1. Trofim Lysenko – Trofim Denisovich Lysenko was a Soviet agrobiologist. As a student Lysenko found himself interested in agriculture, where he worked on a few different projects and this later led him to consider how he might use this work to convert winter wheat into spring wheat. He named the process jarovization in Russian, and later translated it as vernalization, Lysenko was a strong proponent of soft inheritance and rejected Mendelian genetics in favor of pseudoscientific ideas termed Lysenkoism. Scientific dissent from Lysenkos theories of environmentally acquired inheritance was formally outlawed in the Soviet Union in 1948, though Lysenko remained at his post in the Institute of Genetics until 1965, his influence on Soviet agricultural practice had declined by the 1950s. The son of Denis and Oksana Lysenko, Trofim Lysenko was born into a peasant family in Karlivka, as a young man working at the Kiev Agricultural Institute, Lysenko worked on converting winter wheat into spring wheat. The conversion of winter wheat into spring wheat was not a new discovery, scientific experiments had been done by Nikolai Vavilov. It was Vavilov who initially supported Lysenko and encouraged him on his work, Lysenko had a difficult time trying to grow various crops, through the harsh winters. Lysenko argued that there is not only competition, but also mutual assistance among individuals within a species, according to Lysenko, The organism and the conditions required for its life are an inseparable unity. Different living bodies require different environmental conditions for their development, by studying these requirements we come to know the qualitative features of the nature of organisms, the qualitative features of heredity. Heredity is the property of a body to require definite conditions for its life and development. As noted above, Lysenko worked with different wheat crops in trying to convert them to grow in different seasons, other investigations Lysenko found himself curious with, was the effect of heat on plant growth. He believed that every plant needed an amount of heat throughout its lifetime. He attempted to correlate the time and the amount of heat needed by a particular plant requires to go through phases of development. To get his data he looked at the amount of growth, how many days went by, in trying to determine the effects, he made a small statistical reasoning error. This is a trend that can be seen throughout the majority of his works. He was confronted by Maksimov, who was an expert on thermal plant development, Lysenko did not take well to this or any criticism for that matter. After this encounter, Lysenko boldly claimed that mathematics had no place in biology, severe cold and lack of winter snow had destroyed many early winter-wheat seedlings. By treating wheat seeds with moisture as well as cold, Lysenko induced them to bear a crop planted in springTrofim Lysenko – Lysenko in 1938
2. Nikita Khrushchev – Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, Khrushchevs party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovka in 1894, close to the border between Russia and Ukraine. He was employed as a metalworker in his youth, and during the Russian Civil War was a political commissar, with the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. He supported Joseph Stalins purges, and approved thousands of arrests, in 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, and he continued the purges there. During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalins close advisers, in the power struggle triggered by Stalins death in 1953, Khrushchev, after several years, emerged victorious. On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the Secret Speech, denouncing Stalins purges and his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were often ineffective, especially in agriculture. Hoping eventually to rely on missiles for defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchevs rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, flaws in Khrushchevs policies eroded his popularity and emboldened potential opponents, who quietly rose in strength and deposed the premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the fate of previous losers of Soviet power struggles, and was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow. His lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970, Khrushchev died in 1971 of heart disease. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russias Kursk Oblast and his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Ksenia Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, and had a daughter two years Nikitas junior, Irina. Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, and laboring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Kalinovka was a peasant village, Khrushchevs teacher, Lydia Shevchenko, later stated that she had never seen a village as poor as Kalinovka had been. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age and he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenkos tutelage in Kalinovkas state school. She urged Nikita to seek education, but family finances did not permit this. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka, fourteen-year-old Nikita followed later that year, while Ksenia Khrushcheva and her daughter came afterNikita Khrushchev – Khrushchev in East Berlin, 1963
3. Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin – His methods were championed by Trofim Lysenko as part of the political campaign against genetics and science-based agriculture that became known as Lysenkoism and Michurinism. Throughout all his life, Michurin worked to create new sorts of fruit plants and he introduced over 300 new varieties. He was awarded the Order of Lenin and Order of the Red Banner of Labour for his achievements, the town of Michurinsk is named in his honor, as was the Bulgarian town of Tsarevo between 1950 and 1991. In 1875, Michurin leased a strip of land of about 500 square metres not far from Tambov, began collecting plants, in 1899, he acquired a much bigger strip of land of about 130,000 square metres and moved all of his plants there. On September 11,1922, Mikhail Kalinin visited Michurin at Lenins personal request, on November 20,1923, the Council of Peoples Commissars recognized Michurins fruit garden as an institution of state importance. In 1928, the Soviets established a selectionist genetic station on the basis of Michurins garden, Michurin made a major contribution in the development of genetics, especially in the field of pomology. In his cytogenetic laboratory, he researched cell structure and experimented with artificial polyploidy, Michurin studied the aspects of heredity in connection with the natural course of ontogenesis and external influence, creating a whole new concept of predominance. He proved that predominance depends on heredity, ontogenesis, and phylogenesis of the cell structure and also on individual features of hybrids. In his works, Michurin assumed a possibility of changing genotype under external influence, Michurin was one of the founding fathers of scientific agricultural selection. Michurin’s method of crossing of geographically distant plants would be used by other selectionists. He worked out theoretical basis and some means for hybridization of geographically distant plants. The Soviets began to cultivate Michurin’s hybrids of apple, pear, cherry, rowan, Michurin was the one to start cultivation of his hybrids of grape, apricot, sweet cherry and other southern plants in the northern climates. One of the most highly cited phrases by Michurin was, We cannot wait for favors from Nature, to take them from it – that is our task. During the Lysenkoism campaign, work by Michurin was misused, after his death, some Problems of Method by I. VIvan Vladimirovich Michurin – Michurin's bust in front of Moscow University
4. Joseph Stalin – Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and he managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenins criticisms and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–33, major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were arrested and shot after being convicted of treason in show trials. Stalins invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis, Germany ended the pact when Hitler launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow, after defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States, Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries freed from German occupation by the Red Army, which later constituted the Eastern Bloc. Stalin also had relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea. On February 9,1946, Stalin delivered a public speech in which he explained the fundamental incompatibility of communism and capitalism. He stressed that the system needed war for raw materials. The Second World War was but the latest in a chain of conflicts which could be broken only when the economy made the transformation into communism. Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would later be known as the Cold War, Stalin remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed, the exact number of deaths caused by Stalins regime is still a subject of debate, but it is widely agreed to be in the order of millions. Joseph Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, the Russian-language version of his birth name is Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili. Ioseb was born on 18 December 1878 in the town of Gori, Georgia and his father was Besarion Jughashvili, a cobbler, while his mother was Ekaterine Keke Geladze, a housemaid. As a child, Ioseb was plagued with health issuesJoseph Stalin – Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943.
5. Georgii Karpechenko – Georgii Dmitrievich Karpechenko was a Russian and Soviet biologist. His name has sometimes been transliterated as Karpetschenko, G. D. Karpechenko specialized in plant cytology and created several hybrids. He worked at the Institute of Applied Botany near Leningrad, but collaborated with geneticists in other countries, notably Øjvind Winge in Denmark and he also travelled abroad to the John Innes Horticultural Institution in London. He was arrested by the NKVD under the grounds of belonging to an alleged anti-Soviet group centered on the well known Russian botanist Nikolai Vavilov who was his colleague at Leningrad. He was sentenced to death and executed on July 28,1941, list of Russian inventors Birstein, Vadim J. The Perversion of Knowledge, The True Story of Soviet Science, bentley Glass, The Grim Heritage of Lysenkoism, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol.65, No. Polyploid hybrids of Raphanus sativus L, X Brassica oleracea L. Zeitschrift für induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre 48, 1–85. Reprinted in, Jules Janick, ed.1989Georgii Karpechenko – Georgii Dmitrievich Karpechenko
