. Other inscriptions include verses of poetry, and inscriptions recording ownership or donation, Islamic calligraphy in the form of painting or sculptures are sometimes referred to as quranic art. Large inscriptions made from tiles, sometimes with the letters raised in relief, complex carved calligraphy also decorates buildings. For most of the Islamic period the majority of coins only showed lettering, the tughra or monogram of an Ottoman sultan was used extensively on official documents, with very elaborate decoration for important ones. Other single sheets of calligraphy, designed for albums, might contain short poems, Quranic verses, or other texts. The main languages, all using Arabic script, are Arabic, always used for Quranic verses, Persian in the Persianate world, especially for poetry, calligraphers usually had a higher status than other artists. The tradition of the Persian miniature has been dominant since about the 13th century, strongly influencing the Ottoman miniature of Turkey, portraits of rulers developed in the 16th century, and later in Persia, then becoming very popular. Mughal portraits, normally in profile, are very finely drawn in a realist style, while the best Ottoman ones are vigorously stylized, album miniatures typically featured picnic scenes, portraits of individuals or animals, or idealized youthful beauties of either sexIslamic art – Detail of arabesque decoration at the Alhambra in Spain
15. Islamic calligraphy – Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. It includes Arabic, Ottoman, and Persian calligraphy and it is known in Arabic as khatt Islami, meaning Islamic line, design, or construction. The development of Islamic calligraphy is strongly tied to the Quran, chapters, deep religious association with the Quran, as well as suspicion of figurative art as idolatrous has led calligraphy to become one of the major forms of artistic expression in Islamic cultures. As Islamic calligraphy is highly venerated, most works follow examples set by well established calligraphers, in antiquity, a pupil would copy a masters work repeatedly until their handwriting was similar. The most common style is divided into angular and cursive, each divided into several sub-styles. Some styles are often written using a metallic-tip pen, Islamic calligraphy is applied on a wide range of decorative mediums other than paper, such as tiles, vessels, carpets, and inscriptions. Before the advent of paper, papyrus and parchment were used for writing, the advent of paper revolutionized calligraphy. While monasteries in Europe treasured a few volumes, libraries in the Muslim world regularly contained hundreds. Coins were another support for calligraphy, beginning in 692, the Islamic caliphate reformed the coinage of the Near East by replacing visual depiction with words. This was especially true for dinars, or gold coins of high value, generally the coins were inscribed with quotes from the Quran. By the tenth century, the Persians, who had converted to Islam, so precious were calligraphic inscribed textiles that Crusaders brought them to Europe as prized possessions. A notable example is the Suaire de Saint-Josse, used to wrap the bones of St. Josse in the Abbey of St. Josse-sur-Mer near Caen in northwestern France, Kufic is the oldest form of the Arabic script. The style emphasizes rigid and angular strokes, which appears as a form of the old Nabataean script. The Archaic Kufi consisted of about 17 letters without diacritic dots or accents, afterwards, dots and accents were added to help readers with pronunciation, and the set of Arabic letters rose to 29. It is developed around the end of the 7th century in the areas of Kufa, Iraq, the style later developed into several varieties, including floral, foliated, plaited or interlaced, bordered, and squared kufi. There were no set rules of using the Kufic script, the common feature is the angular, linear shapes of the characters. Common varieties include square Kufic, a known as bannai. Contemporary calligraphy using this style is popular in modern decorationsIslamic calligraphy – Calligraphy
16. Persian miniature – A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts. The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, the Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature traditions, principally the Ottoman miniature in Turkey, and the Mughal miniature in the Indian sub-continent. Persian art under Islam had never completely forbidden the human figure and this was partly because the miniature is a private form, kept in a book or album and only shown to those the owner chooses. It was therefore possible to be free than in wall paintings or other works seen by a wider audience. In Islamic art this is referred to as illumination, and manuscripts of the Quran, in later periods miniatures were increasingly created as single works to be included in albums called muraqqa, rather than illustrated books. This