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1. Neolithic Europe – Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE and c.1700 BCE. The Neolithic overlaps the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe as cultural changes moved from the southeast to northwest at about 1 km/year - this is called Neolithic Expansion. Polished stone axes lie at the heart of the culture, enabling forest clearance for agriculture and production of wood for dwellings. Since the 1970s, population genetics has provided independent data on the history of Neolithic Europe, including migration events. Remains of food-producing societies in the Aegean have been carbon-dated to around 6500 BCE at Knossos, Franchthi Cave, Neolithic groups appear soon afterwards in the Balkans and south-central Europe. The Neolithic cultures of southeastern Europe show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia. All Neolithic sites in Europe contain ceramics, and contain the plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia, einkorn, emmer, barley, lentils, pigs, goats, sheep, and cattle. Genetic data suggest that no independent domestication of animals took place in Neolithic Europe, the only domesticate not from Southwest Asia was broomcorn millet, domesticated in East Asia. The earliest evidence of cheese-making dates to 5500 BCE in Kujawy, archaeologists seem to agree that the culture of the early Neolithic is relatively homogeneous, compared both to the late Mesolithic and the later Neolithic. The diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years, the Baltic region was penetrated a bit later, around 3500 BCE, and there was also a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another. With some exceptions, population rose rapidly at the beginning of the Neolithic until they reached the carrying capacity. This was followed by a crash of enormous magnitude after 5000 BCE. Populations began to rise after 3500 BCE, with further dips, a study of twelve European regions found most experienced boom and bust patterns and suggested an endogenous, not climatic cause. Archaeologists agree that the associated with agriculture originated in the Levant/Near East. However, debate exists whether this resulted from an active process from the Near East, or merely due to cultural contact. Currently, three models summarize the pattern of spread, Replacement model, posits that there was a significant migration of farmers from the Fertile Crescent into Europe. Given their technological advantages, they would have displaced or absorbed the less numerous hunter-gathering populace, thus, modern Europeans are primarily descended from these Neolithic farmersNeolithic Europe – An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
2. Chalcolithic – The Copper Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The archaeological site of Belovode on the Rudnik mountain in Serbia contains the worlds oldest securely dated evidence of copper smelting from 5000 BCE, the multiple names result from multiple recognitions of the period. Originally, the term Bronze Age meant that either copper or bronze was being used as the hard substance for the manufacture of tools. In 1881, John Evans, recognizing that the use of copper often preceded the use of bronze and he did not include the transitional period in the tripartite system of Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age but placed it at the beginning outside of it. He did not, however, present it as a fourth age, in 1884, Gaetano Chierici, perhaps following the lead of Evans, renamed it in Italian as the Eneo-litica, or Bronze-stone transition. The phrase was never intended to mean that the period was the one in which both bronze and stone were used. The Copper Age features the use of copper, excluding bronze, moreover, litica simply names the Stone Age as the point from which the transition began and is not another -lithic age. Subsequently, British scholars used either Evanss Copper Age or the term Eneolithic, around 1900, many writers began to substitute Chalcolithic for Eneolithic, to avoid the false segmentation. It was then that the misunderstanding began among those who did not know Italian, the -lithic was seen as a new -lithic age, a part of the Stone Age in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. Today Copper Age, Eneolithic and Chalcolithic are used synonymously to mean Evanss original definition of Copper Age, there was an independent invention of copper and bronze smelting first by Andean civilizations in South America extended later by sea commerce to the Mesoamerican civilization in West Mexico. The literature of European archaeology, in general, avoids the use of Chalcolithic, the Copper Age in the Middle East and the Caucasus began in the late 5th millennium BCE and lasted for about a millennium before it gave rise to the Early Bronze Age. The transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about the same time, an archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago. In Serbia, an axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates that humans were using metals in Europe by 7,500 years ago. Knowledge of the use of copper was far more widespread than the metal itself, the European Battle Axe culture used stone axes modeled on copper axes, even with imitation mold marks carved in the stone. Ötzi the Iceman, who was found in the Ötztal Alps in 1991, examples of Chalcolithic cultures in Europe include Vila Nova de São Pedro and Los Millares on the Iberian Peninsula. Pottery of the Beaker people has found at both sites, dating to several centuries after copper-working began there. The Beaker culture appears to have copper and bronze technologies in Europe. The term Chalcolithic is not generally used by British prehistorians, who disagree whether it applies in the British context, in Bhirrana, the earliest Indus civilization site, copper bangles and arrowheads were foundChalcolithic – Painting of a Copper Age walled city, Los Millares, Iberia
3. Mesolithic – In archaeology, the Mesolithic is the culture between Paleolithic and Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is often used for areas outside northern Europe, Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia. It was originally post-Pleistocene, pre-agricultural material in northwest Europe about 10,000 to 5000 BC, in the archaeology of Northern Europe, for example for archaeological sites in Great Britain, Germany, Scandinavia, Ukraine, and Russia, the term Mesolithic is almost always used. In the archaeology of other areas, the term Epipaleolithic may be preferred by most authors, in the New World, neither term is used. Other authors use the term Mesolithic for a variety of Late Paleolithic cultures subsequent to the end of the last glacial period whether they are transitional towards agriculture or not, conversely, those that are in course of transition toward artificial food production are assigned to the Mesolithic. Therefore, care must be taken in translating Mesolithic as Middle Stone Age, subdivisions of earlier and later were added to the Stone Age by Thomsen and especially his junior colleague and employee Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae. John Lubbock kept these divisions in his work Pre-historic Times in 1865 and he saw no need for an intermediate category. When Hodder Westropp introduced the Mesolithic in 1866, as an intermediate between Paleolithic and Neolithic, a storm of controversy immediately arose around it. A British school led by John Evans denied any need for an intermediate, the ages blended together like the colors of a rainbow, he said. A European school led by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet asserted that there was a gap between the earlier and later, edouard Piette claimed to have filled the gap with his discovery of the Azilian Culture. Knut Stjerna offered an alternative in the Epipaleolithic, a continuation of the use of Paleolithic technology, the start and end dates of the Mesolithic vary by geographical region. Childes view prevails that the term covers the period between the end of the Pleistocene and the start of the Neolithic. If the Mesolithic is more similar to the Paleolithic it is called the Epipaleolithic, the Paleolithic was an age of purely hunting and gathering while in the Neolithic domestication of plants and animals had occurred. Some Mesolithic peoples continued with intensive hunting, others were practising the initial stages of domestication. The type of remains the diagnostic factor, The Mesolithic featured composite devices manufactured with Mode V chipped stone tools. The Paleolithic had utilized Modes I–IV and the Neolithic mainly abandoned the chipped microliths in favor of polished, not chipped, the first period, known as Mesolithic 1, followed the Aurignacian or Levantine Upper Paleolithic periods throughout the Levant. By the end of the Aurignacian, gradual changes took place in stone industries, small stone tools called microliths and retouched bladelets can be found for the first time. The microliths of this period differ greatly from the Aurignacian artifactsMesolithic – Mesolithic microliths