6. Nikolai Vavilov – Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov ForMemRS was a prominent Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants. He devoted his life to the study and improvement of wheat, corn, Vavilov was born into a merchant family in Moscow, the older brother of renowned physicist Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov. He graduated from the Moscow Agricultural Institute in 1910 with a dissertation on snails as pests, from 1911 to 1912, he worked at the Bureau for Applied Botany and at the Bureau of Mycology and Phytopathology. From 1913 to 1914 he travelled in Europe and studied plant immunity, in collaboration with the British biologist William Bateson, from 1924 to 1935 he was the director of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences at Leningrad. She declined, but visited the institute in 1933 for three months to train 50 students in her research, while developing his theory on the centres of origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov organized a series of botanical-agronomic expeditions, and collected seeds from every corner of the globe. In Leningrad, he created the worlds largest collection of plant seeds, Vavilov also formulated the law of homologous series in variation. He was a member of the USSR Central Executive Committee, President of All-Union Geographical Society, Vavilov encountered the young Trofim Lysenko and at the time encouraged him in his work. At the time Lysenko was not the best at growing wheat and peas and it was not until later when he was under pressure from the Soviet State that Vavilov began to criticize the non-Mendelian concepts of Trofim Lysenko, who won the support of Joseph Stalin. As a result, Vavilov was arrested on August 6,1940 and he was sentenced to death in July 1941. In 1942 his sentence was commuted to twenty years imprisonment, he died in prison in 1943, the Leningrad seedbank was diligently preserved through the 28-month Siege of Leningrad. While the Soviets had ordered the evacuation of art from the Hermitage, they had not evacuated the 250,000 samples of seeds, roots, and fruits stored in what was then the worlds largest seedbank. A group of scientists at the Vavilov Institute boxed up a section of seeds, moved them to the basement. Those guarding the seedbank refused to eat its contents, even though by the end of the siege in the spring of 1944, nine of them had died of starvation. In 1943, parts of Vavilovs collection, samples stored within the occupied by the German armies, mainly in Ukraine. Many of the samples were transferred to the SS Institute for Plant Genetics, by the 1960s his reputation was publicly rehabilitated and he began to be hailed as a hero of Soviet science. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry in St. Petersburg still maintains one of the worlds largest collections of plant genetic material, Vavilov was the head of the institute from 1921 to 1940. In 1968 the institute was renamed after Vavilov in time for its 75th anniversary, a minor planet,2862 Vavilov, discovered in 1977 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after him and his brother Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov. The crater Vavilov on the far side of the Moon is also named after him, the story of the researchers at the Vavilov Institute during the Siege of Leningrad was fictionalized by novelist Elise Blackwell in her 2003 novel HungerNikolai Vavilov – Nikolai Vavilov in 1933
7. Heredity – Heredity is the genetic information passing for traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. This is the process by which a cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the selection of specific phenotype traits. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics, in humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic, an individual might inherit the brown-eye trait from one of the parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the set of genes within an organisms genome is called its genotype. The complete set of traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment, as a result, many aspects of an organisms phenotype are not inherited. For example, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a persons phenotype and sunlight, thus, suntans are not passed on to peoples children, heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a polymer that incorporates four types of bases. The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specifies the genetic information, before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence. A portion of a DNA molecule that specifies a single unit is called a gene. Within cells, the strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes. Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, the specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles, if a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism. However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes within. Recent findings have confirmed important examples of changes that cannot be explained by direct agency of the DNA molecule. These phenomena are classed as epigenetic inheritance systems that are causally or independently evolving over genes, Heritability may also occur at even larger scalesHeredity – Heredity of phenotypic traits: Father and son with prominent ears and crowns.