allowed non-royal collectors to afford a representative sample of works from different styles, the bright and pure colouring of the Persian miniature is one of its most striking features. Lighting is even, without shadows or chiaroscuro, walls and other surfaces are shown either frontally, or as at an angle of about 45 degrees, often giving the modern viewer the unintended impression that a building is hexagonal in plan. Buildings are often shown in complex views, mixing interior views through windows or cutaways with exterior views of parts of a facade. Costumes and architecture are always those of the time, many figures are often depicted, with those in the main scene normally rendered at the same size, and recession indicated by placing more distant figures higher up in the space. More important figures may be larger than those around them. The dress of figures is shown with great care, although artists understandably often avoid depicting the patterned cloth that many would have worn. Even when a scene in a palace is shown, the viewpoint often appears to be from a point some metres in the air. This is used in all the manuscripts for the court that constitute the most famous Persian manuscripts. The miniatures normally occupy a full page, later spreading across two pages to regain a square or horizontal landscape format. There are often panels of text or captions inside the picture area, the rest of the page is often decorated with dense designs of plants and animals in a muted grisaille, often gold and brown, text pages without miniatures often also have such borders. In later manuscripts, elements of the miniature begin to expand beyond the frame, another later development was the album miniature, conceived as a single picture rather than a book illustration, though such images may be accompanied by short lyric poems. The withdrawal of Shah Tahmasp I from commissioning illustrated books in the 1540s probably encouraged artists to transfer to these works for a wider circle of patronsPersian miniature – Behzad 's Advice of the Ascetic (c. 1500-1550). As in Western illuminated manuscripts, exquisitely decorated borders were an integral part of the work of art.
17. Oriental rug – An oriental rug is a heavy textile, made for a wide variety of utilitarian and symbolic purpose, produced in “Oriental countries” for home use, local sale, and export. Oriental carpets can be woven or flat woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool. Since the High Middle Ages, oriental rugs have been a part of their cultures of origin, as well as of the European and, later on. Geographically, oriental rugs are made in a referred to as the “Rug Belt”, which stretches from Morocco across North Africa, the Middle East. It includes countries such as northern China, Tibet, Turkey, Iran, the Maghreb in the west, the Caucasus in the north, people from different cultures, countries, racial groups and religious faiths are involved in the production of oriental rugs. The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, deterioration, there is little archaeological evidence to support any theory about the origin of the pile-woven carpet. The earliest surviving fragments are spread over a wide geographic area. Woven rugs probably developed from earlier floor coverings, made of felt, flat-woven rugs are made by tightly interweaving the warp and weft strands of the weave to produce a flat surface with no pile. The technique of weaving carpets further developed into a known as extra-weft wrapping weaving, a technique which produces soumak. Loop weaving is done by pulling the strings over a gauge rod. The rod is then removed, leaving the loops closed, or the loops are cut over the protecting rod. Typically, hand-woven pile rugs are produced by knotting strings of thread individually into the warps, the fabric is then further stabilized by weaving in one or more strings of weft, and compacted by beating with a comb. It seems likely that knotted-pile carpets have been produced by people who were familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques. Probably the oldest existing texts referring to carpets are preserved in writing on clay tablets from the royal archives of the kingdom of Mari. The Akkadian word for rug is mardatu, and specialist rug weavers referred to as kāşiru are distinguished from other specialized professions like sack-makers. Palace inventories from the archives of Nuzi, from the 15th/14th century BC, there are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Homer writes in Ilias XVII,350 that the body of Patroklos is covered with a “splendid carpet”, in Odyssey Book VII and X “carpets” are mentioned. Around 400 BC, the Greek author Xenophon mentions “carpets” in his book “Anabasis” and it is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information is provided in the textsOriental rug – The Islamic World: Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps.
