Newport Barracks was a military barracks on the Ohio River, across from Cincinnati, Ohio in Newport, Kentucky. It was operational from 1803 until 1894, the post was 4 acres in the original tract, purchased from old Colonel Taylor estate for $1. In 1806, two acres were bought for $47. Taylor was hired as the superintendent of the construction of the barracks and he was to erect three buildings. John Metcalf of Fleming County and Dan Mayo of Newport contracted for the brick, stephen Lyon did most of the carpentry and Amos B. Watson of New York was the joiner, Colonel William Boyd arrived in Newport in March 1811 with 600 men who pitched their tents in the fields adjacent to the Barracks. Newport was a recruiting center for Ohio and Kentucky and furnished equipment. During the War of 1812, the post furnished soldiers to go to the front in the war with Great Britain. Gen. James Taylor Jr. was Quartermaster General and paymaster of the Northwestern Army during this war, british prisoners were brought to Newport.
In 1842 Taylor asked the government for $20,000 to make improvements at the Barracks, after 35 years of use they were in need of repair. In 1848 the city of Newport gave to the government all the land lying between the barracks and the Ohio and Licking Rivers. These waterfronts included several acres and were free to the government. Newport Barracks became a depot of the Eastern Department of the Recruiting Service until 16 July 1859 when it was made an independent department, during the Civil War, although Kentucky was a slave state and a politically divided border state, it remained in the Union. Wounded and dying from the war were brought to Newport as well as Confederate prisoners and it is said that Jefferson Davis, General Robert E. Lee and Union General Ulysses S. Grant did tours of duty at the Newport Barracks. After the Civil War ended, the Barracks lost their usefulness as one company posts were giving way to larger installations and its location at the confluence of the Licking and Ohio Rivers subjected it to frequent flooding, especially during the floods of 1882,1883 and 1884.
In light of that factor, the Secretary of War purchased 112 acres on a hill above the Ohio River three miles east of Newport which became Fort Thomas. By November 1894 all personnel and equipment was transferred to the new army post and on January 2,1895, the city eventually built General James Taylor Park on the grounds
Charles Scott (governor)
Charles Scott was an 18th-century American soldier who was elected the fourth governor of Kentucky in 1808. Orphaned at an age, Scott enlisted in the Virginia Regiment in October 1755 and served as a scout and escort during the French. He quickly rose through the ranks to become a captain, in August 1776, he was promoted to colonel and given command of the 5th Virginia Regiment. The 5th Virginia joined George Washington in New Jersey that year, Scott commanded Washingtons light infantry, and by late 1778 was serving as his chief of intelligence. Furloughed at the end of the Philadelphia campaign, Scott returned to service in March 1779 and was ordered to South Carolina to assist General Benjamin Lincoln in the southern theater. He arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, just as Henry Clinton had begun his siege of the city, Scott was taken as a prisoner of war when Charleston surrendered. Paroled in March 1781 and exchanged for Lord Rawdon in July 1782, after the war, Scott visited the western frontier in 1785 and began to make preparations for a permanent relocation.
He resettled near present-day Versailles, Kentucky, in 1787, confronted by the dangers of Indian raids, Scott raised a company of volunteers in 1790 and joined Josiah Harmar for an expedition against the Indians. After Harmars Defeat, President Washington ordered Arthur St. Clair to prepare for an invasion of Indian lands in the Northwest Territory. In the meantime, Scott, by now holding the rank of general in the Virginia militia, was ordered to conduct a series of preliminary raids. In July 1791, he led the most notable and successful of these raids against the village of Ouiatenon, St. Clairs main invasion, conducted that year, was a failure. Shortly after the separation of Kentucky from Virginia in 1792, the Kentucky General Assembly commissioned Scott as a major general and gave him command of the 2nd division of the Kentucky militia. Scotts division cooperated with Mad Anthony Waynes Legion of the United States for the rest of the Northwest Indian War, having previously served in the Virginia House of Delegates and as a presidential elector, the aging Scott now ran for governor.