8. Heritability – Other causes of measured variation in a trait are characterized as environmental factors, including measurement error. Heritability is estimated by comparing individual phenotypic variation among related individuals in a population, Heritability is an important concept in quantitative genetics, particularly in selective breeding and behavior genetics. Heritability measures the fraction of variability that can be attributed to genetic variation. This is not the same as saying that this fraction of a phenotype is caused by genetics. In addition, heritability can change without any genetic change occurring, a case in point, consider that both genes and environment have the potential to influence intelligence. Heritability could increase if genetic variation increases, causing individuals to show more phenotypic variation, on the other hand, heritability might also increase if the environmental variation decreases, causing individuals to show less phenotypic variation, like showing more similar levels of intelligence. Heritability increases when genetics are contributing more variation or because non-genetic factors are contributing less variation, Heritability is specific to a particular population in a particular environment. The extent of dependence of phenotype on environment can also be a function of the genes involved, matters of heritability are complicated because genes may canalize a phenotype, making its expression almost inevitable in all occurring environments. Individuals with the same genotype can also exhibit different phenotypes through a mechanism called phenotypic plasticity, recent insights in molecular biology have identified changes in transcriptional activity of individual genes associated with environmental changes. However, there are a number of genes whose transcription is not affected by the environment. Estimates of heritability use statistical analyses to help to identify the causes of differences between individuals, since heritability is concerned with variance, it is necessarily an account of the differences between individuals in a population. Heritability can be univariate – examining a single trait – or multivariate – examining the genetic and this allows a test of the genetic overlap between different phenotypes, for instance hair color and eye color. Environment and genetics may also interact, and heritability analyses can test for, a prerequisite for heritability analyses is that there is some population variation to account for. This last point highlights the fact that heritability cannot take account the effect of factors which are invariant in the population. In practice, all human behavioral traits vary and almost all show some heritability. Any particular phenotype can be modeled as the sum of genetic and environmental effects, likewise the phenotypic variance in the trait – Var – is the sum of effects as follows, Var = Var + Var +2 Cov. In a planned experiment Cov can be controlled and held at 0, in this case, heritability is defined as, H2 = V a r V a r. A particularly important component of the variance is the additive variance, VarHeritability – Studies of heritability ask questions such as how much genetic factors play a role in differences in height between people. This is not the same as asking how much genetic factors influence height in any one person.
9. Hybrid (biology) – In biology, a hybrid, also known as a cross breed, is the result of combining, through sexual reproduction, the qualities of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. Hybrids are not always intermediate between their parents, but can show heterosis or hybrid vigour, often growing larger or taller than either parent, some act before fertilization, others after it. A few animal species and many plant species, however, are the result of hybrid speciation, doubling the number of chromosomes to create polyploids is important in hybrid speciation, because homoploid hybrids are rarely fertile, the polyploid hybrids are allopolyploids. Human impact on the environment has greatly increased the mixing of species, with introduced species worldwide, the genetic mixing may threaten many species with extinction, while genetic erosion in crop plants may be damaging the gene pools of many species for future breeding. Many commercially useful fruits, flowers, garden herbs and trees have been produced by hybridization, one flower, Oenothera lamarckiana, was central to early genetics research into polyploidy. The term hybrid is derived from Latin hybrida, used for such as of a tame sow and a wild boar, or the child of a freeman. The term came into use in English in the 19th century. Conspicuous hybrids are named with portmanteau words, starting in the 1920s with the breeding of tiger-lion hybrids. The cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid that is heterozygous, having two alleles, one contributed by each parent and typically one is dominant and the other recessive. Typically, the F1 generation is also phenotypically homogeneous, producing offspring that are all similar to each other, double cross hybrids result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids. Three-way cross hybrids result from the cross between an F1 hybrid and an inbred line, triple cross hybrids result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids. Top cross hybrids result from the crossing of a top quality or pure-bred male, population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in a population with those of another population. These include interspecific hybrids or crosses between different breeds. e, from the point of view of genetics, different kinds of hybrid can be distinguished as follows, A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, a numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes having different haploid numbers of chromosomes. A permanent hybrid results when only the heterozygous genotype occurs, as in Oenothera lamarckiana, from the point of view of taxonomy, hybrids differ according to their parentage, Hybrids between different subspecies are called intra-specific hybrids. Offspring resulting from interspecies mating, are called interspecific hybrids, these result in hybrid speciation. Intergeneric hybrids result from matings between different genera, such as sheep and goats. Interfamilial hybrids such as chickens and guineafowl or pheasants are reliably described but extremely rareHybrid (biology) – Hercules, a " liger ", a lion/tiger hybrid.