18. Persian carpet – Carpet weaving is an essential part of Persian culture and art. Within the group of Oriental rugs or Islamic carpets produced by the countries of the rug belt. Persian carpets and rugs of various types were woven in parallel by nomadic tribes, in village and town workshops, as such, they represent different, simultaneous lines of tradition, and reflect the history of Iran and its various peoples. Their patterns and designs have set a tradition for court manufactories which was kept alive during the entire duration of the Persian Empire up to the last royal dynasty of Iran. Town manufactories like those of Tabriz have played an important historical role in reviving the tradition of carpet weaving after periods of decline, Rugs woven by the villages and various tribes of Iran are distinguished by their fine wool, bright and elaborate colours, and specific, traditional patterns. Gabbeh rugs are the type of carpet from this line of tradition. The art and craft of weaving has gone through periods of decline during times of political unrest. It particularly suffered from the introduction of synthetic dyes during the half of the nineteenth century. Carpet weaving still plays a part in the economy of modern Iran. Hand-woven Persian carpets and rugs were regarded as objects of artistic and utilitarian value and prestige from the first time they were mentioned by ancient Greek writers. In 2010, the skills of carpet weaving in Fārs. The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, deterioration, woven rugs probably developed from earlier floor coverings, made of felt, or a technique known as flat weaving. Flat-woven rugs are made by tightly interweaving the warp and weft strands of the weave to produce a surface with no pile. The technique of weaving carpets further developed into a known as loop weaving. Loop weaving is done by pulling the strings over a gauge rod. The rod is then removed, leaving the loops closed, or the loops are cut over the protecting rod. Hand-woven pile rugs are produced by knotting strings of thread individually into the warps, the Pazyryk carpet was excavated in 1949 from the grave of a Scythian nobleman in the Pazyryk Valley of the Altai Mountains in Siberia. Radiocarbon testing indicated that the Pazyryk carpet was woven in the 5th century BC and this carpet is 183 by 200 centimetres and has 36 symmetrical knots per cm²Persian carpet – Persian arts
19. Turkish carpet – It denotes a knotted, pile-woven floor or wall covering which is produced for home use, local sale, and export. Carpet weaving represents a traditional art, dating back to pre-Islamic times, during its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions. The arrival of Islam and the development of the Islamic art also influenced Turkish carpet design, the history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of the area of Asia minor. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to an ethnic, regional. When political contacts and trade became more intense between Western Europe and the Islamic world after the 12th century AD, also woven carpets became known in Europe. When Western European art historians developed a scientific interest in oriental carpets in the late 19th century, within the group of oriental carpets, the Turkish carpet is distinguished by particular characteristics of dyes and colours, designs, textures and techniques. Usually made of wool and cotton, Turkish carpets are tied with the Turkish, examples range in size from pillow to large, room-sized carpets. The earliest known examples for Turkish carpets date from the thirteenth century, distinct types of carpets have been woven ever since in workshops, in more provincial weaving facilities, as well as in villages, tribal settlements, or by nomads. Carpets were simultaneously produced for different levels of society, with varying materials like sheep wool. No silk piled carpets made in Turkey have been found that were before 1870, not till the early 20th century were silk pile carpets knotted in Turkey using silver and gold threads with patterns based upon 16th century Imperial Safavid Iranian carpets. Turkish carpets are regarded as objects of art in their country of origin, in Europe, Turkish carpets appear in Renaissance paintings, providing a context of prestige and dignity which is still understood today. Since the late century, Turkish and oriental carpets have been subject to art historic and scientific interest in the Western world. More recently, also woven carpets have attracted collectors and scientists interest. In the late century, projects started to revive the traditional art of Turkish carpet weaving by using hand-spun, naturally-dyed wool. The raw material to produce carpets had to be available during the migration. Sheep and goats provided the wool, natural dye could be derived from plants, as such, woven tissues could serve both utilitarian and decorative purposes, depending on the shape and size in which they were produced. The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, deterioration, controversy arose over the accuracy of the claim that the oldest records of flat woven kilims come from the Çatalhöyük excavations, dated to circa 7000 BC. The excavators report remained unconfirmed, as the paintings depicting kilim motifs were said to have disintegrated shortly after their exposureTurkish carpet – Anatolian double-niche rug, Konya region, circa 1650-1750 LACMA M.2004.32