4. Cardium pottery – These forms of pottery are in turn used to define the Neolithic culture which produced and spread them, mostly commonly called the Cardial culture. The alternative name impressed ware is given by archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than cockle shell. Impressed pottery is more widespread than the Cardial. Impressed ware is found in the zone covering Italy to the Ligurian coast as distinct from the more western Cardial extending from Provence to western Portugal. The sequence in prehistoric Europe has traditionally been supposed to start with widespread Cardial ware, however the widespread Cardial and Impressed pattern types overlap and are now considered more likely to be contemporary. The earliest impressed ware sites, dating to 6400-6200 BC, are in Epirus, settlements then appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern Adriatic coast dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC. The earliest date in Italy comes from Coppa Nevigata on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, also during Su Carroppu culture in Sardinia, already in its early stages early examples of cardial pottery appear. This suggests an expansion by planting colonies along the coast. Older Neolithic cultures existed already at time in eastern Greece and Crete, apparently having arrived from the Levant. Early Neolithic impressed pottery is found in the Levant, and certain parts of Anatolia, including Mezraa-Teleilat, so the first Cardial settlers in the Adriatic may have come directly from the Levant. Of course it might well have come directly from North Africa. Along the East Mediterranean coast impressed ware has found in North Syria, Palestine. Prehistoric Italy Prehistory of Corsica Prehistoric Iberia Byblos Stone AgeCardium pottery
5. Corded Ware culture – Corded Ware culture encompassed a vast area, from the Rhine on the west to the Volga in the east, occupying parts of Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The Corded Ware was genetically related to the Yamnaya culture. The Corded Ware culture may have disseminated the Proto-Germanic and Proto-Balto-Slavic Indo-European languages, the Corded Ware Culture also shows genetic affinity with the later Sintashta culture, where the proto-Indo-Iranian language originated. The term Corded Ware culture was first introduced by the German archaeologist Friedrich Klopfleisch in 1883 and he named it after cord-like impressions or ornamentation characteristic of its pottery. The term Single Grave culture comes from its burial custom, which consisted of inhumation under tumuli in a position with various artifacts. Battle Axe culture, or Boat Axe culture, is named from its characteristic grave offering to males, at the same time, they had several shared elements that are characteristic of all Corded Ware groups, such as their burial practices, pottery with cord decoration and unique stone-axes. The contemporary Beaker culture overlapped with the extremity of this culture, west of the Elbe. The origins and dispersal of Corded Ware culture was for a time one of the pivotal unresolved issues of the Indo-European Urheimat problem. Its wide area of distribution indicates rapid expansion at the time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages. Some archaeologists believed it sprang from central Europe while others saw an influence from nomadic societies of the steppes. In favour of the first view was the fact that Corded Ware coincides considerably with the earlier north-central European Funnelbeaker culture, according to Gimbutas, the Corded Ware culture was preceded by the Globular Amphora culture, which she regarded to be an Indo-European culture. The Globular Amphora culture stretched from central Europe to the Baltic sea, however, in other regions Corded Ware appears to herald a new culture and physical type. The degree to which cultural change generally represents immigration were matter of debate, according to controversial radiocarbon dates, Corded Ware ceramic forms in single graves develop earlier in the area that is now Poland than in western and southern Central Europe. The earliest radiocarbon dates for Corded Ware indeed come from Kujawy and Lesser Poland in central and southern Poland, whereas in the area of the present Baltic states and East Prussia, it is seen as an intrusive successor to the southwestern portion of the Narva culture. However, today Corded Ware is now seen as intrusive, though not necessarily aggressively so. A Genetic study conducted by Haak et al, about 75% of the DNA of late Neolithic Corded Ware skeletons found in Germany was a precise match to DNA from individuals of the Yamnaya culture. Haak et al. also note that their results suggest that haplogroups R1b and R1a spread into Europe from the East after 3,000 BCE.5 In terms of phenotypes, Wilde et al. and Haak et al. Autosomal DNA tests also indicate that the Yamnaya migration from the steppes introduced a component of ancestry referred to as Ancient North Eurasian admixture into EuropeCorded Ware culture – Boat-shaped battle axe from Närke
6. Linear Pottery culture – The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing circa 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK, and is known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture. The densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and it represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe. The pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls, vases, and jugs, without handles, but in a phase with lugs or pierced lugs, bases. The Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary, Middle and late phases are also defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture, in the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Vistula and Elbe. A number of cultures ultimately replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, the culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Lengyel, Cucuteni-Trypillian. The term Linear Band Ware derives from the potterys decorative technique, the Band Ware or Bandkeramik part of it began as an innovation of the German archaeologist, Friedrich Klopfleisch. The earliest generally accepted name in English was the Danubian of V. Gordon Childe, most names in English are attempts to translate Linearbandkeramik. Since Starčevo-Körös pottery was earlier than the LBK and was located in a contiguous food-producing region, much of the Starčevo-Körös pottery features decorative patterns composed of convolute bands of paint, spirals, converging bands, vertical bands, and so on. The LBK appears to imitate and often improve these convolutions with incised lines, hence the term, linear, the LBK did not begin with this range and only reached it toward the end of its time. It began in regions of densest occupation on the middle Danube, the rate of expansion was therefore about 4 km per year, which can hardly be called an invasion or a wave by the standard of current events, but over archaeological time seems especially rapid. The LBK was concentrated somewhat inland from the areas, i. e. it is not evidenced in Denmark or the northern coastal strips of Germany and Poland. The northern coastal regions remained occupied by Mesolithic cultures exploiting the then fabulously rich Atlantic salmon runs, evidently, the Neolithics and Mesolithics were not excluding each other. The LBK at maximum extent ranged from about the line of the Seine–Oise eastward to the line of the Dnieper, and southward to the line of the upper Danube down to the big bend. An extension ran through the Southern Bug valley, leaped to the valley of the Dniester, a good many C-14 dates have been acquired on the LBK, making possible statistical analyses, which have been performed on different sample groups. The 95. 4% confidence interval is 5600–4750 BC, data continue to be acquired and therefore any one analysis should be taken as a rough guideline onlyLinear Pottery culture – Linear pottery: "The vessels are oblated globes, cut off on the top and slightly flattened on the bottom suggestive of a gourd."— Frank Hibben Note the imitation of painted bands by incising the edges of the band. Stroked Ware is shown in the upper left corner.
