1. Languages of Europe – Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. This family is divided into a number of branches, including Romance, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic, Armenian, the Uralic languages, which include Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, also have a significant presence in Europe. The Indo-European language family descended from Proto-Indo-European, believed to have spoken thousands of years ago. Indo-European languages are spoken throughout Europe, Albanian has two major dialects, Tosk Albanian and Gheg Albanian. It is spoken in Albania and Kosovo, neighboring Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Greece, Italy and it is also widely spoken in the Albanian diaspora. Armenian has two dialects, Western Armenian and Eastern Armenian. It is spoken in Armenia, where it has official status, and is also spoken in neighboring Georgia, Iran. It is also spoken in Turkey by a small minority. The Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia, samogitian and Latgalian are usually considered to be dialects of Lithuanian and Latvian respectively. There are also several extinct Baltic languages, including, Galindian, Curonian, there are six living Celtic languages, spoken in areas of northwestern Europe dubbed the Celtic nations. The Germanic languages make up the predominant language family in northwestern Europe, reaching from Iceland to Sweden and from parts of the United Kingdom, there are two extant major sub-divisions, West Germanic and North Germanic. A third group, East Germanic, is now extinct, the known surviving East Germanic texts are written in the Gothic language. It is spoken in regions throughout Northern Germany and the North. It has no status in either of the two countries. Low German Low Saxon East Low German Dutch is spoken throughout the Netherlands, northern Belgium, as well as the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France, in Belgian and French contexts, Dutch is sometimes referred to as Flemish. Dutch dialects are varied and cut across national borders, in Germany it is called East Bergish. Afrikaans is spoken by South African emigrant communities in Europe, most notably in the Netherlands, Belgium, additionally, Yiddish is a Jewish language developed in Germany and shares many features of German dialects and Hebrew. The North Germanic languages are spoken in Scandinavian countries and include Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, or Elfdalian, Faroese, and IcelandicLanguages of Europe – Latin script: Fraktur variant
2. Languages of Albania – Albania is an ethnically homogeneous country, where the overwhelming majority of the population speaks Albanian, which is also the official language. It has two dialects, Tosk, spoken in the south, and Gheg, spoken in the north. However many Albanians speak Italian, Greek, French, German, English amongst other languages too, due to the numbers of Albanian diaspora. Albania is one of the most polyglot nations in Europe, many Albanians at home, in the region and around the world speak more than two languages. Italian is widely spoken throughout Albania, Greek, the language of the Greek minority of the south, is also very widespread in that region. Nowadays, knowledge of English is growing rapidly, especially among the youth. Various languages are spoken by minorities, Greek, Macedonian. The Article 14 of the Albanian Constitution states that The official language in the Republic of Albania is Albanian, according to the 2011 population census,2,765,610,98. 767% of the population declared Albanian as their mother tongue. Standard Albanian is based on Tosk dialect, spoken in the south, Gheg is spoken in the north and also by Kosovo Albanians. The traditional border between the two dialects in Shkumbin River, although they are somewhat different, they are mutually intelligible. Other dialects include Arbereshe, Cham and Arvanitika spoken in Italy, Greek is the largest minority language of Albania and first largest foreign language. Because the number of Greeks in Albania is disputed, the number of native speakers of Greek is unknown. The Greeks of Albania speak a modern southern Greek dialect, known as Northern Epirote Greek, alongside Albanian loanwords, it retains some archaic forms and words that are no longer used in Standard Modern Greek, as well as in the Greek dialects of southern Epirus. Despite the relatively small distances between the towns and villages, there exists some dialectal variation, most noticeably in accent. In addition, many Albanians have knowledge of Greek, mainly due to past immigration to Greece, Greek is co-official in numerous municipalities and regions in Southern Albania. Aromanian is the language for about 100,000 to 200,000 Aromanians of Albania. They mostly live in the southern and central regions of the country, the Aromanians, under the name Vlachs, are a recognized cultural minority in the Albanian law. According to the 1989 census, there were approximately 5,000 Macedonian language-speakers in Albania, most of these people live in the southeastern part of the country in the Lake Prespa regionLanguages of Albania – Wall writing in Dhërmi. The text reads "Welcome to Drymades" in Greek.
3. Languages of Armenia – Armenia is an ethnically homogeneous country, where Armenian is the official language and is spoken as a first language by the majority of its population. As of today, Russian is still, by far, the best known foreign language among the Armenian population, English is gaining popularity in recent years. French and several languages have also begun to be studied and used. Kurdish is the largest minority language of Armenia spoken by the Yazidi minority, other minority languages recognized by the Armenian government are Assyrian, Greek and Russian. The Article 12 of the Constitution of Armenia states that The state language of the Republic of Armenia is Armenian, Armenian is a major language used in education, administration and public life. Armenian belongs to an independent branch of the Indo-European language family, Armenia has been the most successful of the three South Caucasian states in linguistic de-Russification after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Because of political and historical reasons, Russian is the most common language spoken by the majority of Armenians. English is the second and the fastest growing language in Armenia. Universities in Russian, English and French exist in the Armenian capital Yerevan, study courses are available in numerous languages in Armenian universities, most notably the Yerevan State Linguistic University. Russian is by far the most common language in Armenia. A1999 study showed that about 40% of the population is fluent in Russian, Russian language television stations and newspapers are widely available in Armenia. The current territory of the Republic of Armenia, was annexed by the Russian Empire in the early 19th century, since then Russian has been of high significance in the life and history of Armenia. Basically, from 1828 to 1918 and from 1921 to 1991 all official nomenclature was done in Russian, in the early 20th century, it was estimated that only 3-4% of Armenians could read or speak Russian. Rapid Russification started during the Soviet period, particularly after Stalins coming to power in the mid-1930s, until 1990 the Russian language was widely applied alongside Armenian. In 1988, nearly 100,000 Armenian students within the republic attended Russian-language schools, Russian was the main language of academic research, although Armenias constitution has recognized Armenian as the official language. By the 1980s over 90% of Armenias administrative paperwork was conducted in Russian, a large number of Armenian intelligentsia members sent their children to Russian-language schools, which was considered to be harmful to the future of Armenian. Since 1991 the situation changed radically, in concern of studying it at secondary, in practice, almost at all educational institutions the process of teaching was performed in Armenian, even at Russian departments of colleges and universities. Thus, the Russian language lost its statute of a mother tongue and was classified as a foreign languageLanguages of Armenia – As seen here, most Soviet-era street signs in Yerevan are in Armenian, Russian and (not always) English, while most independence era signs are in Armenian and English
4. Languages of Austria – German is the national official language and constitutes a lingua franca and de facto second language, most Austrians other than seniors are able to speak it. It is the used in media, in schools. The variety of German used, Austrian German is partially influenced by Austro-Bavarian, Vorarlberg uses a High Alemannic, the same dialect group as that spoken in Northern Switzerland and parts of southern Alsace, France. To most Germans and Austrians outside of Vorarlberg it is difficult to understand, as it is more similar to Swiss German, with many grammatical. The main native language of Austria outside Vorarlberg is Austro-Bavarian, which is using many different dialects. The northern parts of Austria speak Central Austro-Bavarian dialects and the southern parts Southern Austro-Bavarian dialects, Austro-Bavarian differs heavily from high German, making it difficult for German speakers of different regions to understand the native population. Some examples include, The word yes in the German language is spelled ja, in Austro-Bavarian dialect yes or ja is pronounced yo and although Austro-Bavarian is not an official language, jo is the spelling of yes. Other words you might only hear while visiting particular regions in Austria and Bavaria that differ from high German include, Grüß Gott, Servus, a number of minority languages are spoken in Austria, some of which have official status. Turkish is the largest minority language, in a situation mirroring that of Germany, serbian is the second largest minority language, with usage by 2. 2% of the population. While little spoken today, Hungarian has traditionally held an important position in Austria, today, Hungarian is spoken by around 1,000 people in Burgenland. Slovene, a language in Carinthia, is spoken by 0. 3% of Austrians. Carinthian Slovenes are recognized as a minority and have enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty of 1955Languages of Austria – High Alemannic German speaking areas marked in yellow, including part of the Austrian state of Vorarlberg (Switzerland).