20. Islam and clothing – Muslims are concerned with clothing in two contexts, clothing for everyday wear, inside and outside the house, and clothing required in specifically religious contexts. Say to the men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty. Turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss, tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them. That will be better, so that they may be recognized, the Quran admonishes Muslim women to dress modestly and cover their breasts and genitals but it doesnt require covering the head. The Quran explicitly states that O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women, Islamic dress in Europe, notably the variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women, has become a prominent symbol of the presence of Islam in western Europe. In several countries the adherence to hijab has led to political controversies, the Netherlands government has decided to introduce a ban on face-covering clothing, popularly described as the burqa ban, although it does not only apply to the Afghan-model burqa. Other countries, such as France and Australia are debating similar legislation, although the Balkans and Eastern Europe have indigenous Muslim populations, most Muslims in western Europe are members of immigrant communities. The issue of Islamic dress is linked with issues of immigration, European Commissioner Franco Frattini said in November 2006, that he did not favour a ban on the burqa. This is apparently the first official statement on the issue of prohibition of Islamic dress from the European Commission, the reasons given for prohibition vary. Legal bans on face-covering clothing are often justified on security grounds, Ayaan Hirsi Ali sees Islam as incompatible with Western values, at least in its present form. She advocates the values of Enlightenment liberalism, including secularism and equality of women, for her, the burqa or chador are both a symbol of religious obscurantism and the oppression of women. Western Enlightenment values, in her view, require prohibition, regardless of whether a woman has freely chosen Islamic dress. Islamic dress is seen as a symbol of the existence of parallel societies. Visible symbols of a non-Christian culture conflict with the identity in European states. In France and Turkey, the emphasis is on the nature of the state. In Turkey, bans apply at state institutions and in state-funded education, an apparently less politicised argument is that in specific professions, a ban on veils is justified, since face-to-face communication and eye contact is required. This argument has featured prominently in judgements in Britain and the Netherlands, public and political response to such prohibition proposals is complex, since by definition they mean that the government decides on individual clothing. Some non-Muslims, who would not be affected by a ban, see it as an issue of civil liberties, a public opinion poll in London showed that 75 percent of Londoners support the right of all persons to dress in accordance with their religious beliefsIslam and clothing – Muslim women by Islamic dress code, wearing hijab and niqab.
21. Abaya – Traditional abayat are black and may be either a large square of fabric draped from the shoulders or head or a long caftan. The abaya covers the body except the head, feet. It can be worn with the niqāb, a veil covering all. Some women also wear black gloves, so their hands are covered as well. The Indonesian and Malaysian womens traditional dress kebaya gets its name from the abaya, the rationale for the abaya is often attributed to the Quranic quote, O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters, and the believing women, to cover themselves with a loose garment. They will thus be recognised and no harm come to them Quran 33,59 This quote is often given as the argument for wearing the abaya. The abaya is most common in countries with large Muslim populations and it is rare in countries like Indonesia, India and Pakistan. Abaya also refers to different garments in different countries, in the gulf countries, they tend to be black in color. Turkish Abaya on the hand tend to be colorful. In Saudi Arabia, women are required to cover in public, abayat are known by various names but serve the same purpose, which is to cover. Contemporary models are usually caftans, cut from light, flowing fabrics like crepe, georgette, other known abaya styles are front open and front closed abaya. Styles differ from region to region, some abayat have embroidery on black fabric while others are brightly coloured and have different forms of artwork across them, islam and clothing List of types of sartorial hijab Kaur-Jones, PriyaAbaya – Three women take a walk on a beach in Oman wearing abayat.
22. Agal (accessory) – The agal, also spelled iqal, egal or igal, is an accessory worn usually by Arab men. It is a cord, worn doubled, used to keep the ghutrah in place on the wearers head. It is usually worn by Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula, with the exception of Yemen and it is said in Aswan Egypt that each band of an Agal represents 1000 family members of the wearerAgal (accessory) – A Bahraini man wearing agal.