10. Inheritance of acquired characteristics – The inheritance of acquired characteristics is a hypothesis that physiological changes acquired over the life of an organism may be transmitted to offspring. It is also referred to as the theory of adaptation equated with the evolutionary theory of French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck known as Lamarckism. The idea was proposed in ancient times by Hippocrates and Aristotle, Erasmus Darwin had described the inheritance of acquired characters in his Zoonomia,1794. According to historian of science Conway Zirkle, Lamarck was neither the first nor the most distinguished biologist to believe in the inheritance of acquired characters. He merely endorsed a belief which had been accepted for at least 2,200 years before his time. The inheritance of acquired characters had been accepted previously by Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, Roger Bacon, Jerome Cardan, Levinus Lemnius, John Ray, Michael Adanson, blumenbach and Erasmus Darwin among others. Lamarck published his theory in 1809, the year Charles Darwin was born and he noticed several lines of descent by comparing current species with fossil forms. He noticed that the younger the fossils were, the more alike they were to modern species, two ideas were incorporated in Lamarck’s theory. The first was the theory of use and disuse, the idea that body parts used more often become stronger and larger, while not used slowly waste away. The second idea was the inheritance of acquired characteristics theory, the concept that modifications that occur during a lifetime are passed on to its offspring. He believed that the neck of the giraffe resulted from the ancestors of giraffes stretching their necks longer and longer while trying to reach the highest branches of the trees. The basic concept of inheritance of acquired characters was widely rejected in the early 20th century. In the 1920s, Harvard University researcher William McDougall studied the abilities of rats to correctly solve mazes and his reports claimed that offspring of rats that had learned the maze were able to run it faster. In his data, the first rats would get it wrong 165 times before being able to run it perfectly each time, McDougall attributed this to some sort of Lamarckian evolutionary process. However McDougalls results have never been replicated by other experimenters, and have been criticised for having several methodological problems, Lysenkoism was advanced primarily in service to Soviet agriculture, always resulting in dismal failure. Thus it was conventional wisdom for decades that the real form of inheritance was hard inheritance. He stated that 901 young were produced by five generations of artificially mutilated parents, for more details on this topic, see transgenerational epigenetics Recently, researchers have reexamined this concept in light of discoveries in epigenetics and transgenerational epigenetics. The study of Heijmans et al. studied people born during the Dutch famine of 1944, adults who were conceived during the famine had distinct epigenetic marks that their siblings born before or after the famine did notInheritance of acquired characteristics – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
11. Lamarckism – Lamarckism is the idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. Despite this abandonment, interest in Lamarckism has continued, studies in the field of epigenetics and Somatic Hypermutation have highlighted the possible inheritance of behavioral traits acquired by the previous generation. This remains controversial as science historians have asserted that it is inaccurate to describe transgenerational epigenetic inheritance as a form of Lamarckism, between 1794 and 1796 Erasmus Darwin wrote Zoonomia suggesting that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament. With the power of acquiring new parts in response to stimuli and he incorporated this mechanism into his thoughts on evolution, seeing it as resulting in the adaptation of life to local environments. As a young student, Charles Darwin was tutored by Grant, Darwins On the Origin of Species proposed natural selection as the main mechanism for development of species, but did not rule out a variant of Lamarckism as a supplementary mechanism. He pointed out that he regarded pangenesis as occurring in Protozoa and plants, American paleontologist and historian of science Stephen Jay Gould wrote that in the late 19th century, evolutionists re-read Lamarck, cast aside the guts of it. And elevated one aspect of the mechanics—inheritance of acquired characters—to a central focus it never had for Lamarck himself, Gould advocated defining Lamarckism more broadly, in line with Lamarcks overall evolutionary theory. Lamarck incorporated two ideas into his theory of evolution, in his day considered to be generally true, the first was the idea of use versus disuse, he theorized that individuals lose characteristics they do not require, or use, and develop characteristics that are useful. His second point was to argue that the traits were heritable. Examples of what is traditionally called Lamarckism would include the idea that when giraffes stretch their necks to reach leaves high in trees, they strengthen and these giraffes have offspring with slightly longer necks. Similarly, a blacksmith, through his work, strengthens the muscles in his arms, however, as historians of science such as Michael Ghiselin and Stephen Jay Gould have pointed out, none of these views were original to Lamarck. On the contrary, Lamarcks contribution was a theoretical framework for understanding evolution. This would drive organisms from simple to complex forms, linfluence des circonstances - in which the use and disuse of characters led organisms to become more adapted to their environment. This would take organisms sideways off the path from simple to complex and he stated that 901 young were produced by five generations of artificially mutilated parents, and yet there was not a single example of a rudimentary tail or of any other abnormality in this organ. However, the experiment has been questioned in relationship to Lamarcks hypothesis as it did not address the use and disuse of characteristics in response to the environment, biologist Peter Gauthier noted that, Can Weismanns experiment be considered a case of disuse. Lamarck proposed that when an organ was not used, it slowly, in time, over the course of many generations, it would gradually disappear as it was inherited in its modified form in each successive generation. Cutting the tails off mice does not seem to meet the qualifications of disuse, Lamarcks hypothesis has never been proven experimentally and there is no known mechanism to support the idea that somatic change, however acquired, can in some way induce a change in the germplasm. Lamarck was not concerned with wounds, injuries or mutilations, during that time many scientists and philosophers accepted the reality of evolution but doubted whether natural selection was the main evolutionary mechanismLamarckism – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