5. Languages of Azerbaijan – Several languages are native to the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The primary and official language of Azerbaijan is Azerbaijani, Azeri, according to the 2009 census of the country it is spoken as a native language by 92. 5% of the population whereas Russian and English play significant roles as languages of education and communication. The large Armenian-speaking population of Nagorno-Karabakh is no longer under government control, lezgian, Talysh, Avar, Georgian, Budukh, Juhuri, Khinalug, Kryts, Jek, Rutul, Tsakhur, Tat, and Udi are all spoken by minorities. An entire issue of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language, edited by Jala Garibova, was devoted to the matter of languages and language choices in Azerbaijan, vol.198 in 2009. Azerbaijan has not ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages to which it became signatory in 1992, the medieval author Ibn al-Nadim, in his book Al-Fihrist mentions that all the Median and Persian lands of antiquity spoke one language. There, he quotes the great scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa, The Iranian languages are Fahlavi, Dari, Khuzi, Persian, but Fahlavi comes from the word Fahleh. And Fahleh is a name that refers to 5 regions, Isfahan, Ray, Hamedan, Mah-Nahavand and this has also been reported by reputed medieval historians such as Al-Tabari, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Moqaddasi, Yaghubi, Masudi, and Mostowfi Qazvini as well. Al-Khwarizmi also mentions this in Chapter 6, Vol.6, etymological studies also further indicate that current dialects spoken from Baku through Khalkhal to Semnan, all originated from a common source. In other words, the people of ancient Azerbaijan spoke the language spoken by the Medes. The medieval historian Yaqut al-Hamawi also used the phrase Al-ajam-ol-Azariyah in his books Moajjem ol-Odabaa, in other sources such as Surat-ol-Arz by Ebne Hoghel, Ahsan ol-Taqaaseem by Moqaddasi, and Masaalik va Mamaalik by Istakhri, the people of Azerbaijan are recorded as having spoken Iranian languages. Obviously, this was before the Turkic cultural arrival, and Tabari in 235 A. H. also mentions that poets in Maragheh recited poetry in Pahlavi. Some Azerbaijani poets however, such as Qatran Tabrizi, used the word Persian, the historian Hamdollah Mostowfi even goes as far as describing variants of Pahlavi spoken in different areas of Azerbaijan. In his book Tarikh Gozideh, he describes eight poets from Azerbaijan, calling them Ahl-ol Sher Men-al-Ajam, all Persian=speaking. By now, of course, Dari and Pahlavi had merged into one, as successive dynasties moved from east to west, many words in the current Azeri vocabulary are in fact of Pahlavi origin. But some historians report Pahlavi being spoken in Tabriz as late as the 17th century, even the Ottoman Turkish explorer Evliya Celebi, mentions this in his Seyahatname. He also reports that the elite and learned people of Nakhichevan and Maragheh spoke Pahlavi, ancient Azari language History of Azerbaijan Ethnologue page on Azerbaijan Language situation in AzerbaijanLanguages of Azerbaijan – Languages of Azerbaijan.
6. Languages of Belarus – The language situation in Belarus is characterized by a co-existence of several linguistic codes. At present the most widespread codes are Belarusian, Russian and the so-called trasianka, the earliest known documents from ethnic Belarusian territories date from the 12th century. Most of them are saints vitae and sermons written in the Church Slavonic language, there is an ongoing scientific discussion about the share of elements from, on one hand, Church Slavonic, on the other hand from autochthonous East Slavonic vernaculars in early East Slavonic texts. In the late 14th and in the 15th century the Church Slavonic religious writings in East Slavonic territories underwent an archaization known as rebulgarisation, the purpose of this archaization was to counteract the falsification of the divine word which allegedly had been caused by the influence of vernaculars. Rebulgarisation made Church Slavonic even less comprehensible to the population at large than it already was due to its complex syntax structures and its high share of abstract lexicon. This and the rise of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with its Slavic majority population contributed to the emergence of a written language on an autochthonous East Slavonic basis. This language emerged as a Koiné language from vernaculars bordering the administrative centers of the Grand Duchy, in contemporary sources it was referred to as ruskij jazyk, which serves pro-Russian linguistic historiography as an argument to claim it as a part of the history of the Russian language. Apart from that the term Ruthenian language is in use, although the latter often only to the southern variant of the state language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Subsequently, linguistic elements of Belarusian were perpetuated mainly in vernaculars, after the Partitions of Poland initially Polish remained the social dominant language in Belarus being more and more replaced in this role by Russian, in particular after the November Uprising. The language policy of the Russian Empire treated Belarusian as a dialect of Russian, as a school subject and language of instruction Belarusian was first introduced under German occupation in the district Ober Ost, which existed from 1915 to 1918. For the first time Belarusians became the majority population in the centers, in which Russian. At the same time the BSSR became the Soviet republic with the highest share of immigrants from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and this caused migrants from the Belarusian countryside to the cities to give up their dialectal Belarusian and adjust to the Russian-speaking environment. This way the Belarusian-Russian mixed speech trasianka spread and was perpetuated to the following speaker generation, a law passed by the Supreme Soviet of the BSSR in 1959 allowed pupils taught in schools with Russian as medium of instruction to opt out of Belarusian as a school subject. Under the pressure of this rebirth movement in 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the BSSR passed a language law which declared Belarusian the sole official language of the BSSR. Particular attention was drawn to the educational system, the revised language law names Russian in addition to Belarusian as official language of Belarus. In particular in the half of the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s the public use of Belarusian outside the spheres of education. This was reinforced by some disrespectful statements Lukashenko made about the Belarusian language, however, this has not resulted in a fundamental change of the actual language policy in Belarus yet. In the Belarusian population censuses of 1999 and 2009 respondents were asked about their native language and about the language they usually speak at homeLanguages of Belarus
7. Languages of Belgium – The Kingdom of Belgium has three official languages, Dutch, French, and German. A number of non-official, minority languages and dialects are spoken as well, the Belgian Constitution guarantees, since the countrys independence, freedom of language in the private sphere. Article 30 specifies that the use of languages spoken in Belgium is optional, only the law can rule on this matter, before the federal structure and the language legislation gradually introduced in the 20th century, French was generally the only language used by public authorities. For example, the Dutch version of the Constitution has enjoyed equal status to the original French one only since 1967, and the German version only since 1991. Though the standard form of Dutch used in Belgium is almost identical to that spoken in the Netherlands, Dutch is the official language of the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region and, along with French, an official language of the Brussels-Capital Region. The main Dutch dialects spoken in Belgium are Brabantian, West Flemish, East Flemish, Antwerp, all these are spoken across the border in the Netherlands as well, and West Flemish is also spoken in French Flanders. Some sub-dialects may be distant from standard Dutch and not be readily intelligible for other Dutch-speakers. Words which are unique to Belgian Dutch are called belgicisms, the original Brabantian dialect of Brussels has been very much influenced by French. It is now spoken by a minority in the Capital region since the language of most inhabitants shifted during the Frenchification of Brussels, the second-most spoken primary language, used natively by almost 40% of the population, is French. It is the language of the French Community, the dominant language in Wallonia as well as the Brussels-Capital Region. Almost all of the inhabitants of the Capital region speak French as either their primary language or as a lingua franca, there are also many Flemish people who speak French as a second language. Belgian French is in most respects identical to standard, Parisian French, but differs in some points of vocabulary, pronunciation, German is the least prevalent official language in Belgium, spoken natively by less than 1% of the population. The German-speaking Community of Belgium numbers 77,000, residing in an area of Belgium that was ceded by the former German Empire as part of the Treaty of Versailles, which concluded World War I. In 1940, Nazi Germany re-annexed the region following its invasion of Belgium during World War II, in national politics, politicians can choose which of the three official languages they want to speak. In the Belgian parliament, simultaneous interpretation is available for those who require it, education is provided by the Communities, Dutch in the Flemish Community, French in the French Community, German in the German-speaking community. Instruction in other languages is prohibited in government-funded schools, also all official communication with the government must be in the official language of the region or community. Inhabitants of a few municipalities are granted an exception to these rules, the measures advocated by the Marshall Plan are heading towards the proper direction, but are doubtlessly quite insufficient to fully overcome the lag. Within the report, professors in economics Ginsburgh and Weber further show that of the Brussels residents, 95% declared they can speak French, 59% Dutch, and 41% know the non-local EnglishLanguages of Belgium – A bilingual French-Dutch traffic sign in Brussels
8. Languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina – The census results are contested by the Republika Srpska statistical office and by Bosnian Serb politicians, who oppose the inclusion of non-permanent Bosnian residents in the figures. The European Unions statistics office, Eurostat, however concluded the methodology used by the Bosnian statistical agency to be in line with international recommendations. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, religion is linked to ethnicity, i. e. most Bosniaks are Muslim, Serbs are Orthodox Christian. Bosnias constitution does not specify any official languages, the equal status of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian was verified by the Constitutional Court in 2000. As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed, the three languages are mutually intelligible and are also known collectively as Serbo-Croatian. Use of one of the three varieties has become a marker of ethnic identity, michael Kelly and Catherine Baker argue, The three official languages of todays Bosnian state. represent the symbolic assertion of national identity over the pragmatism of mutual intelligibility. All standard varieties are based on the Ijekavian varieties of the Shtokavian dialect, Bosnian and Serbian are written in both Latin and Cyrillic, whereas Croatian is written only in Latin alphabet. There are also speakers of Italian, German, Turkish. Yugoslav Sign Language is used with Croatian and Serbian variants, a 2012 survey found that 54% of Bosnias Muslims are non-denominational Muslims, while 38% follow Sunnism. In Bosnia and Herzegovina religion is linked to ethnicity. The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicatedLanguages of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Population density in Bosnia and Herzegovina by municipality, early data from the 2013 census
9. Languages of Croatia – The demographic characteristics of the population of Croatia are known through censuses, normally conducted in ten-year intervals and analysed by various statistical bureaus since the 1850s. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics has performed this task since the 1990s, the latest census in Croatia was performed in April 2011. The permanent population of Croatia at the 2011 census had reached 4.29 million, the population density is 75.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, and the overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 78 years in 2012. The population rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, since 1991, Croatias death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate, the natural growth rate of the population is negative. Croatia is in the fourth or fifth stage of the demographic transition, in terms of age structure, the population is dominated by the 15‑ to 64‑year‑old segment. The median age of the population is 41.4, demographics professors from Zagreb Faculty of Economics predict that the population will decrease by 350.000 people by 2030, based on current number of children born and people emigrating. Experts believe both options are unlikely, Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats, while minorities include Serbs, and 21 other ethnicities. Late 19th century and the 20th century were marked by large scale economic migrations abroad, the 1940s and the 1950s in Yugoslavia were marked by internal migrations in Yugoslavia, as well as by urbanisation. The most recent significant migrations came as a result of the Croatian War of Independence when hundreds of thousands were displaced, the Croatian language is the official language, but minority languages are officially used in some local government units. Croatian is declared as the language by 95. 60% of the population. A2009 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language—most often English, the main religions of Croatia are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. Literacy in Croatia stands at 98. 1%, the proportion of the population aged 15 and over attaining academic degrees grew rapidly since 2001, doubling and reaching 16. 7% by 2008. An estimated 4. 5% of the GDP is spent for education, primary and secondary education are available in Croatian and in languages of recognised minorities. Croatia has a health care system and in 2010, the nation spent 6. 9% of its GDP on healthcare. Net monthly income in September 2011 averaged 5,397 kuna, the most significant sources of employment in 2008 were manufacturing industry, wholesale and retail trade and construction. In October 2011, unemployment rate was 17. 4%, Croatias median equivalent household income tops average Purchasing Power Standard of the ten countries which joined the EU in 2004, while trailing the EU average. 2011 census recorded a total of 1.5 million private households, average urbanisation rate in Croatia stands at 56%, with augmentation of urban population and reduction of rural population. With a population of 4.29 million in 2011, Croatia ranks 125th in the world by population and its population density is 75.8 inhabitants per square kilometreLanguages of Croatia – An official briefcase used by the Croatian Bureau of Statistics census takers for the purposes of the 2011 census
10. Languages of Cyprus – The official languages of the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish. In the break-away Northern Cyprus, Turkish was made the official language by the 1983 constitution. The everyday spoken language of the majority of the population is Cypriot Greek, for official purposes, the standard languages are used. Three religious groups are recognised by the constitution, two have their own language, Armenian and Cypriot Arabic, sometimes Kurbetcha, the language of the Kurbet, the Cypriot Roma, is included alongside the other two in literature, but it is not officially recognised in any capacity. The 2011 census of the Republic recorded 679,883 native speakers of Greek,34,814 of English,24,270 of Romanian,20,984 of Russian and 18,388 of Bulgarian of a total of 840,407. CG has a tradition that flourished before the Ottoman conquest of 1571. SMG has been the language of instruction in Greek Cypriot education since the late 19th century and is the used in Greek-language media in the country. Indeed, Greek Cypriots are diglossic, with SMG the high and CG the low variety, itself a continuum that has been long undergoing levelling. SMG exerts an influence on CG, and CG speakers code-mix. Turkish Cypriots have traditionally been fluent in CG, meaning CG served as the lingua franca of the island. Two minority languages are covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Cyprus, Armenian, armenians have inhabited Cyprus since the sixth century AD, but about 9,000 more arrived from Turkey in the early 20th century to escape the Armenian Genocide. Of those, most moved on to other countries, today, Western Armenian is taught in Armenian schools and is the first language of about 3,000 people of Armenian descent in the Republic. Armenian Cypriots are bilingual in Greek and Armenian, in 2014, it was reported that there are 668 Armenian first-language speakers in Republic of Cyprus-controlled areas. It is not entirely clear when Arabic first made its way to Cyprus, today, Cypriot Arabic is moribund with efforts being made to revitalise it. It is spoken by an estimated 900 Cypriot Maronites, all over the age of 30, kormakitis was a long-time stronghold of the language, but most Maronites relocated to the south and spread after 1974, fuelling its—now very likely—death. CA has traits in common with some north Syrian and Mesopotamian dialects, Cypriot Arabic has not so far been codified, though there are plans to do so. In 2014, it was reported that, in the 2011 census, there is an unknown number of Roma, speakers of Kurbetcha, a creole with vocabulary that is predominantly Romani and Cypriot Turkish grammar, residing in Northern Cyprus. Kurbetcha is not protected by the Charter and has been little studied, proficiency in English is high, and Cypriots that receive education in English might code-switch between Cypriot Greek and EnglishLanguages of Cyprus – Road sign outside Pyla, Cyprus in Greek (in capital letters, top), Turkish (middle) and romanised Greek (bottom)