His 1808 campaign was managed by his step-son-in-law, Jesse Bledsoe. A fall on the icy steps of the governors mansion early in his term confined Scott to crutches for the rest of his life, and left him reliant on Bledsoe. After his term expired, Scott returned to his Canewood estate and his health declined rapidly, and he died on October 22,1813. Scott County and Scott County, are named in his honor, as are the cities of Scottsville, Charles Scott was born in 1739, probably in April, in the part of Goochland County, that is now Powhatan County. His father, Samuel Scott, was a farmer and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses and his mother, whose name is not known, died most likely around 1745
James Johnson (Kentucky)
Representative from Kentucky, brother of Richard Mentor Johnson and John Telemachus Johnson and uncle of Robert Ward Johnson. Born in Orange County, Johnson moved with his father to Kentucky in 1779 and he was a member of the State senate in 1808. He served as lieutenant colonel in the War of 1812, contractor for furnishing supplies to troops on the western frontier in 1819 and 1820. He served as presidential elector on the ticket of Monroe and Tompkins in 1820, Johnson was elected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth Congress and served from March 4,1825, until his death in Washington, D. C. He was interred in the cemetery, Great Crossings, Kentucky. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress and this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
John Adair was an American pioneer and politician. He was the eighth Governor of Kentucky and represented the state in both the U. S. House and Senate. A native of South Carolina, Adair enlisted in the militia and served in the Revolutionary War, during which he was twice captured. Following the War, he was elected as a delegate to South Carolinas convention to ratify the United States Constitution. After moving to Kentucky in 1786, Adair participated in the Northwest Indian War, popular for his service in two wars, he entered politics in 1792 as a delegate to Kentuckys constitutional convention. Adair was elected to a total of eight terms in the state House of Representatives between 1793 and 1803 and he served as Speaker of the Kentucky House in 1802 and 1803, and was a delegate to the states Second Constitutional Convention in 1799. After a long battle, he was acquitted of any wrongdoing. The negative publicity kept him out of politics for more than a decade and he returned to the State House in 1817, and Isaac Shelby, his commanding officer in the War who was serving a second term as governor, appointed him adjutant general of the state militia.
In 1820, Adair was elected governor on a platform of financial relief for Kentuckians hit hard by the Panic of 1819. Following his term as governor, Adair served one undistinguished term in the United States House of Representatives, John Adair was born January 9,1757, in Chester County, South Carolina, a son of Scottish immigrants Baron William and Mary Adair. He was educated at schools in Charlotte, North Carolina, during the British victory over the Colonists at the August 16,1780, Battle of Camden, Adair was taken as a prisoner of war. He contracted smallpox and was treated harshly by his captors during his months-long imprisonment, subsequently, he was released via a prisoner exchange. In 1781, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the South Carolina militia, and fought in the drawn Battle of Eutaw Springs, the wars last major battle in the Carolinas. Edward Lacey was elected sheriff of Chester County after the war and he was chosen as a delegate to the South Carolina convention to ratify the U. S.
Constitution. In 1784, Adair married Katherine Palmer and they had twelve children, ten of them daughters. One married Thomas Bell Monroe, who served as Adairs Secretary of State and was appointed to a federal judgeship. In 1786, the Adairs migrated westward to Kentucky, settling in Mercer County, enlisting for service as a captain in the Northwest Indian War in 1791, Adair was soon promoted to major and assigned to the brigade of James Wilkinson. On November 6,1792, a band of Miamis under the command of Little Turtle encountered Adair, when the Miami attacked, Adair ordered Lieutenant George Madison to attack their right flank while Adair led 25 men to attack the left flank
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was an officer in the United States Army. Taylors status as a hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died 16 months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery and he remains the only President to come from Louisiana. Taylor was born into a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth and he was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and his success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname Old Rough and Ready. The Mexican–American War broke out in April 1846, in May, Taylor defeated Mexican troops commanded by General Mariano Arista at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and managed to drive his troops out of Texas.
Taylor subsequently led his troops into Mexico, where once again defeated Mexican troops commanded by Pedro de Ampudia at the Battle of Monterrey in September. Defying orders, Taylor moved his troops further south, despite being severely outnumbered, he dealt a crushing blow to Mexican forces under Antonio López de Santa Anna in February 1847 at the Battle of Buena Vista. After this, most of Taylors troops were transferred to the command of Major General Winfield Scott, the Whig Party convinced the reluctant Taylor to lead their ticket in the 1848 presidential election, despite his unclear political beliefs and lack of interest in politics. At the 1848 Whig National Convention, Taylor defeated Scott and former Senator Henry Clay to take the nomination, as president, Taylor kept his distance from Congress and his cabinet, even as partisan tensions threatened to divide the Union. Debate over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession dominated the political agenda, despite being a Southerner and a slaveholder himself, Taylor did not push for the expansion of slavery, and he sought sectional harmony above all other concerns.