7. Archaeological culture – An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place, which may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society. The connection between the artifacts is based on understanding and interpretation and does not necessarily relate to real groups of humans in the past. The concept of culture is fundamental to culture-historical archaeology. Different cultural groups have material culture items which differ both functionally and aesthetically due to varying cultural and social practices and this notion is observably true on the broadest scales. For example, the equipment associated with the brewing of tea varies greatly across the world, social relations to material culture often include notions of identity and status. The classic definition of this comes from Gordon Childe, We find certain types of remains - pots, implements, ornaments, burial rites. Such a complex of associated traits we shall call a group or just a culture. We assume that such a complex is the expression of what today we would call a people. The concept of a culture was crucial to linking the typological analysis of archaeological evidence to mechanisms that attempted to explain why they change through time. The key explanations favoured by culture-historians were the diffusion of forms from one group to another or the migration of the peoples themselves. Conversely, if one pottery-type suddenly replaces a great diversity of types in an entire region. Archaeological cultures were generally equated with separate peoples leading in some cases to distinct nationalist archaeologies, most archaeological cultures are named after either the type artifact or type site that defines the culture. For example, cultures may be named after pottery types such as Linear Pottery Culture or Funnelbeaker culture, more frequently, they are named after the site at which the culture was first defined such as the Halstatt culture or Clovis culture. Since the term culture has different meanings, scholars have also coined a more specific term paleo-culture or paleoculture. Works of Kulturgeschichte were produced by a number of German scholars, particularly Gustav Klemm, from 1780 onwards, the first use of culture in an archaeological context was in Christian Thomsens 1836 work Ledetraad til Nordisk Oldkyndighed. It was not until the 20th century and the works of German prehistorian, Kossinna saw the archaeological record as a mosaic of clearly defined cultures that were strongly associated with race. The strongly racist character of Kossinnas work meant it had direct influence outside of Germany at the time. However, the general culture history approach to archaeology that he began did replace social evolutionism as the dominant paradigm for much of the 20th centuryArchaeological culture – Taiwanese tea kettle
8. Baden culture – The Baden culture, ca 3600 BC-ca 2800 BC, is an eneolithic culture found in Central and Southeast Europe. It is known from Moravia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, northern Serbia, western Romania, imports of Baden pottery have also been found in Germany and Switzerland, where it could be dated by dendrochronology. The Baden culture was named after Baden near Vienna by the Austrian prehistorian Oswald Menghin and it is also known as the Ossarn group or Pecel culture. The first monographic treatment was produced by J. Banner in 1956, other important scholars are E. Neustupny, Ida Bognar-Kutzian and Vera Nemejcova-Pavukova. Baden has been interpreted as part of a larger archaeological complex encompassing cultures at the mouth of the Danube. In 1963, Nándor Kalicz had proposed a connection between the Baden culture and Troy, based on the urns from Ózd-Centre. This interpretation cannot be maintained in the face of radiocarbon dates, the author himself has called this interpretation a cul-de-sac, based on a misguided historical methodology. Baden developed out of the late Lengyel culture in the western Carpathian Basin, němejcová-Pavuková proposes a polygenetic origin, including southeastern elements transmitted by the Ezero culture of the early Bronze Age and Cernavoda III/Coțofeni. Ecsedy parallelises Baden with Early Helladic II in Thessaly, Parzinger with Sitagroi IV, Baden was approximately contemporaneous with the late Funnelbeaker culture, the Globular Amphora culture and the early Corded Ware culture. The following phases are known, Balaton-Lasinya, Baden-Boleráz, Post-Boleráz, the settlements were often located on hilltops and were normally undefended. Both inhumations and cremations are known, in Slovakia and Hungary, the burned remains were often placed in anthropomorphic urns. In Nitriansky Hrádok, a grave was uncovered. There are also burials of cattle, up to now, the only cemetery known from the early Boleráz-phase is Pilismárot, which also contained a few examples of stroke-ornamented pottery. In Serbia, anthropomorphic urns were found in the towns of Dobanovci, Gomolava, Perlez, full-scale agriculture was present, along with the keeping of domestic stock—pigs, goats, etc. The Baden culture has some of the earliest attestation of wheeled vehicles in central Europe, finds of actual waggons have not been made, but there are burials of pairs of cattle that have been interpreted as draught animals. In the Kurgan hypothesis espoused by Marija Gimbutas, the Baden culture is seen as being Indo-Europeanized, for proponents of the older theory that seeks the Indo-European homeland in central Europe in the area occupied by the preceding Funnelbeaker culture, it is similarly considered Indo-European. Coțofeni culture Prehistory of Transylvania J. Banner, Die Peceler Kultur, K problematike trvania a konca boleazkej skupiny na Slovensku. J. P. Mallory, Baden Culture, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture,1997Baden culture – Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).