11. Languages of the Czech Republic – Population loss during World War I was approximately 350,000. At the beginning of World War II the population of the Czech Republic reached its maximum, due to the expulsion of the German residents after World War II, the Czech Republic lost about 3 million inhabitants and in 1947 the population was only 8.8 million. Population growth resumed, and in 1994 the population was 10.33 million, from 1994-2003 natural growth was slightly negative and the population decreased to 10.2 million. The following statistics on age structure and sex ratio are from the CIA World Factbook, male,75.2 yearsfemale,81.1 years total, The majority of the 10.5 million inhabitants of the Czech Republic are ethnically and linguistically Czech. They are descendants of Slavic people from the Black Sea-Carpathian region who settled in Bohemia, Moravia, other ethnic groups include Germans, Romani, Poles and Hungarians. Historical minorities like Germans and Poles are declining due to assimilation, the Roma community is growing, while there is also a growing Vietnamese community. Other ethnic communities like Greeks, Turks, Italians and Yugoslavs are found in the capital city, since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Slovaks living in the Czech Republic have comprised roughly 3% of the population. There are different groups of national and ethnic minorities in the Czech Republic, the so-called old minorities live mostly in specific areas while the new minorities are scattered among the majority population. While some of the minorities have the social structure of Czech society. 1 In 2011 a large part of the population boycotted the nationality question as a sign of protest against government sponsored census, the legal position of the minorities is defined foremost in the Act No. There is a number of other enactments which to lesser extent deal with the minorities, a special situation applies in the case of Moravians and Silesians, who are frequently allocated within the group of Czechs when it comes to the statistical data. Minorities, which traditionally and on a term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic enjoy some privileges. Citizens belonging to the recognized minorities enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities. In the case that the agency does not have an employee with knowledge of the language. 273/2001 paragraph 9 the same applies to members of national minorities in the courts of law. The economic migration of Bulgarians to the Czech Republic began in the 1990s,4,363 citizens claimed to have Bulgarian nationality in the 2001 census. They mostly live in the cities and towns, such as Prague, Brno, Ostrava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Ústí nad Labem, Děčín. Nowadays the newcomers from Bulgaria aim for these areas in particular, many of these economic immigrants have dual citizenship of both the Czech Republic and BulgariaLanguages of the Czech Republic – A footpath on Wenceslas Square
12. Languages of Denmark – The Kingdom of Denmark has only one official language, Danish, the national language of the Danish people, but there are several minority languages spoken through the territory. These include German, Faroese, and Greenlandic, a large majority of Danes also speak English as a second language, it is mandatory for Danish students to learn from the first grade in Folkeskole. In the fifth grade of Folkeskole, a language option is given. The third most widely understood language is Swedish, with 13% of Danes reporting to be able to speak it, German is an official minority language in the former South Jutland County, which was part of Imperial Germany prior the Treaty of Versailles. Between 15,000 and 20,000 Ethnic Germans live in South Jutland, schleswigisch is highly divergent from Standard German and can be quite difficult to understand by Standard German speakers. Outside of South Jutland, the members of St. Peters Church in Copenhagen use German in their Church, its website, and the school that it runs. The German minority operates its own system of schools with German as the primary language of instruction as well as a system of libraries throughout South Jutland. It also operates a German high school located in Aabenraa, beside this there are also 28,584 immigrants from Germany in Denmark by 2012. Faroese, a North Germanic language like Danish, is the language of the Faroe Islands. It is also spoken by some Faroese immigrants to mainland Denmark, Faroese is similar to Icelandic, and also the Old Norse language spoken in the Scandinavian area more than a millennium ago. Greenlandic is the language of the 54,000 Inuit living in Greenland, which is, like the Faroe Islands. Roughly 7,000 people speak Greenlandic on the Danish mainland, jutlandic dialect Minority languages of DenmarkLanguages of Denmark – Faroese-language postage stamps.
13. Languages of Estonia – The official language of Estonia is Estonian, a Uralic language which is related to Finnish. It is unrelated to the bordering Russian and Latvian languages, both of which are Indo-European, Standard Estonian is mainly based on the North Estonian language, while South Estonian comprises several dialects, specifically Võro, Mulgi and Tartu. Võro, being furthest away from Standard Estonian, is the one to have been given an ISO 639-3 language code by SIL. Võru is widely accepted to have a subdialect Setu, although some consider it a separate language, Russian is by far the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentration of Russian-language community, the Baltic Germans were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today form the countries of Estonia and Latvia. The Baltic German population never made up more than 10% of the total and they formed the social, commercial, political and cultural élite in that region for several centuries. Some of them also took positions in the military and civilian life of the Russian Empire. Today there are very few Germans living in Estonia aside from some residents from Germany. The German language is the third most popular language among Estonians. The Estonian Swedes, are a Swedish-speaking linguistic minority traditionally residing in the coastal areas, almost all of Estonias Swedish-speaking minority fled to Sweden during World War II, and only the descendants of a few individuals who opted to stay are permanently resident in Estonia today. The Estonian Sign Language is the sign language of Estonia. In 1998 there were about 4,500 signers out a population of 1,600 deaf and 20,000 hearing impaired. In its formative stages, Estonian Sign Language was influenced by Russian and Finnish Sign Language, for example, there are several dialects, the most archaic of which is the Pärnu varietyLanguages of Estonia – Estonia with contemporary South Estonian highlighted.
14. Languages of Finland – The two main official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. There are also several minority languages, three variants of Sami, Romani, Finnish Sign Language and Karelian. Finnish is the language of the majority, 91% of the population and it is a Finnic language closely related to Estonian and less closely to the Sami languages. The Finnic languages belong to the Uralic language family, so Finnish is distantly related to languages as diverse as Hungarian, Swedish is the main language of 5. 4% of the population, down from 14% at the beginning of the 20th century. In 2012, 44% of Finnish citizens with another registered primary language than Swedish could hold a conversation in this language, Swedish is a North Germanic language, closely related to Norwegian and Danish. As a subbranch of Indo-European, it is closely related to other Germanic languages such as German. Swedish was the language of the administration until the late 19th century, today it is one of the two main official languages, with a position equal to Finnish in most legislation, though the working language in most governmental bodies is Finnish. Both Finnish and Swedish are compulsory subjects in school with an exception for children with a language as their native language. A successfully completed language test is a prerequisite for governmental offices where a university degree is required, the four largest Swedish-speaking communities in Finland, in absolute numbers, are those of Helsinki, Espoo, Porvoo and Vaasa, where they constitute significant minorities. Helsinki, the capital, had a Swedish-speaking majority until late in the 19th century, currently 6. 1% of the population of Helsinki are Swedish-speaking and 9. 6% speaks languages other than Finnish and Swedish. The Swedish dialects spoken in Finland mainland are known as Finland-Swedish, there is a rich Finland-Swedish literature, including authors such as Tove Jansson, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Edith Södergran and Zacharias Topelius. Runeberg is considered Finlands national poet and wrote the anthem, Vårt land. The Sami languages are a group of related languages spoken across Lapland and they are distantly related to Finnish. The three Sami languages spoken in Finland, Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami, have a native speaker population of roughly 1,800. Up to World War II, Karelian was spoken in the historical Border-Karelian region on the shore of Lake Ladoga. After the war immigrant Karelians were settled all over Finland, in 2001 the Karelian Language Society estimated that the language is understood by 11, 000–12,000 people in Finland, most of whom are elderly. A more recent estimate is that the size of the community is 30,000. Karelian was recognized in a regulation by the President in November 2009, in fact, Finland places among the top four countries in the world when it comes to the fluency of EnglishLanguages of Finland – Knowledge of foreign languages and Swedish as second language in Finland, in percent of the adult population, 2005.