23. Boubou (clothing) – The grand boubou/bubu is one of the names for a flowing wide sleeved robe worn by men in much of West Africa, and to a lesser extent in North Africa, related to the dashiki suit. The name boubou derives from the Wolof word mbubb and it is known by various names, depending on the ethnic group wearing them, agbada, babban riga, mbubb, ksa or gandora, darraa Maghrebi Arabic, grand boubou and the English term of gown. The Senegalese boubou, a variation on the grand boubou described below, is known as the Senegalese kaftan. The female version worn in some communities is also known as a mboubou or kaftan and its origin lies with the clothing worn by the Islamic Tukulor, Mandé and Songhai peoples of the 8th-century Takrur and Ghana Empires, and 13th-century Mali and Songhai Empires. The use of the grand boubou as clothing became widespread throughout the West African region with the migration of semi-nomadic groups such as the Fulani, and traders such as the Dyula and Hausa. Comparing the grand boubou to the styles of Arabic Thawb suggests the grand boubou follows an archaic template to the contemporary male clothing of the Middle East. It has become the formal attire of many countries in West Africa, older robes have become family heirlooms passed on from father to son and are worn as status symbols. The boubou has female versions in Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, there is also the alternative female formal version of the boubou called the wrapper. There is a set etiquette to wearing the grand boubou, primarily in place to keep the over-gown above the ankles at any one time, thus, it is rare to see the grand boubous square shaped gown completely unwrapped. Through this, the grand boubou was historically worn by Chiefs of the Yoruba of Nigeria, Dagomba of Ghana, the Mandinka of the Gambia, the Susu of Guinea and the Temnes of Sierra Leone. Although usually a form of clothing, womens traditional clothing in much of Sahelian West Africa is of similar construction. In some places these are called the mboubou, in other regions of West Africa, the female formal clothing has been a boubou variant, called a kaftan, and in other places it is the wrapper and headscarf. Le Boubou—Cest Chic, Les boubous du Mali et dautres pays de lAfrique de lOuest - Book Review, new York, Facts on File,1994Boubou (clothing) – Man wearing a grand boubou
24. Burqa – A burqa is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public. Originating from Arabic, برقع, burquʻ or burqaʻ, and Urdu, بُرقع, it is also transliterated burkha, bourkha, burka, or burqu and is pronounced Arabic pronunciation. In other styles, the niqāb of the veil is attached by one side, many Muslims believe that the collected traditions of the life of Muhammed, or hadith, require both men and women to dress and behave modestly in public. However, this requirement has been interpreted in different ways by Islamic scholars. Relevant verses of the Quran have been translated as, O Prophet, say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the faithful to draw their outergarments close around themselves, that is better that they will be recognized and not annoyed. And God is ever Forgiving, Gentle and it is the most tempting part of her body, because what people look at most is the face, so the face is the greatest awrah of a woman. The term is translated as honor. The full Afghan chadri covers the entire face except for a small region about the eyes. The chadri has been worn by Pashtun women since pre-Islamic times and was seen as a mark of respectability. Before the Taliban took power in Afghanistan, the chadri was rarely worn in cities, while they were in power, the Taliban required the wearing of a chadri in public. Officially, it is not required under the present Afghan regime and they are usually light blue in the Kabul area, white in the north in Mazar-i-Sharif and brown and green in Kandahar in the south. Chadri use in the remainder of Afghanistan is variable and is observed to be declining in Kabul. Due to political instability in these areas, women who might not otherwise be inclined to wear the chadri must do so as a matter of personal safety, among the Muslim population in India, the burqa is common in many areas—old Delhi, for example. However, after this the husband usually decides if his wife should continue to wear a burqa, in Pakistan, wearing of the burqa mainly occurs in Pashtun territories along the border areas, especially in tribal areas and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. However, in the remainder of the country, its use has greatly declined, however, the use of burqa remains localized and most women who observe burqa within these areas, do not do so when they travel out of the area. Some years ago, a group of Haredi Jewish women in Israel began donning the Burqa as a symbol of piety, following its adoption by Bruria Keren, an estimated 600 Jewish women took to wearing the veil. Keren claims to follow rules of modesty to save men from themselves. A man who sees a womans body parts is sexually aroused, even if he doesnt actually sin physically, his impure thoughts are sin in themselvesBurqa – Detail of the head and upper torso portions of a silk burqa