9. Beaker culture – The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on the cultures distinctive pottery drinking beakers. The Bell Beaker period marks a period of contact in Atlantic and Western Europe on a scale not seen previously. It has been suggested that the beakers were designed for the consumption of alcohol, beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups, some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. They were used as status display amongst disparate elites, there have been numerous proposals by archaeologists as to the origins of the Bell Beaker culture, and debates continued on for decades. Several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, similarly, scholars have postulated various mechanisms of spread, including migrations of populations, smaller warrior groups, individuals, or a diffusion of ideas and object exchange. Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon and they have concluded that the Bell Beaker phenomenon was a synthesis of elements, representing “an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background. An overview of all sources from southern Germany concluded that Bell Beaker was a new and independent culture in that area. The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found widely around the Tagus estuary in Portugal. Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BC. AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern. Furthermore, the ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe. Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions although, instead of battle-axes, the initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica, the enclave established in southern Brittany was linked closely to the riverine and landward route, via the Loire, and across the Gâtinais valley to the Seine valley, and thence to the lower Rhine. This was a long-established route reflected in early stone axe distributions, another pulse had brought Bell Beaker to Csepel Island in Hungary by about 2500 BC. But in contrast to the early Bell Beaker preference for the dagger and bow, here Bell Beaker people assimilated local pottery forms such as the polypod cup. These common ware types of pottery then spread in association with the bell beaker. From the Carpathian Basin Bell Beaker spread down the Rhine and eastwards into what is now Germany, by this time the Rhine was on the western edge of the vast Corded Ware zoneBeaker culture – The distinctive Bell Beaker pottery drinking vessels shaped like an inverted bell
10. Boian culture – The Boian culture, also known as the Giuleşti-Mariţa culture or Mariţa culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture of Southeast Europe. It is primarily found along the course of the Danube in what is now Romania and Bulgaria. The Boian culture originated on the Wallachian Plain north of the Danube River in southeastern Romania, the type site of the Boian culture is located on an island on Lake Boian in the region of Muntenia, on the Wallachian Plain north of the Danube River. The Boian culture is divided traditionally into four phases, each of which is given a name of one of the sites that are associated with it, Phase I - Bolintineanu Phase. Phase II - Giuleşti Phase, 4200-4100 BC, Phase III - Vidra Phase, 4100-4000 BC. Phase IV - Spanţov Phase, 4000-3500 BC, the Boian culture ended through a smooth transition into the Gumelniţa culture, which also borrowed from the Vădastra culture. As a result, there are frequent references to this by scholars, sometimes, though, this term is mis-used by some to include both the entire Boian culture and Gumelniţa culture periods, not just the transitional period overlapping the two cultures. Since each culture is distinct from the other during its main phases, they should each be considered and named separately, Boian archaeological sites have tended to be found next to rivers and lakes that had rich floodplains that provided fertile soil for agriculture. There were three different types of structures found in Boian sites, during Boian phases I and II the dwellings of this culture were thrown-together, oval-shaped lean-to or dugout pit-house shelters built into river banks and ledges. In Boian phases III and IV the dwellings became more sophisticated, the third type of houses were larger, rectangular wattle and daub structures with wooden platform floors covered in clay, and roughly-thatched roofs, built at ground level. During phases III and IV the first settlements began to appear and these settlements were typically built on high, steep terraces or headlands above the floodplain of the rivers or lakes that were always nearby. Later settlements also sometimes showed signs of fortification in the form of deep. In Phase IV surface houses became dominant over subterranean, and the settlements grew to include up to 150 people and their economy was characterized by the practice of agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, gathering and fishing. The proximity of their settlements to deciduous forests and steppe vegetation provided a supply of wild game for their diet and fuel for their fires, tools. In addition, their nearness to rivers, lakes, and marshes provided a source of game fowl and fish. In addition to the black/grey and white pottery, a few localized examples of red-inlaid clay decoration were found, beginning in Phase III, they began to use graphite paint to decorate their pottery, a method probably borrowed from the south Balkan Marica culture. The Boian culture continued to improve its ceramic technology until it reached its height during Phase III, after which it began to decline in quality and workmanship. The use of lithic technology occurred throughout this cultures existence, attested to by the presence of debitage found next to various types of shaped flint and polished stone toolsBoian culture – Boian Art
11. Cortaillod culture – The Cortaillod culture is one of several archaeologically defined cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland. The Cortaillod Culture in the west of the region is contemporary with the Pfyn Culture in the east, the Classic Cortaillod Culture of the western Alpine foreland and the Early Cortaillod Culture of central Switzerland pre-date this at 4300-3900 BC. The economy and environment of the 4th and 3rd millennia BC in the northern Alpine foreland based on studies of animal bonesCortaillod culture – Dates and locations of prehistoric Swiss cultures
12. Cucuteni-Trypillian culture – The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe. The majority of Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements consisted of high-density, small settlements, concentrated mainly in the Siret, Prut, one of the most notable aspects of this culture was the periodic destruction of settlements, with each single-habitation site having a lifetime of roughly 60 to 80 years. One particular location, the Poduri site in Romania, revealed thirteen habitation levels that were constructed on top of each other many years. The culture was named after the village of Cucuteni in Iași County. In 1884, Teodor T. Burada and other scholars from Iași, including the poet Nicolae Beldiceanu and archeologists Grigore Butureanu, butculescu and George Diamandy, subsequently began the first excavations at Cucuteni in the spring of 1885. At the same time, the first Ukrainian sites ascribed to the culture were discovered by Vincent Chvojka, the year of his discoveries has been variously claimed as 1893,1896 and 1887. Subsequently, Chvojka presented his findings at the 11th Congress of Archaeologists in 1897, in the same year, similar artifacts were excavated in the village of Trypillia, in Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. As a result, this culture became identified in Ukrainian publications, as the Tripolie, today, the finds from both Romania and Ukraine, as well as those from Moldova, are recognized as belonging to the same cultural complex. It is generally called the Cucuteni culture in Romania and the Trypillian culture in Ukraine, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture flourished in the territory of what is now Moldova, northeastern Romania and parts of Western, Central and Southern Ukraine. The culture thus extended northeast from the Danube river basin around the Iron Gates to the Black Sea and it encompassed the central Carpathian Mountains as well as the plains, steppe and forest steppe on either side of the range. Its historical core lay around the middle to upper Dniester, as of 2003, about 3000 cultural sites have been identified, ranging from small villages to vast settlements consisting of hundreds of dwellings surrounded by multiple ditches. Traditionally separate schemes of periodization have been used for the Ukrainian Trypillian and Romanian Cucuteni variants of the culture, the Cucuteni scheme, proposed by the German archeologist Hubert Schmidt in 1932, distinguished three cultures, Pre-Cucuteni, Cucuteni and Horodiştea-Folteşti, which were further divided into phases. The Ukrainian scheme was first developed by Tatiana Sergeyevna Passek in 1949, initially based on informal ceramic seriation, both schemes have been extended and revised since first proposed, incorporating new data and formalised mathematical techniques for artifact seriation. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is divided into an Early, Middle, Late period, with varying smaller sub-divisions marked by changes in settlement. A key point of contention lies in how these phases correspond to radiocarbon data, during the early period of its existence, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was also influenced by the Linear Pottery culture from the north, and by the Boian-Giulesti culture from the south. Through colonization and acculturation from these cultures, the formative Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A culture was established. Settlements also developed in the stretches of the Carpathian Mountains. Most of the settlements were located close to rivers, with settlements located on the plateausCucuteni-Trypillian culture – Characteristic example of Cucuteni-Trypillian pottery