15. Languages of France – The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. The French language is the official language of France according to the second article of the French Constitution. Several regional languages are spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects, Celtic languages. Some of these languages have also spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland. The official language of the French Republic is French and the French government is, by law, the government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising be available in French, see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the use of French by private individuals or corporations or in any other media, a revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic. The category of languages of France is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go so far as to any official status. Following his election as President, François Hollande reasserted in 2012 his campaign platform to ratify the European Charter, the regional languages of France are sometimes called patois, but this term is often considered derogatory. The topic of the teaching of languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardised, of practical usefulness. The topic also leads to wider questions of autonomy of the régions. Regarding other languages, English, Spanish, Italian and German are the most commonly studied languages in French schools. Some of the languages of France are also languages, some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory. French itself is also a language, being spoken in neighbouring Andorra, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco. A large number of immigrant languages are spoken in France, with a handful having a significant number of home speakers, berber the language of North Africans is one of the most spoken languages in France, about 2,200,000 speakers. Maghrebi Arabic, is the most common language in French homesLanguages of France – Regional languages and their dialects in Metropolitan France
16. Languages of Georgia (country) – The proportion of ethnic Georgians increased by full 10 percentage points between 1989 and 2002, rising from 73. 7% to 83. 7% of the population. The population grew steadily while Georgia was part of the Soviet Union and during the first years of independence, then the trend changed and the population began to decline, dropping to 4.5 million in 2005 according to the estimates by the Georgian Department of Statistics. This figure represents the population, including the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, whose population in 2005 was estimated at 178,000 and 49,200. Without Abkhazia and South Osetia, the population in the controlled by the central government of Georgia was 4,321,500 in 2005 and 4,382,100 in 2008. Georgia was named among the countries in the world in the 2007 World Bank report. The 2002 population census in Georgia revealed a net loss of 1.1 million persons, or 20% of the population. The decline in Georgias population is caused by the emigration in search of employment, and a sharp fall of birth rates. Over 300,000 Russians,200,000 Georgians,200,000 Armenians,85,000 Greeks,50,000 Azerbaijanis,50,000 Ukrainians and 20,000 Jews have migrated from Georgia since independence. Sources, United Nations and GeoStat 1Births and deaths until 1959 are estimates, structure of the population, Georgians are the predominant ethnic group in Georgia, according to the 2014 census 86. 8% of the population. The proportion in 2014 was much higher than in preceding censuses as in 2014 Abkhazia and South Ossetia were not under government control, as a result of this the proportion of Ossetians and Abkhazians was very lowLanguages of Georgia (country) – Georgia: Total population with (top blue curve) and without (bottom red curve) Abkhazia and South Osetia, in millions. Data from statistical yearbooks of Georgian SSR (before 1990) and Georgia (after 1990), various years.
17. Languages of Germany – The official language of Germany is Standard German, with over 95 percent of the country speaking Standard German or German dialects as their first language. This figure includes speakers of Northern Low Saxon, a minority or regional language that is not considered separately from Standard German in statistics. Recognized minority languages have official status as well, usually in their respective regions,1. 8% Kurdish c.0. 3% Tamil Russian Arabic Greek Dutch Igbo Polish Serbo-Croatian Italian Most Germans learn English as their first foreign language at school. Sometimes French or Latin are taught first, but usually English is, with French, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Polish, Dutch, classical Greek, and other languages are also offered in schools, often depending on the schools geographic location. The recognition of English as a language is frequently discussed in the German publicLanguages of Germany – QWERTZ
18. Languages of Greece – The official language of Greece is Greek, spoken by 99% of the population. In addition, a number of non-official, minority languages and some Greek dialects are spoken as well, the most common foreign languages learned by Greeks are English, German, French and Italian. Modern Greek is the official language of the Hellenic Republic. Standard Modern Greek is the officially used standard, but there are several non-official dialects, regional spoken dialects exist side by side with learned, archaic written forms. All surviving forms of modern Greek, except the Tsakonian language, are descendants of the common supra-regional as it was spoken in late antiquity, as such, they can ultimately be classified as descendants of Attic Greek, the dialect spoken in and around Athens in the classical era. Tsakonian, a dialect spoken today by a dwindling community in the Peloponnese, is a descendant of the ancient Doric dialect. Some other dialects have preserved elements of various ancient non-Attic dialects, cappadocian Greek is a Hellenic language originally spoken in Cappadocia and since the 1920s spoken in Greece. It has very few speakers and was thought to be extinct. The Cappadocians rapidly shifted to Standard Modern Greek and their language was thought to be extinct since the 1960s, cretan Greek is spoken by more than 500,000 people on the island of Crete, as well as in the Greek Diaspora. It is rarely used in language, and differs much less from Standard Greek than other varieties. Cypriot Greek is spoken by Greek Cypriots, settled in many Greek cities, and in other parts of the world including Australia, Canada. The Maniot Greek dialect of the area of Mani. Pontic Greek is a Hellenic language originally spoken in Pontus and by Caucasus Greeks in the South Caucasus region, the little-spoken Tsakonian language is used by some in the Tsakonia region of Peloponnese. The language is split into three dialects, Northern, Southern, and Propontis, the language is spoken by 1,200 people. A Jewish dialect of Greek spoken by the Romaniotes, Yevanic is almost completely extinct today, there are a total of roughly 50 speakers, around 35 of whom now reside in Israel. The language may still be used by some elderly Romaniotes in Ioannina, Greek Sign Language is the sign language of the Greek deaf community. It has been recognised as the official language of the Deaf Community in Greece and is estimated to be used by about 42,000 signers in 1986. Since the 1990s, large numbers of Albanian immigrants have arrived in Greece and it is unofficially claimed that 1,000,000 Greeks are of Albanian descent, either by ancestry, marriage or immigrationLanguages of Greece – 1896 calendar from Thessaloniki written in Ottoman Turkish, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian, Ladino, and French.