To avoid the issue of slavery, he urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, Taylor died suddenly of a stomach-related illness in July 1850, with his administration having accomplished little aside from the ratification of the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. Fillmore served the remainder of Taylors term, Zachary Taylor was born on November 24,1784, on a plantation in Orange County, Virginia, to a prominent family of planters of English ancestry. He is inconclusively believed to have born at the home of his maternal grandfather. He was the third of five surviving sons in his family and had three younger sisters and his mother was Sarah Dabney Taylor. His father, Richard Taylor, had served as a lieutenant colonel in the American Revolution, Taylors second cousin through that line was James Madison, the fourth president. Leaving exhausted lands, his family joined the migration out of Virginia and settled near what developed as Louisville, Kentucky
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle
The Hunters of Kentucky
In both 1824 and 1828 Jackson used the song as his campaign song during his presidential campaigns. Hunters of Kentucky was written in 1821 by Samuel Woodworth, whose fame rest on Hunters and The Old Oaken Bucket, one-fourth of Jacksons men at the Battle of New Orleans were from Kentucky. It was sung the way Irish singers told stories in narrative form and it was first sung in New Orleans in 1822 by Noah M. Ludlow. Throughout the term of Andrew Jackson, Hunters of Kentucky proved to be a popular song and this is ironic as Jacksons fieriest rival, Henry Clay, was the one from Kentucky, Jackson was actually from Tennessee, near Nashville. However, Americans who entered Canada in 1837 and 1838 did sing the song, Hunters of Kentucky propagated various beliefs about the war. One of them was calling the Pennsylvania Rifle the Kentucky Rifle, another was crediting the riflemen with the victory of the Battle of New Orleans, when it could be said it was Jacksons artillery that was actually responsible for the win.
Finally, one said that the British planned to ransack New Orleans. This song was covered in the musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson as the closing number, bivouac of the Dead Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone, The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer, Donald R. Dont Give Up the Ship. Myths of the War of 1812, Harry L. Andrew Jackson Vs. Henry Clay
Richard Mentor Johnson
Richard Mentor Johnson was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He is the vice president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson represented Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate, he began, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1806. He became allied with fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay as a member of the War Hawks faction that favored war with Britain in 1812. At the outset of the War of 1812, Johnson was commissioned a colonel in the Kentucky Militia and he and his brother James served under William Henry Harrison in Upper Canada. Johnson participated in the Battle of the Thames, some reported that he personally killed the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, which he used to his political advantage. After the war, Johnson returned to the House of Representatives, the legislature appointed him to the Senate in 1819 to fill the seat vacated by John J.
Crittenden. As his prominence grew, his relationship with Julia Chinn. It worked against his political ambitions, unlike other upper class leaders who had African American mistresses but never mentioned them, Johnson openly treated Chinn as his common law wife. He acknowledged their two daughters as his children, giving them his surname, much to the consternation of some of his constituents. The relationship is believed to have led to the loss of his Senate seat in 1829, in 1836, Johnson was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on a ticket with Martin Van Buren. Campaigning with the slogan Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh, virginias delegation to the Electoral College went against the states popular vote and refused to endorse Johnson, abstaining instead. However, he was elected to the office by the Senate, Johnson proved such a liability for the Democrats in the 1836 election that they refused to renominate him for vice-president in 1840. President Van Buren campaigned for re-election without a running mate and he lost to William Henry Harrison, a Whig.
Johnson tried to return to office but was defeated. He finally was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1850, Richard Mentor Johnson was born on October 17,1780, the fifth of Robert and Jemima Johnsons eleven children. At the time, the family was living in the newly founded settlement of Beargrass, near present-day Louisville, by 1782, the Johnsons had moved to Bryans Station in Fayette County. Johnsons mother was considered among the women of the community because of her actions during Simon Girtys raid on Bryans Station in August 1782
Tecumsehs War or Tecumsehs Rebellion was a conflict between the United States Army and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. The two principal adversaries in the conflict and William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian War in 1794. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miamis, who had participated in the earlier war and signed the Greenville Treaty, lived in his village on the Eel River. Both Black Hoof and Little Turtle urged cultural adaptation and accommodation with the United States, the tribes of the region participated in several treaties, including the Treaty of Grouseland and the Treaty of Vincennes that gave and recognized American possession of most of southern Indiana. The treaties resulted in an easing of tensions by allowing settlers into Indiana, in May 1805, Lenape Chief Buckongahelas, one of the most important native leaders in the region, died of either smallpox or influenza.