12. Mendelian inheritance – Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900. These laws were very controversial. When Mendels theories were integrated with the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, between 1856 and 1863, Mendel cultivated and tested some 5,000 pea plants. From these experiments, he induced two generalizations which later known as Mendels Principles of Heredity or Mendelian inheritance. In 1900, however, his work was re-discovered by three European scientists, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. De Vries may not have acknowledged truthfully how much of his knowledge of the came from his own work. Later scholars have accused Von Tschermak of not truly understanding the results at all, regardless, the re-discovery made Mendelism an important but controversial theory. Its most vigorous promoter in Europe was William Bateson, who coined the terms genetics, the model of heredity was highly contested by other biologists because it implied that heredity was discontinuous, in opposition to the apparently continuous variation observable for many traits. Many biologists also dismissed the theory because they were not sure it would apply to all species, Mendels findings allowed scientists such as Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane to predict the expression of traits on the basis of mathematical probabilities, an important aspect of Mendels success can be traced to his decision to start his crosses only with plants he demonstrated were true-breeding. He also only measured absolute characteristics, such as color, shape and he expressed his results numerically and subjected them to statistical analysis. His method of analysis and his large sample size gave credibility to his data. He also had the foresight to follow several successive generations of pea plants, finally, he performed test crosses to reveal the presence and proportions of recessive characters. Without his diligence and careful attention to procedure and detail, Mendels work would have had a smaller impact on the world of genetics. Mendel discovered that, when he crossed purebred white flower and purple flower pea plants, rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple-flowered. When Mendel self-fertilized the F1 generation pea plants, he obtained a purple flower to white flower ratio in the F2 generation of 3 to 1, the results of this cross are tabulated in the Punnett square to the right. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called factors, Mendel found that there are alternative forms of factors—now called genes—that account for variations in inherited characteristics. For example, the gene for color in pea plants exists in two forms, one for purple and the other for whiteMendelian inheritance – Gregor Mendel, the German-speaking Augustinian monk who founded the modern science of genetics.
13. Vernalization – Vernalization is the induction of a plants flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent. After vernalization, plants have acquired the ability to flower, vernalization is sometimes used to refer to herbal plants requiring a cold dormancy to produce new shoots and leaves but this usage is discouraged. Many plants grown in temperate climates require vernalization and must experience a period of low temperature to initiate or accelerate the flowering process. This ensures that development and seed production occurs in spring. The needed cold is often expressed in chill hours, typical vernalization temperatures are between 5 and 10 degrees Celsius. Many monocarpic winter annuals and biennials, including some ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana and winter cereals such as wheat, scientists in the early 19th century had discussed how some plants needed cold temperatures to flower. In 1857 an American agriculturist John Hancock Klippart, Secretary of the Ohio Board of Agriculture, reported the importance, one of the most significant works was by a German plant physiologist Gustav Gassner who made a detailed discussion in his 1918 paper. Lysenko himself translated the term into vernalization, after Lysenko the term was used to explain the ability of flowering in some plants after a period of chilling due to physiological changes and external factors. The formal definition was given in 1960 by a French botanist P. Chouard, lysenkos 1928 paper on vernalization and plant physiology drew wide attention due to its practical consequences for Russian agriculture. Severe cold and lack of snow had destroyed many early winter wheat seedlings. By treating wheat seeds with moisture as well as cold, Lysenko induced them to bear a crop planted in spring. Early research on vernalization focused on plant physiology, the availability of molecular biology has made it possible to unravel its underlying mechanisms. Due to plant flowering requiring the successful co-operation of several metabolic pathways, Arabidopsis thaliana is a much-studied model for vernalization. Some ecotypes, called winter annuals, have delayed flowering without vernalization, the genes that underlie this difference in plant physiology have been intensively studied. The reproductive phase change of A. thaliana occurs by a sequence of two related events, first, the transition, then the floral transition. Bolting is a robust predictor of flower formation, and hence a good indicator for vernalization research, in winter annual Arabidopsis, vernalization of the meristem appears to confer competence to respond to floral inductive signals. A vernalized meristem retains competence for as long as 300 days in the absence of an inductive signal, at the molecular level, flowering is repressed by the protein Flowering Locus C, which binds to and represses genes that promote flowering, thus blocking flowering. Winter annual ecotypes of Arabidopsis have a copy of the gene FRIGIDAVernalization – Many species of henbane require vernalization before flowering.