19. Languages of Hungary – The languages spoken in Hungary are as follows. Uralic languages – Hungarian, The only official language of the country and it is the first language of some 98. 9% of the total population. Indo-European languages – German, spoken by the German minority, especially in and around Mecsek Mountains, – Slovak, spoken by the Slovak minority, especially in the North Hungarian Mountains and around Békéscsaba. – Serbian, spoken by the Serbian minority, especially in and around Bácska, – Slovene, spoken by the Slovene minority, especially around the Slovenian border, Western Hungary. – Croatian, spoken by the Croatian minority, especially in Southern Hungary, – Romanian, spoken by the Romanian minority, especially in and around Gyula, Eastern Hungary. – Romani, spoken by members of the Roma minority throughout the country. Turkic languages – Cuman, once spoken in Cumania region in Hungary and it is a Kipchak language closely related to other Kipchak languages like Crimean Tatar. The last speaker died in 1777, – Kipchak, once spoken in Eastern Europe which includes Hungary. It is the lingua franca of the Golden Horde controlled areas and it is the ancestor of all Kipchak languages today, which also includes the extinct Cuman. Sign languages – Hungarian Sign Language, spoken by around 9,000 people and it belongs to French Sign Language family. Hungary Hungarian language Demographics of HungaryLanguages of Hungary – Trilingual (Hungarian, Romanian, German) table in Gyula (meaning "social health insurance")
20. Languages of Iceland – Iceland has been a very isolated and linguistically homogeneous island historically, but has nevertheless been home to several languages. Gaelic was native to many of the early Icelanders, the Icelandic or Norse language however prevailing, northern trade routes brought German, English, Dutch, French and Basque. Some merchants and clergymen settled in Iceland throughout the centuries, leaving their mark on culture, excluding these and Latin words, Icelandic has altered remarkably little since settlement, the islands residents living in seclusion. Icelandic is not only the language, but is now “the official language in Iceland” by virtue of Act No 61/2011. Icelandic Sign Language was also recognised by law in 2011 as a minority language with constitutional rights. During the time of Danish rule, Danish was a minority language in Iceland, studying English and Danish is mandatory for students in compulsory schools and also part of many secondary-level study programmes, so knowledge of the two languages is widespread. Other foreign languages frequently studied include German, Spanish and French, temporary visitors and residents often make up a large portion of the population, especially in the capital ReykjavíkLanguages of Iceland
21. Languages of Ireland – There are a number of languages used in Ireland. Since the late century, English has been the predominant first language. A large minority claims some ability to use Irish, and it is the first language for a percentage of the population. In the Republic of Ireland, under the Constitution of Ireland, Northern Ireland has no official language, but English is the de facto official language of the United Kingdom and Irish and Ulster-Scots are recognised regional languages. The earliest linguistic records in Ireland are of Primitive Irish, from about the 5th century AD, Languages spoken in Iron Age Ireland before then are now irretrievable, although there are some claims of traces in Irish toponymy. Middle English was first introduced by the Cambro-Norman settlers in the 12th century and it did not initially take hold as a widely spoken language, as the Norman élite spoke Anglo-Norman. In time, many Norman settlers intermarried and assimilated to the Irish cultures, monolingual Irish speakers were generally of the poorer and less educated classes with no land. Irish was accepted as a language, but then as now, fluency in English was an essential element for those who wanted social mobility. Since the 1850s, English medium education was promoted by both the UK administration and the Roman Catholic Church and this greatly assisted the waves of immigrants forced to seek new lives in the US and throughout the Empire after the Famine. Since then the various local Hiberno-English dialects comprise the vernacular language throughout the island. The 2002 census found that 103,000 British citizens were living in the Republic of Ireland, along with 11,300 from the US and 8,900 from Nigeria, the 2006 census listed 165,000 people from Britain and 22,000 from the US. The original Primitive Irish was introduced by Celtic speakers, Primitive Irish gradually evolved into Old Irish, spoken between the 5th and the 10th centuries, and then into Middle Irish. Today, Irish is recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is recognised in Northern Ireland. Communities that speak Irish as their first language, generally in sporadic regions on the islands west coast, are called the Gaeltacht. According to more detailed data, in 2011, there has been an increase of 5,000 in the number of daily Irish speakers since the previous census. There are 77,185 daily speakers, a third of which are located in the Gaeltacht and the remaining 55,554 are located in the rest of the country as well as another estimated 109,663 weekly speakers. In the over 80 years since the independence of the South, more and more people are becoming passive speakers of Irish with an estimated 10% of the population of the Republic who would be classified as fluent, near fluent or reasonably good passive speakers. All of the 40 or so radio stations in the Republic have to have some weekly Irish-language programming to obtain their broadcasting licence, similarly, RTÉ runs Nuacht, a news show, in Irish and Léargas, a documentary show, in Irish with English subtitlesLanguages of Ireland – A catch and release sign in Ireland. As well as Ireland's official languages (English and Irish), it also displays languages used by tourists (French, German, Swedish, Italian) and immigrants (Bosnian, Latvian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croat). However, perhaps reflecting Ireland's recent transition to multilingualism, many translations are imperfect and diacritics are mostly absent.
22. Languages of Italy – There are a large number of local languages spoken in Italy, most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and thus are classified as Romance languages. The official and most widely spoken language is Italian, a descendant of Tuscan and this is generally not the case in regards to the languages of Italy, as they are, for the most part, not varieties of Standard Italian. In fact, Standard Italian is itself either a continuation of, or a dialect heavily based on, there are several minority languages that belong to other Indo-European branches, such as Cimbrian, Arbëresh, the Slavomolisano dialect of Serbo-Croatian, and Griko. Other non-indigenous languages are spoken by a percentage of the population due to immigration. The following minority languages are recognized as historical language minorities by the Law no. 482/1999, Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, the selection of those varieties to the exclusion of numerous others is a matter of some controversy. The law also makes a distinction between those who are considered minority groups and those who are not, the original Italian Constitution does not explicitly express that Italian is the official national language. Code for civil procedure – In tutto il processo è prescritto luso della lingua italiana, code for criminal procedure – Gli atti del procedimento penale sono compiuti in lingua italiana. Article 1 of law 482/1999 – La lingua ufficiale della Repubblica è litaliano, aosta Valley, French is co-official in the whole region, German is unofficial but recognised in the Lys Valley. Campania, Neapolitan is promoted, but not recognised, by the region, friuli-Venezia Giulia, Friulian and Slovene are promoted, but not recognised, by the region. Piedmont, Piedmontese is unofficial but recognised as the language, the region promotes, without recognising. Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, German is co-official in the province of South Tyrol, Ladin, Cimbrian and Mòcheno are unofficial, veneto, Venetian is unofficial but recognised. According to the UNESCOs Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger, the degree of endangerment is classified in different categories ranging from safe to extinct. The source for the distribution is the Atlas of the Worlds Languages in Danger unless otherwise stated. 30 settlements in northern Calabria as well as San Costantino Albanese and San Paolo Lucano in southern Basilicata, settlements in southern Calabria, all living languages indigenous to Italy are part of the Indo-European language family. The source is the SILs Ethnologue unless otherwise stated, language classification can be a controversial issue, when a classification is contested by academic sources, this is reported in the notes column. They can be divided into Romance languages and non-Romance languages, not included is Corsican, which is mainly spoken on the French island of Corsica. Istriot is only spoken in Croatia, Sardinian is a distinct language group with significant phonological and morphological differences among its varietiesLanguages of Italy – Languages of Italy by groups [not in citation given]
23. Languages of Latvia – Latvia was settled by the Baltic tribes some three millennia ago. The territories along the eastern Baltic first came under foreign domination at the beginning of the 13th century, through all this time, Latvia remained largely under Baltic German hegemony, with Baltic Germans comprising the largest land-owners, a situation which did not change until Latvias independence. Historically, Latvia has had significant German, Russian, Jewish and Polish minorities, the majority of Latvians, under Swedish influences, adopted Lutheranism, while the minority of Latvians under Poland-Lithuania, Latgale in particular, retained their Catholicism. Aglona, in Latgale, has been the site of annual Catholic pilgrimage for centuries, recently introduced immigration law in Latvia provides framework for immigration through investment in various financial areas or real estate. In 2012, solely 2,435 applications for residence permit by investment in real estate were received by Office of Citizenship, main immigrant countries are Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania. Moreover, Latvia receives residence permit applications from people of such as Afghans, Chinese, Libyans. Latvias indigenous population has been ravaged numerous times throughout history, the earliest such event occurred during the conquest of Latvia by Peter the Great in the Great Northern War with Sweden. The remainder were Lithuanians, Estonians, Gypsies, and various other nationalities, the demographics shifted greatly in the 20th century due to the world wars, the repatriation of the Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and occupation by the Soviet Union. Today, only the Russian minority, which has tripled in numbers since 1935, the share of ethnic Latvians grew from 77% in 1935 to 80%, after human loss in World War II and human deportation and other repressive measures, fell strongly to 52% in 1989. In 2005, there were even fewer Latvians than in 1989, people who arrived in Latvia during the Soviet era, and their descendants born before 21 August 1991, have to pass a naturalisation process to receive Latvian citizenship. Their children born after the restoration of independence in 1991 are registered as citizens, ethnic Latvians have been one of the worlds slowest-growing ethnic groups for a century. The number of Latvians today is less than it was in the 1920s. Over 130,000 persons have been naturalized as Latvian citizens since 1995, large numbers of Russians, as well as some Ukrainians and Belarusians remained in Latvia after the fall of the Soviet Union. According to the results of the Population and Housing Census 2011. Since the previous census in 2000 the countrys population decreased by 309 thousand or 13%, the proportion of ethnic Latvians increased to 62. 1% of the population. Livonians are the indigenous ethnic group, with about 100 of them remaining. Latgalians are a subgroup of Latvians inhabiting or coming from Eastern Latvia. According to rankings provided by the United States Census Bureau—International Data Base —Country Rankings, illegal immigration in Latvia has traditionally been from neighboring countries such as Russia but now migrants also come from other areas such as Latin America, Southeast Asia and AfricaLanguages of Latvia – Smaller ethnic minorities
24. Languages of Liechtenstein – Liechtensteins official language is German, and the principality is the smallest of the four countries in Europe populated by a majority of German speakers. Other languages are spoken by the foreign-born population, which makes up about 14% of the country. ). Eighty-six percent of the country is ethnic Alemannic, and are speakers of the language, Highest Alemannic is spoken in the south of the country, and High Alemannic in the rest of the country. It can be difficult to achieve mutual intelligibility between Alemannic and Standard German, especially with the Highest Alemannic variety, foreigners make up around 14% of the population of Liechtenstein, primarily Italians and Turks. Italian and Turkish are both spoken in the country and this article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document 2006 editionLanguages of Liechtenstein – The Highest Alemannic-speaking part of Liechtenstein is marked in red, in the south of the country. The rest of Liechtenstein is High Alemannic speaking.