13. Funnelbeaker culture – The Funnelbeaker culture, in short TRB or TBK was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe. Especially in the southern and eastern groups, local sequences of variants emerged, the younger TRB in these areas was superseded by the Single Grave culture at about 2800 BC. The north-central European megaliths were built primarily during the TRB era, the Funnelbeaker culture is named for its characteristic ceramics, beakers and amphorae with funnel-shaped tops, which were found in dolmen burials. The TRB ranges from the Elbe catchment in Germany and Bohemia with an extension into the Netherlands, to southern Scandinavia in the north. With the exception of some settlements such as Alvastra pile-dwelling. It was characterised by single-family daubed houses c.12 m x 6 m and it was dominated by animal husbandry of sheep, cattle, pigs and goats, but there was also hunting and fishing. One find assigned to the Funnelbeaker culture is the Bronocice pot from Poland, primitive wheat and barley was grown on small patches that were fast depleted, due to which the population frequently moved small distances. There was also mining and collection of flintstone, which was traded into regions lacking the stone, the culture imported copper from Central Europe, especially daggers and axes. The houses were centered on a grave, a symbol of social cohesion. Burial practices were varied, depending on region and changed over time, inhumation seems to have been the rule. The oldest graves consisted of wooden chambered cairns inside long barrows, originally, the structures were probably covered with a heap of dirt and the entrance was blocked by a stone. The Funnelbeaker culture marks the appearance of megalithic tombs at the coasts of the Baltic and of the North sea, the megalithic structures of Ireland, France and Portugal are somewhat older and have been connected to earlier archeological cultures of those areas. At graves, the people sacrificed ceramic vessels that contained food along with amber jewelry, flint-axes and vessels were also deposed in streams and lakes near the farmlands, and virtually all Swedens 10,000 flint axes that have been found from this culture were probably sacrificed in water. They also constructed large cult centres surrounded by pales, earthworks, the largest one is found at Sarup on Fyn. It comprises 85,000 m2 and is estimated to have taken 8000 workdays, another cult centre at Stävie near Lund comprises 30,000 m2. Marija Gimbutas postulated that the relationship between the aboriginal and intrusive cultures resulted in quick and smooth cultural morphosis into the Corded Ware culture. By contrast a number of archaeologists in the past have proposed that the Corded Ware culture was a purely local development from Funnel Beaker. Thus the question of continuity versus migration at the cusp of the change was of interest to geneticists specialising in ancient DNAFunnelbeaker culture – Dolmen in Lancken-Granitz, one of about 1,000 preserved TRB burial sites in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
14. Gaudo culture – It is sometimes described as an eneolithic culture, due to its use of primitive copper tools. This necropolis occupies about 2000 m² and contains 34 separate tombs and it was discovered late in the year 1943, during the Allied campaign in Italy, when the construction of the Gaudo Airfield unearthed some of the tombs. The tombs were accessed by a more or less circular shaft from above, at the bottom of which was a kind of vestibule or antechamber. There is evidence that the Gaudo funeral rites would have carried out by a team of people, and after the conclusion of the rites. The Gaudo people would apparently use tombs repeatedly, perhaps for different generations of people and it has been seen that the body of the most recently deceased would always be placed at the back of his burial chamber, with the previous tenants of that chamber placed beside him. These accessories were probably symbols of rank, study of the arrangement of bones and accompanying artifacts has led researchers to believe that the Gaudo society was structured into different family groups or warrior clans of some kind. Unfortunately, since the Gaudo people are known almost exclusively through their tombs, little is known about the other facets of their culture. Some other Gaudo sites are known throughout Campania however, such as what is thought to be a Gaudo dwelling in Taurasi, a large collection of Gaudo artifacts is on display at the National Archeological Museum of PaestumGaudo culture – Gaudo pot
15. Globular Amphora culture – The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren-Kultur, ca. 3400–2800 BC, is a culture, thought to be of Indo-European origin. Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture, to the northeast was the Narva culture. It occupied much of the area as the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. The name was coined by Gustaf Kossinna because of the characteristic pottery and it was located in the area defined by the Elbe catchment on the west and that of the Vistula on the east, extending southwards to the middle Dniester and eastwards to reach the Dnieper. West of the Elbe, some globular amphorae are found in megalithic graves, the GAC finds in the Steppe area are normally attributed to a rather late expansion between 2950-2350 cal. BC from a centre in Wolhynia and Podolia, the economy was based on raising a variety of livestock, pigs particularly in its earlier phase, in distinction to the Funnelbeaker cultures preference for cattle. Settlements are sparse, and these normally just contain small clusters pits, no convincing house-plans have yet been excavated. It is suggested some of these settlements were not year-round. The GAC is primarily known from its burials, inhumation was in a pit or cist. A variety of offerings were left, including animal parts or even whole animals. Grave gifts include the typical globular amphorae and stone axes, there are also cattle-burials, often in pairs, accompanied by grave gifts. There are also burials in Megalithic graves. The inclusion of animals in the grave is seen as a cultural element by Marija Gimbutas. The practice of suttee, hypothesized by Gimbutas is also seen as an intrusive cultural element. The supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis point to these distinctive burial practices, in this context and given its area of occupation, this culture has been claimed as the underlying culture of a Germanic-Baltic-Slavic continuum. J. P. Mallory, Globular Amphora Culture, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, eastern exodus of the globular amphora people, 2950-2350 BC. Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Prehistory 1996, Baltic-Pontic studies 4Globular Amphora culture – Globular Amphora
16. Hamangia culture – The Hamangia culture is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of Dobruja between the Danube and the Black Sea and Muntenia in the south. It is named after the site of Baia-Hamangia, discovered in 1952 along Golovița Lake, the Hamangia culture began around 5250/5200 BC and lasted until around 4550/4500 BC. It was absorbed by the expanding Boian culture in its transition towards the Gumelnitsa and its cultural links with Anatolia suggest that it was the result of a settlement by people from Anatolia, unlike the neighbouring cultures, which appear descended from earlier Neolithic settlement. Painted vessels with complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs are typical, the shapes include pots and wide bowls. Pottery figurines are normally extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts, two figurines known as “The Thinker” and “The Sitting woman” are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art. Settlements consist of houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations. They are normally arranged on a grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, at the coast of lakes, on the lower, crouched or extended inhumation in cemeteries. Grave-gifts tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I, grave-gifts include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments. Cycladic art Prehistoric Romania Prehistoric art List of Stone Age art Media related to Hamangia culture at Wikimedia CommonsHamangia culture – The Thinker of Hamangia, Neolithic Hamangia culture (c. 5250-4550 BC).