14. Collectivization in the Soviet Union – The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin. It began during and was part of the first five-year plan, the policy aimed to consolidate individual landholdings and labour into collective farms, mainly kolkhozy and sovkhozy. Planners regarded collectivization as the solution to the crisis of agricultural distribution that had developed from 1927 and this problem became more acute as the Soviet Union pressed ahead with its ambitious industrialization program. In the early 1930s over 91% of agricultural land became collectivized as rural households entered collective farms with their land, livestock, the sweeping collectivization often involved tremendous human and social costs. After the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, peasants gained control of half of the land they had previously cultivated. The Stolypin agricultural reforms between 1905 and 1914 gave incentives for the creation of large farms, but these ended during World War I, the Russian Provisional Government accomplished little during the difficult World War I months, though Russian leaders continued to promise redistribution. Peasants began to turn against the Provisional Government and organized themselves into land committees, when the Russian Civil War ended, the economy changed with the New Economic Policy and specifically, the policy of prodnalog or food tax. This new policy was designed to re-build morale among embittered farmers, the pre-existing communes, which periodically redistributed land, did little to encourage improvement in technique, and formed a source of power beyond the control of the Soviet government. Although the income gap between wealthy and poor farmers did grow under the NEP, it remained small. Clearly identifying this group was difficult, though, since only about 1% of the peasantry employed laborers, the small shares of most of the peasants resulted in food shortages in the cities. Although grain had nearly returned to production levels, the large estates which had produced it for urban markets had been divided up. Not interested in acquiring money to purchase overpriced manufactured goods, the peasants chose to consume their produce rather than sell it, as a result, city dwellers only saw half the grain that had been available before the war. Before the revolution, peasants controlled only 2,100,000 km² divided into 16 million holdings, producing 50% of the food grown in Russia and consuming 60% of total food production. After the revolution, the peasants controlled 3,140,000 km² divided into 25 million holdings, producing 85% of the food, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had never been happy with private agriculture and saw collectivization as the best remedy for the problem. Lenin claimed Small-scale production gives birth to capitalism and the bourgeoisie constantly, daily, hourly, with elemental force and this demand for more grain resulted in the reintroduction of requisitioning which was resisted in rural areas. In 1928 there was a 2-million-ton shortfall in grains purchased by the Soviet Union from neighbouring markets, Stalin claimed the grain had been produced but was being hoarded by kulaks. Instead of raising the price, the Politburo adopted a measure to requisition 2.5 million tons of grain. In 1929, especially after the introduction of the Ural-Siberian Method of grain procurement, also, massive hoarding and illegal transfers of grain took placeCollectivization in the Soviet Union – "Strengthen working discipline in collective farms" – Soviet propaganda poster issued in Uzbekistan, 1933
15. Socialist realism – Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in that country as well as in other socialist countries. Socialist realism is characterized by the depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, Socialist realism was the predominant form of approved art in the Soviet Union from its development in the early 1920s to its eventual fall from popularity in the late 1960s. While other countries have employed a prescribed canon of art, socialist realism in Soviet Union persisted longer and was more restricted than elsewhere in Europe, Socialist realism was developed by many thousands of artists, across a diverse society, over several decades. Early examples of realism in Russian art include the work of the Peredvizhnikis, while these works do not have the same political connotation, they exhibit the techniques exercised by their successors. After the Bolsheviks took control of Russia on October 25,1917, there had been a short period of artistic exploration in the time between the fall of the Tsar and the rise of the Bolsheviks. In 1917, Russian artists began to return to traditional forms of art. Shortly after the Bolsheviks took control, Anatoly Lunacharsky was appointed as head of Narkompros and this put Lunacharsky in the position of deciding the direction of art in the newly created Soviet state. Lunacharsky created a system of aesthetics based