25. Languages of Lithuania – This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lithuania, including population density, ethnicity, level of education, health, economic status, and religious affiliations. The earliest evidence of inhabitants in present-day Lithuania dates back to 10,000 BC, see also, Demographics and Languages of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Demographics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The name of Lithuania – Lithuanians – was first mentioned in 1009. Among its etymologies there are a derivation from the word Lietava, for a river, a possible derivation from a word leičiai. The primary Lithuanian state, the Duchy of Lithuania, emerged in the territory of Lietuva, at the birth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, ethnic Lithuanians made up about 70% of the population. With the acquisition of new Ruthenian territories, this decreased to 50%. In addition to the Ruthenians and Lithuanians, other significant ethnic groups throughout GDL were Jews and Tatars. The combined population of Poland and GDL in 1493 is estimated as 7.5 million, with the Union of Lublin Lithuanian Grand Duchy lost large part of lands to the Polish Crown. An ethnic Lithuanian proportion being about 1/4 in GDL after the Union of Lublin was held till the partitions, there was much devastation and population loss throughout the GDL in the mid and late 17th century, including the ethnic Lithuanian population in Vilnius voivodeship. Besides devastation, the Ruthenian population declined proportionally after the losses to the Russian Empire. In 1770 there were about 4.84 million inhabitants in GDL, of which the largest ethnic group were Ruthenians, the voivodeships with a majority ethnic Lithuanian population were Vilnius, Trakai and Samogitian voivodeships, and these three voivodeships comprised the political center of the state. In the southern angle of Trakai voivodeship and south-eastern part of Vilnius voivodeship there were also many Belarusians, the Ruthenian language, corresponding to todays Belarusian and Ukrainian, was then called Russian, and was used as one of the chancellery languages by Lithuanian monarchs. However, there are fewer extant documents written in this language than those written in Latin, later, Ruthenian became the main language of documentation and writing. The Lithuanian language was used orally in Vilnius, Trakai and Samogitian voivodeships, at the court of Zygmunt August, the last king of the Duchy, both Polish and Lithuanian were spoken. After the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the use of the Polish language noticeably increased in eastern Lithuania, there were population losses due to several border changes, Soviet deportations, the Holocaust of the Lithuanian Jews, and German and Polish repatriations during and after World War II. After World War II, the ethnic Lithuanian population remained stable,79. 3% in 1959 to 83. 5% in 2002, lithuanias citizenship law and the Constitution meet international and OSCE standards, guaranteeing universal human and civil rights. Lithuanians are neither Slavic nor Germanic, although the union with Poland, German and Russian colonization and settlement left cultural, among the Baltic states, Lithuania has the most homogeneous population. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius Region, the controlled by Poland in the interwar period. There are especially large Polish communities in Vilnius district municipality and Šalčininkai district municipality, the Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania, an ethnic minority political party, has strong influence in these areas and has representation in the SeimasLanguages of Lithuania – St. Anne's Church, Vilnius
26. Languages of Luxembourg – These three languages are also referred to as the three administrative languages. Upon the founding of the country, French enjoyed the greatest prestige, German was used in the political field to comment on the laws and the ordinances in order to make them comprehensible to everyone. At the primary-school level, teaching was limited to German, while French was taught in secondary education, the law of July 26,1843, reinforced bilingualism by introducing the teaching of French in primary school. Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region similar to German and it is a Mosel-Frankish dialect like the dialects in Germany bordering Luxembourg. Unlike its German counterparts, it uses many French words and is deemed to be a national language rather than a German dialect. The formalization of regional German dialects into national languages arose from the desire to impress a distinct national identity, in Switzerland, written German was maintained, albeit with some differences in vocabulary, differing strongly from the spoken Swiss-German speech which the average German cannot understand. This could be explained by the fact that the strength of a dialect can be an indicator of social standing. The first printed sentences in Luxembourgish appeared in 1821 in a journal the Luxemburger Wochenblatt. The first book in Luxembourgish was released in 1829 by Antoine Meyer, until the 1980s, the language had been used mainly for poetry and drama but has since become increasingly popular for fiction which now represents a significant contribution to Luxembourg literature. Until 1984, the use of the languages was based on the grand-ducal decrees of 1830,1832 and 1834. French was preferred in the administration, Luxembourgish had no official status at all. The constitutional revision of 1984 gave the legislature the power to regulate the language by law, on February 24,1984, a law, passed by the constitutional chamber, made Luxemburgish the national language. Furthermore, this law recognised the three languages of Luxembourg as administrative languages, French remains the language of legislation, due to the application of the Napoleonic civil code in Luxembourg. The government of Luxembourg unilaterally adopted the reform and, due to its efficiency, according to the duchys largest newspaper, the Luxemburger Wort, Luxembourg does not perceive itself as a German-speaking country and thus had no right to take part in the council. Luxembourg does however participate in the Francophonie and has members in the Académie française, Luxembourgish is taught at pre-primary level, in schools after French and German. Moreover, Luxembourgish is taught only one hour per week at secondary school, in secondary school, besides German, French and Luxembourgish, English and Latin, Spanish or Italian are taught. At the university level, multilingualism makes it possible for Luxembourgish students to continue their education in French. German and French are the languages of the press, for recording police case filesLanguages of Luxembourg – Memorial to the Schengen Agreement in Luxembourgish.