25. Chador – A chador is a full-body-length semicircle of fabric that is open down the front. This cloth is tossed over the womans or girls head, the chador has no hand openings, or any buttons, clasps, etc. but rather it is held closed by her hands or tucked under the wearers arms. Before the 1978–79 Iranian Revolution, black chadors were reserved for funerals, light, printed fabrics were the norm for everyday wear. Currently, the majority of Iranian women who wear the chador use the black version outside, fadwa El Guindi locates the origin of the veil in ancient Mesopotamia, where wives and daughters of high-ranking men of the nobility had to veil. The veil marked class status, and this code was regulated by sumptuary laws. This custom seems to have adopted by the Persian Achaemenid rulers. One of the first representation of a chador is found on Ergili sculptures, Achaemenid Iranian women in art were mostly veiled. The earliest written record of chador can be found in Pahlavi scripts from the 6th century and it is likely that the custom of veiling continued through the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid periods. Veiling was not limited to women but was practiced also by the Persian kings. Upper-class Greek and Byzantine women were secluded from the public gaze. European visitors of the 18th and 19th centuries have left records of women wearing the chador. The 20th century Pahlavi ruler Reza Shah banned the chador and all hijab in 1936, according to Mir-Hosseini as cited by El Guindi, the police were arresting women who wore the veil and forcibly removing it. This policy outraged the Shia clerics, and ordinary men and women, however, she continues, this move was welcomed by Westernized and upperclass men and women, who saw it in liberal terms as a first step in granting women their rights. According to Mir-Hosseini, between 1941 and 1979 wearing hejab was no longer an offence, but it was a hindrance to climbing the social ladder, a badge of backwardness. Fashionable hotels and restaurants sometimes even refused to women with chador, schools and universities actively discouraged the chador. It was common to see girls from families, who had to leave home with the chador, arriving at school without it. In April 1980, during the Iranian Cultural Revolution, it was decided that women in government offices, stricter veiling implies both chador and more loosely khimar-type headscarf along with overcoat. Before the 1978–79 Iranian Revolution, black chadors were reserved for funerals, light, printed fabrics were the norm for everyday wearChador – Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia, regent of Imperial Iran in 1848
26. Jellabiya – The jellabiya is a traditional Sudanese and Egyptian garment native to the Nile Valley. It differs from the Arabian thawb in that it has a cut, no collar. In case of farmers, these sleeves can be very wide and they are then used to store small items such as tobacco or money. Jellabiya colours are white in the summer. During winter, thicker fabric in other such as grey, dark green, olive, blue, tan or striped fabrics are used. The garment is worn with an ammama. Bekishe Djellaba Hijab Jilbāb Thawb Qamis What is GallabiaJellabiya – Musicians in Egypt wearing (urban) gellabiya
27. Shalwar kameez – Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent. It is a term used to describe different styles of dress. The shalwar kameez can be worn by men and women, but styles differ by gender. The shalwar and the kameez are two garments which are combined to form the shalwar kameez, the shalwar, šalvār, sirwāl, salwar, selwar, shalvaar are a form of baggy trousers. Transliterations starting from Urdu, Lahnda, Persian, Pashto, Turkish languages use sh, Salwar is the spelling most commonly used in India. Transliterations starting from Punjabi often render the sibilant sound at the start of salwar/shalwar as an s, both spellings are found in common English usage. The shalwar spelling seems to be most common in Canada and the United Kingdom, the kameez or qamis is a shirt of varying length. Garments cut like the kameez are known in many cultures, 10th-century cotton shirts recovered from the Egyptian desert are cut much like the kameez or the contemporary Egyptian djellaba or jellabiya. The word kameez is originally an Arabic word and is also spelled with a Q. The shalwar are loose pajama-like trousers, the legs are wide at the top, and narrow at the ankle. The kameez is a shirt or tunic, often seen with a Western-style collar, however, for female apparel. The kameez might be worn with pajamas as well, either for fashion or comfort, some kameez styles have side seams, left open below the waist-line, giving the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez can be straight and flat, in an A shape design or flowing like a dress. Modern kameez styles are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves, if the tailors taste or skill is displayed, this will be seen in the shape of the neckline and the decoration of the kameez. The kameez may be cut with a deep neckline, sewn in diaphanous fabrics, there are many styles of shalwar, the Peshawari shalwar, Balochi shalwar, Sindhi choreno and Punjabi shalwar. The following are some of the styles of shalwar kameez, the shalwar kameez known as the Anarkali suit is named after the court dancer from Lahore. This suit has a style which has become very popular. It is made up of a long, frock-style top and features a fitted bottomShalwar kameez – Shalwar (with Kabuli sandals).