on the body that would become the main component of socialist realism for decades to come. He believed that the sight of a body, intelligent face or friendly smile was essentially life-enhancing. He concluded that art had an effect on the human organism. By depicting the perfect person, Lunacharsky believed art could educate citizens on how to be the perfect Soviets, there were two main groups debating the fate of Soviet art, futurists and traditionalists. Russian Futurists, many of whom had been creating abstract or leftist art before the Bolsheviks, believed communism required a complete rupture from the past and, therefore, traditionalists believed in the importance of realistic representations of everyday life. By 1928, the Soviet government had enough strength and authority to end private enterprises, at this point, although the term socialist realism was not being used, its defining characteristics became the norm. The first time the term socialist realism was officially used was in 1932, the term was settled upon in meetings that included politicians of the highest level, including Stalin himself. Maxim Gorky, a proponent of literary socialist realism, published an article titled Socialist Realism in 1933. During the Congress of 1934 four guidelines were laid out for socialist realism, the work must be, Proletarian, art relevant to the workers and understandable to them. Typical, scenes of life of the peopleSocialist realism – Socialist-Realist sculpture in Vilnius, removed in 2015.
16. Politicization of science – The politicization of science is the manipulation of science for political gain. It occurs when government, business, or advocacy groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the findings of research or the way it is disseminated, reported or interpreted. The politicization of science may also negatively affect academic and scientific freedom, historically, groups have conducted various campaigns to promote their interests in defiance of scientific consensus, and in an effort to manipulate public policy. Researcher William R. Freudenburg and colleagues have noted that where decisions and action are required, science can offer valuable degrees of certainty, however, john Horgan describes how this point is sometimes intentionally ignored as a part of what he calls an Orwellian tactic. Organizations sometimes seek to shift all discussion on some issues away from conclusions are most scientifically likely to even the more probable conclusion is still uncertain, chris Mooney has claimed these tactics are used to gain more attention for views that have been undermined by scientific evidence. In his view, the ends up in a misguided pursuit of balance which results in undue weight in reporting. William R. Freudenburg and colleagues have written about this rhetorical technique, cigarette lobbyists combating laws that would control smoking via trivializing evidence as uncertain, is offered as an example of a SCAM. Both mainstream climatologists and their critics have accused each other of politicizing the science behind climate change, there is a scientific consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused primarily by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases. ICE launched a $500,000 advertising campaign to, in ICEs own words, input from the industry advocacy group Global Climate Coalition was also a factor. The findings these organisations dislike are labelled junk science, the findings they welcome are labelled sound science. The Discovery Institute portrays evolution as a theory in crisis with scientists criticizing evolution and that all forms of life on Earth are related by common descent with modification is one of the most reliable and empirically tested theories in science. Accordingly, any controversial aspects of evolution are a matter of religion and politics, the 2005 ruling in the Dover trial, Kitzmiller v. S. A2006 article in scientific journal Science, said the reason that among the developed countries surveyed. By the mid-1950s there was a consensus that smoking promotes lung cancer. Denying the case against tobacco was closed, they called for research as a tactic to delay regulation. John Horgan, notes a rhetoric tactic that has been used by tobacco companies and it is summarized in a line that appeared in a confidential memo from a tobacco company, in 1969, when they sought to cast doubt on evidence that supports smoking causes cancer. It read, Doubt is our product since it is the best means of competing with the body of fact that exists in the mind of the general public and it is also the means of establishing a controversy. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler was well known for programs which attempted to maintain a pure German race through a series of programs that ran under the banner of Racial HygienePoliticization of science – A cigarette carton warns about the health risks of smoking. Public awareness was delayed by a SCAM (Scientific Certainty Argumentation Method).