17. Horgen culture – The Horgen culture is one of several archaeological cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland. The Horgen culture may derive from the Pfyn culture and early Horgen pottery is similar to the earlier Cortaillod culture pottery of Twann and it is named for one of the principal sites, in Horgen, Switzerland. The Horgen culture started around 3500/3400 cal BC and lasting until 2850 cal BC, tree ring dates range from 3370 –2864 BC. The Horgen core area is in Northern Switzerland and Southwest Germany near Lake Constance and it may have had ties to the French Seine-Oise-Marne culture. Sites include Horgen, Hauterive-Champréves, Eschenz and Zürich, at Feldmeilen-Vorderfeld and Meilen on the right bank of Lake Zurich near Zürich, four layers of Pfyn culture artifacts are followed by five Horgen culture layers were found at Feldmeilen. In nearby Meilen, one Pfyn layer followed by three Horgen layers were discovered, there were three phases of pottery, early, middle and late. The early pottery exhibits an affinity with the Pfyn and maybe the Cortaillod at Twann, the spindle whorls on the pottery may indicate connections to the southern Funnelbeaker culture and early Baden culture. The middle phase may be influenced by more westerly traditions, the final Horgen phase exhibits similarities to the Burgerroth, Wartberg, and Goldberg III cultures. The pottery was less refined and decorated than the earlier Cortaillod culture, however, the flint industry was well developed and produced elegant stone tools. Pigs became increasing important during the Horgen era, pig bones were the most common bones found in the village midden heaps, accounting for up to 70% of all bonesHorgen culture – Horgen culture ceramic, found at Sechseläutenplatz, Zürich, Grabung Parkhaus Opéra
18. Karanovo culture – The Karanovo culture is a neolithic culture named for the Bulgarian village of Karanovo. The site at Karanovo itself was a settlement of 18 buildings. This site was inhabited more or less continuously from the early 7th to the early 2nd millennia BC, the layers at Karanovo are employed as a chronological system for Balkans prehistory, Stefan Hiller, Vassil Nikolov, Karanovo III. Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa Österreichisch-Bulgarische Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Karanovo, Band III, Vienna, ISBN 3-901232-19-2Karanovo culture – view
19. Narva culture – A successor of the Mesolithic Kunda culture, Narva culture continued up to the start of the Bronze Age. The technology was that of hunter-gatherers, the culture was named after the Narva River in Estonia. The people of the Narva culture had little access to flint, therefore, they were forced to trade, for example, there were very few flint arrowheads and flint was often reused. The Narva culture relied on local materials, heavy use of bones and horns is one of the main characteristics of the Narva culture. The bone tools, continued from the predecessor Kunda culture, provide the best evidence of continuity of the Narva culture throughout the Neolithic period, the people were buried on their backs with few grave goods. The Narva culture also used and traded amber, a few hundred items were found in Juodkrantė, one of the most famous artifacts is a ceremonial cane carved of horn as a head of female elk found in Šventoji. The people were primarily fishers, hunters, and gatherers and they slowly began adopting husbandry in middle Neolithic. They were not nomadic and lived in same settlements for periods as evidenced by abundant pottery, middens. The pottery shared similarities with Comb Ceramic culture, but had specific characteristics, one of the most persistent features was mixing clay with other organic matter, most often crushed snail shells. The pottery was made of 6-to-9 cm wide clay strips with minimal decorations around the rim, the vessels were wide and large, the height and the width were often the same. The bottoms were pointed or rounded, and only the latest examples have narrow flat bottoms, from mid-Neolithic Narva pottery was influenced and eventually disappeared into the Corded Ware culture. For a long time believed that the first inhabitants of the region were Finno-Ugric. In 1931, Latvian archeologist Eduards Šturms was the first to note that artifacts found near Zebrus Lake in Latvia were different, in early 1950s settlements on the Narva River were excavated. Lembit Jaanits and Nina Gurina grouped the findings with similar artifacts from eastern Baltic region, at first it was believed that Narva culture ended with appearance of the Corded Ware culture. However, newer research extended it up to the Bronze Age, as Narva culture spanned several millenniums and encompassed a large territory, archaeologists attempted to subdivide the culture into regions or periods. For example, in Lithuania two regions are distinguished, southern and western, there is an academic debate what ethnicity represented the Narva culture, Finno-Ugrians or other Europids, preceding arrival of the Indo-Europeans. It is also unclear how the Narva culture fits with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans, overview of Neolithic sites on Narva River in EstoniaNarva culture – Pottery of the Narva culture
20. Pitted Ware culture – For the North-East European culture of similar name, see Pit–Comb Ware culture. The Pitted Ware culture was a culture in southern Scandinavia, mainly along the coasts of Svealand, Götaland, Åland, north-eastern Denmark. Despite its Mesolithic economy, it is by convention classed as Neolithic and it was first contemporary and overlapping with the agricultural Funnelbeaker culture, and later with the agricultural Corded Ware culture. The economy was based on fishing, hunting and gathering of plants, Pitted Ware sites contain bones from elk, deer, beaver, seal, porpoise, and pig. Pig bones found in quantities on some Pitted Ware sites emanate from wild boar rather than domestic pigs. Seasonal migration was a feature of life, as many other hunter-gatherer communities. The repertoire of Pitted Ware tools varied from region to region, in part this variety reflected regional sources of raw materials. However the use of fish-hooks, harpoons, and nets and sinkers was fairly widespread, tanged arrow heads made from blades of flintstone are abundant on Scandinavias west coast, and were probably used in the hunting of marine mammals. One notable feature of the Pitted Ware Culture is the quantity of shards of pottery on its sites. The culture has been named after the