27. Languages of Malta – Malta has two official languages, Maltese and English. Maltese is also the national language, until 1934 Italian was also an official language in Malta. Having been governed by different countries in the past, the Maltese population is generally able to converse in languages which are not native to the country, namely English. According to the Eurobarometer poll con conducted in 2012, 98% of Maltese people can speak Maltese, 88% can speak English, 66% can speak Italian, and more than 17% speak French. This shows a recent increase in the fluency of languages, since in 1995, only 98% of the population spoke Maltese, 76% English, 36% Italian, surprisingly, it also shows an increase in Italian fluency compared to when Italian was an official language of Malta. French, German and Spanish are the main languages studied in secondary and tertiary education. Maltese is the language of the Maltese people, and one of the official languages of Malta. It is a Semitic language derived from Siculo-Arabic, however a majority of vocabulary comes from Sicilian and Italian, 52% of Maltese words are of Romance origin, a result of significant influence from Italy and, to a lesser extent, France. Malta holds the distinction of being the country in Europe with a historically Semitic language. The Maltese language is written with a modified Latin Alphabet which includes the letters ż, ċ, ġ, ħ, various localities have accents and dialects divergent from standard Maltese. There has been a decline in the number of speakers, mostly because of exposure to standard Maltese in the media. The standard language also shows a more pronounced Italianization and Anglicization of the language, most Maltese learn English in school, this being obligatory in most cases. Secondary and tertiary education are given exclusively in English, today, 88% of Maltas population speak English. Aside from Maltese, English is the other official language of the country. Malta also shares with the Republic of Ireland the distinction of being both officially Anglophone, both members of the Eurozone, and a Catholic dominance, French was the official language of the Maltese islands during the French occupation of Malta. For many centuries and until 1934, Italian was the language of Malta. Indeed, it was considered the language of culture in Malta since the Italian Renaissance, in the 19th century Italian irredentists and Italian Maltese wanted to promote its use throughout Malta for plans to re-unify it to Italy. Although only the rich could speak Italian and with Maltese being generally spoken by less well offLanguages of Malta – A Maltese-language welcome sign to the village of Ħal Lija, making use of the letter Ħ, unique to Maltese. Suavi fructo rubeo is a Latin motto, meaning "I glow red with sweet fruit", referring to the many orange orchards present in the village territory.
28. Languages of Monaco – The official language of Monaco is French. In addition, there are other languages spoken, including Monégasque. French is the only official—and by far the most common—language in Monaco, a result of the role France has had over the microstate, since the annexation of Nice, Monégasque is the traditional national language of the Monegasque people. It is a dialect of Ligurian, and is similar to Italian. Because the Monégasques are only a minority in Monaco, their tongue was threatened with extinction in the 1970s, however, the language is now being taught in schools. In the old part of Monaco, the signs are marked with Monégasque in addition to French. During his accession ceremonies in 2005, Albert II, Prince of Monaco, standard Italian is also a major language in Monaco. Italian nationals make up 19% of the total population, Italian was the ancestral language of the ruling House of Grimaldi, and was the official language of Monaco when it was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1815 to 1861. Italian is also spoken by Caroline, Princess of Hanover and her children Andrea Casiraghi, Charlotte Casiraghi Pierre Casiraghi, there is also an Anglophone community in Monaco, in addition to English-speaking tourists visiting the city. Princess Grace was born an American, and all three of her children grew up speaking English among other languages, occitan has also traditionally been spoken in Monaco, particularly when it covered a larger geographical territory, but is rarely used today. Outline of Monaco History of MonacoLanguages of Monaco – A bilingual French-Monégasque street sign
29. Languages of the Netherlands – The official national language of the Netherlands is Dutch, spoken by almost all people in the Netherlands. Dutch is also spoken and official in Aruba, Belgium, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and it is a West Germanic, Low Franconian language that originated in the Early Middle Ages and was standardised in the 16th century. There are also some recognised provincial languages and regional dialects, Frisian is a co-official language in the province of Friesland. Frisian is spoken by 453,000 speakers English is a language in the special municipalities of Saba. It is widely spoken on Saba and Sint Eustatius, a large majority of primary and secondary education in Amsterdam remains in Dutch only, but there are some bilingual Dutch-English schools. On Saba and St. Eustatius, the majority of the education is in English only, papiamento is an official language in the special municipality of Bonaire. Several dialects of Dutch Low Saxon are spoken in much of the north-east of the country and are recognised as regional languages according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Low Saxon is spoken by 1,798,000 speakers. Another Low Franconian dialect is Limburgish, which is spoken in the province of Limburg. Limburgish is spoken by 825,000 speakers, however, both Low Saxon and Limburgish spread across the Dutch-German border and belong to a common Dutch-German dialect continuum. The Netherlands also has its separate Dutch Sign Language, called Nederlandse Gebarentaal and it is still waiting for recognition and has 17,500 users. There is a trend of learning languages in the Netherlands, between 90% and 93% of the total population are able to converse in English, 71% in German, 29% in French. West Frisian is a language in the Dutch province of Friesland. The government of the Frisian province is bilingual, Luxembourgish is divided into Moselle Luxembourgish, West Luxembourgish, East Luxembourgish, North Luxembourgish and City Luxembourgish. The Oïl dialects in the Benelux are Walloon, Lorrain, Champenois and PicardLanguages of the Netherlands
30. Languages of Norway – There are a large number of languages spoken in Norway. Of these, the Norwegian language is the most widely spoken, the most widely spoken language in Norway is Norwegian. It is a North Germanic language, closely related to Swedish and Danish, Norwegian is used by some 95% of the population as a first language. The language has two written standards, Nynorsk and Bokmål, both of which are official. Known as Språkstriden in Norwegian, the Norwegian language struggle is a movement rooted in both Norwegian nationalism and the 400 years of Danish rule in Norway. The koiné language known as Dano-Norwegian which developed in Norwegian cities was the result of Danish replacing Norwegian as the language of the elite in that country, an adoption of Norwegian orthography into the Danish language gave rise to the written standard of Riksmål, which later became Bokmål. By 1920, Nynorsk was being used widely in western Norway and the valleys, where it still has its stronghold. Later, attempts were made to reconcile the two standards into Samnorsk, or Common Norwegian, although this never came to fruition, Riksmål was officially changed to Bokmål in 1929. Nynorsk was developed by the linguist Ivar Aasen in the 1850s, based on rural, spoken Norwegian and its first official codification was in 1901, was given the name Nynorsk in 1929, and has been used officially since 1938. A more conservative variation of Nynorsk exists, called Høgnorsk and it has few active users, but is supported by the Ivar Aasen-sambandet organization, founded in 1965 in response to the samnorsk policy of the government at the time. Sami languages, like Kven and Finnish, belong to the Uralic language family, by far the most spoken form of Sami in Norway is North Sami. The others are Lule Sami, Pite Sami and South Sami, Sami languages are official in seven Norwegian municipalities. Mirroring the situation of Meänkieli in Sweden, Kven is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Finnish, the Romani people are a diaspora population originating in India, and today are spread across all of Europe. The Romani language, an Indo-European, Indo-Aryan language, is split into a number of dialects. Two of these, Tavringer Romani and Vlax Romani, are spoken in Norway, by populations of 6,000 and 500, scandoromani is another Romani dialect indigenous to Norway, as well as Sweden. Because of the nature of the Roma people, there is no geographic stronghold of the Romani language in Norway. There is no estimate on how many Norwegian Traveller speakers there are in Norway, nearly 90% of Norwegians can speak English. The country currently scores in the top 5 of the EF English Proficiency Index and this article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document 2006 editionLanguages of Norway – The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway until 1814.