The surrounding tribes believed his death was caused by a form of witchcraft, the witch-hunts inspired a nativist religious revival led by Tecumsehs brother Tenskwatawa, who emerged in 1805 as a leader among the witch hunters. He quickly posed a threat to the influence of the accommodationist chiefs, as part of his religious teachings, Tenskwatawa urged Indians to reject European American ways, such as drinking liquor, European-style clothing, and firearms. He called for the tribes to refrain from ceding any more lands to the United States, numerous Indians, who were inclined to cooperate with the United States, were accused of witchcraft, and some were executed by followers of Tenskwatawa. Black Hoof was accused in the witch-hunt, but was not harmed, from his village at Greenville, Tenskwatawa compromised Black Hoofs friendly relationship with the United States, leading to rising tensions with settlers in the region. Black Hoof and other leaders began to put pressure on Tenskwatawa. Little Turtle told the Shawnee that they were there.
In 1808, Tecumseh began to be seen as a leader by his community, in 1808, the British in Canada approached him to form an alliance, but he refused. The Americans first took notice of him in 1810, Tecumseh eventually emerged as the leader of the confederation, but it was built upon a foundation established by the religious appeal of his younger brother. Tippecanoe was the largest Native American community in the Great Lakes region and served as important cultural and it was an intertribal, religious stronghold along the Wabash River in Indiana for 3000 Native Americans, it was known as Prophetstown to whites. Led by Tenskwatawa initially, and jointly with Tecumseh, thousands of Algonquin-speaking Indians gathered at Tippecanoe to gain spiritual strength, meanwhile, in 1800, William Henry Harrison had become the governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory, with the capital at Vincennes. Harrison sought to secure title to Indian lands to allow for American expansion, in particular, Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians.
In 1809, Harrison began to push for the need of another treaty to open land for settlement. The Miami and Kickapoo were vehemently opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River, in September 1809, he invited the Potawatomi, Eel Rivers, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne
Battle of Frenchtown
The Battles of Frenchtown, known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts that took place from January 18–23,1813 during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin in Frenchtown, the battle on January 22 had the highest number of fatalities of any battle during this war. On January 18,1813 the Americans forced the retreat of the British and their Native American allies from Frenchtown, the movement was part of a larger United States plan to advance north and retake Fort Detroit, following its loss in the Siege of Detroit the previous summer. Despite this initial success, the British and Native Americans rallied and launched a counterattack four days on January 22. Ill-prepared, the Americans lost 397 soldiers in this battle, while 547 were taken prisoner. Dozens of wounded prisoners were murdered the day in a massacre by the Native Americans. More prisoners were killed if they could not keep up on the march to Fort Malden.
This was the deadliest conflict recorded on Michigan soil, and the casualties included the highest number of Americans killed in a battle during the War of 1812. Parts of the battlefield were designated as a state historic park. In 2009 Congress authorized its upgrade into the River Raisin National Battlefield Park, one of four parks in the nation. The Battle of Frenchtown took place in Frenchtown township in the Michigan Territory, much of the land it was fought on is now incorporated into the city of Monroe. The plural Battles of Frenchtown is used for the conflict from January 18 through 22. While the battle began on January 18, the heaviest fighting took place on January 22 and it is often referred to as the Battle of the River Raisin, because of its proximity to that river. The engagement may be divided into the First Battle of the River Raisin, the name River Raisin Massacre is used for the events of January 23, the day after the surrender, when pro-British Indians murdered dozens of wounded United States prisoners.
These volunteer soldiers from Kentucky were too badly injured to march overland to Canada, on August 17,1812, Brigadier General William Hull, commanding the American Army of the Northwest, surrendered his troops and Fort Detroit to the British army following the Siege of Detroit. This early success convinced many Native Americans to side with Britain in the war, General Hull was tried by a military court and sentenced to death for his disgraceful conduct at Detroit. However, President James Madison commuted the sentence to dismissal from the army in recognition of Hulls honorable service during the American Revolution, at that time, Fort Detroit was a strategic outpost and a potential base for any US invasion of British Upper Canada. Its loss to the British gave them a base to increase their presence in the Michigan Territory, when the British captured Detroit, the Frenchtown militia surrendered and were disarmed