28. Songkok – The songkok or peci or kopiah is a cap widely worn in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand, mostly among Muslim males. It has the shape of a cone, usually made of black or embroidered felt. It is also worn by males in formal situations such as wedding feasts, funerals or festive occasions such as the Muslim Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Songkok came to be associated with Islam in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and it is called songkok in the Ethnic Malay cultural sphere in Malay Archipelago. While in Java, it is called kopiah or kopeah and it is also known widely in Indonesia as peci, although peci has a more ellipse shape and sometimes decorated. The name peci was probably derived from the Dutch word petje means literary small hat, all names refer to the same object. The origin of the songkok can be traced to the fez, the songkok used to be worn during the Ottoman Empire and in some parts of Africa. One Brunei newspaper account erroneously states that the songkok became a norm in Malay Archipelago in the 13th century with the coming of Islam in the region, the earliest written mention of the word songkok is in Syair Siti Zubaidah. The Malay Regiment have been using the songkok as part of their uniform since under British rule, traditionally songkok are associated with Muslim mens cap. However, in Indonesia, the songkok has become the national headress with secular nationalist connotations made popular by Sukarno, numbers of Indonesian nationalist movement activist in early 20th century wore peci such as Sukarno, Muhammad Hatta, and Agus Salim. Indonesian official palace guards also wore peci as part of their uniform, the Paskibraka or flag raising squad in Indonesian independence day ceremony also wear peci, and there is even female peci version with curved back. In Malaysia, traditional male Malay attire consists of a songkok, shirt, matching pants, in a Dewan Undangan Negeri or in Dewan Rakyat, a member is required to wear the songkok to comply with the dress code of the assembly. In Singapore, the songkok is not allowed to be worn in government schools as part of the uniform as Singapore is officially a secular state and it is part of the standard uniform at madrasahs. The songkok also once plays a role in the heraldry of the defunct-Sultanate of Sulu, dhaka topi Gandhi cap Fez YarmulkeSongkok – Men of the Royal Malay Regiment (Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) wearing songkok at bayonet practice, Singapore Island (1941).