typical ornamentation of its pottery, though some vessels are flat-bottomed, others are round-based or pointed-based, which would facilitate stable positioning in the soil or on the hearth. In shape and decoration, this ceramic reflects influences from the Comb Ceramic culture of Finland and other parts of north-eastern Europe, small animal figurines were modelled out of clay, as well as bone. These are also similar to the art of the Comb Ware culture, a large number of clay figurines have been found at Jettböle on the island of Åland, including some which combine seal and human features. Its grave customs are not well known, but Västerbjers on the island of Gotland has produced a number of grave fields. In these graves, archaeologists found skeletons laid on their backs with well-preserved tools in bone, numerous imported objects testify to good connections with the Scandinavian mainland, Denmark and Germany. A theory among archaeologists was that the Pitted Ware culture evolved from the Funnelbeaker culture by a process of abandonment of farming for hunting and fishing, however the two populations are genetically distinct. By contrast the three Funnelbeaker samples from Gökhem contained no haplogroup U and this is consistent with findings elsewhere in northern Europe of a distinct difference in mtDNA between hunter-gatherers and farmers. Another hunter-gatherer of the Pitted Ware culture, dated to 2,900 to 2,600 BC, a very low level of an allele strongly associated with the ability to consume unprocessed milk at adulthood was found among Pitted Ware Culture individuals in Gotland, Sweden. This frequency is different from the extant Swedish populationPitted Ware culture – Trindyxa (round stone axe), Gotland, Sweden
21. Pfyn culture – The Pfyn Culture is one of several archaeological cultures of the Neolithic period in Switzerland. It dates from c.3900 BC to c.3500 BC, the oldest traces of a settlement are about 1.5 km west of Pfyn in the former peat bog of Breitenloo. Located in a depression carved by a moraine of the Thur glacier. The settlement site was discovered during peat cutting in the late 19th Century, during the war years 1940-41 an attempt to drain the bog to increase arable production land, led to its rediscovery. Drainage work on production was raised again. In the autumn of 1944, an area of approximately 1,000 square metres was excavated by interned Polish soldiers led by Charles Keller-Tarnuzzer. Due to the conditions, and an exploratory drilling project in 2002. During the 1944 excavation 17 different houses were found, the houses are located along a north-south main street with the gables facing the street. The buildings are almost exclusively built with two naves and have lengths of 4–11 meters and widths from 3. 5–5.5 meters and it is striking that several houses of vastly different sizes lay side by side, suggesting perhaps larger homes with smaller farm buildings. The house floors were all built with support structures and overlying split boards. Midden heaps in the soil and partial scorch marks on the support structures suggest that at least some buildings were lifted quite high off the ground. Keller-Tarnuzzer noted that there was the relationship of the ceramics with the Michelsberg culture of southern Germany. Around 1960 research determined that the Pfyn ceramics were represented a culture that was related to the Michelsberg culture. Since that time, the Pfyn-Breitenloo site has been regarded as the center of the Pfyn culture, further explorations in 2002 and 2004 led to a somewhat more nuanced picture of the settlement. This enabled the site to be dated via dendrochronology, the timbers that were used were cut in 3706-3704 BC. and confirm a single development phase. Another Neolithic settlement must have existed some 400 m northwest of Breitenloo, however, the few ceramics discovered at that site are also part of the Pfyn culture. That settlement has never been studied and it is believed that the industrial peat extraction during the second World War may have largely destroyed it. Some evidence of working has been found in the region between Lake Constance and Lake Zürich from about the time period of the Pfyn culturePfyn culture – Dates and locations of prehistoric Swiss cultures
22. Sesklo – Sesklo is a village near the city of Volos. Volos is located within the municipality of Aisonia, Aisonia is located within the regional unit of Magnesia. Magnesia is located within the region of Thessaly. This settlement gives its name to the first Neolithic culture of Europe, the Neolithic settlement was discovered in the 1800s and the first excavations were made by Greek archaeologist, Christos Tsountas. Available data also indicates that domestication of cattle occurred at Argissa as early as c.6300 BC during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, the aceramic levels at Sesklo contained bone fragments of domesticated cattle too. The earliest occurrence reported in the Near East is at Çatalhöyük, in stratum VI, dating c.5750 BC, though it might have been present in stratum XII too — c.6100 BC. The Neolithic settlement was covering an area of about 20 hectares in its peak period c.5000 BC and their houses were small, with one or two rooms, built of wood or mudbrick in the early period. Construction technique later became more homogeneous and all were homes are built of adobe with stone foundations, the first houses with two levels were found and there is also a clear intentional urbanism. The lower levels of proto-Sesklo lack pottery, but the Sesklo people soon developed very fine-glazed earthenware that they decorated with paintings in red or brown colors. New types of pottery are incorporated in the Sesklo period, the invasion theory states that the Sesklo culture lasted more than one full millennium up until c.5000 BC when it was violently conquered by people of the Dimini culture. The Dimini culture in this theory is considered different from that found at Sesklo, however, Professor Ioannis Lyritzis provides a different story pertaining to the final fate of the Seskloans. He, along with R. Galloway, compared ceramic materials from both Sesklo and Dimini utilizing thermoluminescence dating methods and he discovered that the inhabitants of the settlement in Dimini appeared c.4800 BC, four centuries before the fall of the Sesklo culture c.4400 BC. The decoration evolves to flame motifs at the end of the Sesklo culture, pottery of this “classic” Sesklo style was also used in Western Macedonia as at Servia. The repertoire of shapes is not very different, but the Asia Minor vessels seem to be deeper than their Thessalonian counterparts, shallow, slightly open bowls are characteristic of the Sesklo culture and absent in Anatolian settlements. The ring base was almost unknown in Anatolia, flat and plano-convex bases were worked instead, altogether, the appearance of the vessels is different. The earliest figurines appearance is completely different. On the whole, the artifactual data argues in favor of an independent indigenous development of the Greek Neolithic settlements. This indicates that the domestication of cattle was indigenous on the Greek mainland, one significant characteristic of this culture is the abundance of statuettes of women, often pregnant, probably connected to the widely hypothesized prehistoric fertility cultSesklo – Sesklo Σέσκλο