29. Taqiyah (cap) – The taqiyah is a short, rounded skullcap. They are often worn for religious purposes, for example, Muslims believe that Muhammad used to keep his head covered, Muslims often wear them during the five daily prayers. When worn by itself, the taqiyah can be any color, however, particularly in Arab countries, when worn under the keffiyeh headscarf, they are kept in a traditional white. Some Muslims wrap a turban around the cap, called an amamah in Arabic, in the United States and Britain taqiyas are usually referred to as kufis. Topi is a type of cap that is worn in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan. Many different types of topi caps include, the Sindhi cap, worn in Sindh, the topi cap is often worn with salwar kameez, which is the national costume of Pakistan. Taqiyah is the Arabic word for a Muslim cap used in Saudi Arabia, in Pakistan and India, the prayer cap is called a topi. Topi means cap in the Hindi/Urdu language, in Pakistan, men usually wear the topi with Kurta Pajama. In Bangladesh its known as tupi, in the United States and Britain, many Muslim merchants sell the prayer cap under the name kufi. There are a variety of Muslim caps worn around the world. Each country or region usually has a head covering. In Afghanistan, men wear a wool beret called a pakol, Pakol means taqiyah in the Pashto language spoken by the local Pashtun people. Salwar kameez is the traditional mens attire, however, among rebab players, the collarless shirt and pants called, payraan tumbaan or peran and tunban is popular. Men wear a white cap with traditional Chinese clothing including the Chinese suit. In the United States, the Chinese robe is sold as a mens cheongsam, for formal wear, the robe is made of silk, because silk is the traditional Chinese fabric. In China, the Hui people developed Muslim Chinese martial arts, recently, the Chinese government has adopted the Tangzhuang as the national costume for men. The peci/songkok is the national dress, in the United States, the songkok is called a rampuri cap or African fez cap. The Indonesians also produce a machine knitted skullcap that is popular with Muslims, javanese people wear the sarong with their capsTaqiyah (cap) – Various takiyah on display in Pettah market, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
30. Keffiyeh – The keffiyeh or kufiya, also known as a ghutrah, shemagh, ḥaṭṭah, mashadah, chafiye or cemedanî, is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress fashioned from a square scarf, usually made of cotton. It is typically worn by Arabs, as well as by some Mizrahi Jews and it is commonly found in arid regions as it provides protection from sunburn, dust and sand. During his sojourn with the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, Gavin Young noted that the local sayyids – venerated men accepted, as descendants of the Prophet Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib – wore dark green keffiyeh in contrast to the black-and-white checkered examples typical of the areas inhabitants. Many Palestinian keffiyehs are a mix of cotton and wool, which facilitates quick drying and, the keffiyeh is usually folded in half and the fold worn across the forehead. Often, the keffiyeh is held in place by a circlet of rope called an agal, some wearers wrap the keffiyeh into a turban, while others wear it loosely draped around the back and shoulders. A taqiyah is sometimes worn underneath the keffiyeh, in the past, the keffiyeh is almost always of white cotton cloth, but many have a checkered pattern in red or black stitched into them. The plain white keffiyeh is most popular in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf – in Kuwait and Bahrain, the keffiyeh is worn by men of all ages, whether on the head or around the shoulders. In Jordan, the keffiyeh is strongly associated with the country and its heritage. The Jordanian keffiyeh has decorative cotton or wool tassels on the sides, the bigger these tassels, the greater the garments supposed value and it has long been worn by Bedouins and villagers and used as a symbol of honor and/or tribal identification. The tasseled red-and-white Jordanian shemagh is much thicker than the untasseled red-and-white shemagh seen in Persian Gulf countries, in Yemen, the keffiyeh is used extensively in both red-white and black-white pattern and in some traditional Yemeni designs and colours. The shemagh is part of an ancient Middle Eastern headgear tradition, the keffiyeh, especially the all-white keffiyeh, is also known as the ghutrah. This is particularly common in the Arabian Peninsula, where the skullcap is called a keffiyeh, the garment is also known in some areas as the ḥaṭṭah. Roughly speaking, Ordinary keffiyeh A piece of cloth made from wool and cotton. Shemagh A piece of cloth, usually made of cotton or flax and decorated with many colors, ghutrah A piece of white cloth made of cotton mild, worn in western Iraq and by the Arabs of the Persian Gulf states. Rezza It is worn by inhabitants of North Africa and Egypt, traditionally worn by Palestinian farmers, the keffiyeh became worn by Palestinian men of any rank and became a symbol of Palestinian nationalism during the Arab Revolt of the 1930s. Its prominence increased during the 1960s with the beginning of the Palestinian resistance movement, Arafat would wear his keffiyeh in a semi-traditional way, wrapped around his head via an agal. He also wore a similarly patterned piece of cloth in the neckline of his military fatigues. Early on, he had made it his trademark to drape the scarf over his right shoulder only, arranging it in the rough shape of a triangleKeffiyeh – Iraqi man photographed in 2003 wearing keffiyeh.