23. Varna culture – The Varna culture belongs to the late Chalcolithic of northeastern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4400-4100 BC and it is contemporary and closely related with Gumelnița in southern Rumania, often considered as local variants. 294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of copper and gold metallurgy, pottery, high-quality flint and obsidian blades, beads, the site was accidentally discovered in October 1972 by excavator operator Raycho Marinov. Research excavation was under the direction of Mihail Lazarov and Ivan Ivanov, about 30% of the estimated necropolis area is still not excavated. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, burials at Varna have some of the worlds oldest gold jewelry. There are crouched and extended inhumations, some graves do not contain a skeleton, but grave gifts. Interestingly, the graves are the richest in gold artifacts. 3000 gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately 6 kilograms, grave 43 contained more gold than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch. Three symbolic graves contained masks of unfired clay, the culture had sophisticated religious beliefs about afterlife and developed hierarchical status differences, it constitutes the oldest known burial evidence of an elite male. The end of the fifth millennium BC is the time that Marija Gimbutas, the high status male was buried with remarkable amounts of gold, held a war axe or mace and wore a gold penis sheath. The bull-shaped gold platelets perhaps also venerated virility, instinctive force, Gimbutas holds that the artifacts were made largely by local craftspeople. Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, the original term for, Castes in India was, Varna, meaning, Color, cognate to French, Vernis, and Spanish, Barniz. Varna Necropolis Cultural Tourism page on the Golden Sands Resort web site. C, henrieta Todorova, Kupferzeitliche Siedlungen in Nordostbulgarien. Materialien zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Archäologie 13Varna culture – A burial at Varna, with some of the world's oldest gold jewellery.
24. Wartberg culture – The Wartberg culture, sometimes, Wartberg group or Collared bottle culture is a prehistoric culture from 3,600 -2,800 BC of the later Central European Neolithic. It is named after its site, the Wartberg, a hill near Niedenstein-Kirchberg in northern Hesse. The term Wartberg culture describes a group of sites with characteristic finds from circa 3600-2800 BC. The Wartberg culture appears to be a regional development derived from Michelsberg and it is contemporary, and in contact, with Bernburg culture and Funnel Beaker. The Corded Ware and Single Grave cultures succeed it and its best known sites are Wartberg, near Kirchberg, Hasenberg, a hill near Lohne, as well as Güntersberg and Bürgel, hills near Gudensberg, and from the Calden earthwork enclosure. Nearly all settlements identified so far are in locations, an enclosed site at Wittelsberg near Amöneburg is an exception. Originally, the Wartberg was interpreted as a place, but the remains of coarse handmade pottery. Wartberg material is found in a number of gallery graves. Their connection with the Wartberg settlements was only recognised in the 1960s and 1970s, a tomb at Muschenheim near Münzenberg may also belong to the same type, as may a further one at Bad Vilbel near Frankfurt am Main which was destroyed after 1945. The best known of tombs are those of Züschen, Lohra, Niederzeuzzheim. They normally contained the remains of multiple individuals of all ages. Lohra is an exception insofar as there the dead were cremated, gravegoods are scarce but include pottery, stone tools and animal bones, especially the jawbones of foxes, which may have played a totemic role. The Züschen tomb is also remarkable for the presence of rock art, some of the tombs can be directly associated with nearby hilltop sites or settlements, that is, the Züschen tomb with the Hasenberg and the Calden tombs with the earthwork. The Wartberg tombs appear to start developing around 3400 BC, earlier than most of the known settlements, a loose distribution of standing stones occurs in northern Hesse and west Thuringia. Although their dates are unknown, their geographic spread appears to coincide with that of Wartberg material, the Calden earthwork, a large enclosure northwest of modern Kassel, was built around 3700 BC. It is an enclosure of two ditches and a palisade, encompassing an area of 14 hectares. The enclosure has five openings, perhaps comparable to British Causewayed enclosures, although it can with some certainty be seen as derived from the Michelsberg tradition, material associated with its early phases suggests a close connectionn with early Wartberg. It appears to have been a tradition for centuries to bury animal bonesWartberg culture – The Wartberg near Kirchberg
25. Bank barrow – A bank barrow, sometimes referred to as a barrow-bank, ridge barrow, or ridge mound, is a type of tumulus first identified by O. G. S. In the United Kingdom, they take the form of a long, sinuous, parallel-sided mound, approximately uniform in height and width along its length, and usually flanked by ditches on either side. They may be the result of a phase of construction. Although burials have been found within the mound, no burial chambers as such have been identified in bank barrows and these ancient monuments are of middle Neolithic date. There exist fewer than 10 bank barrows in the United Kingdom, examples may be found at Maiden Castle, Broadmayne and Martins Down in Dorset, Long Low near Wetton in Staffordshire. The Earthen Long Barrow in Britain, An Introduction to the Study of the Funerary Practice, sharples, Niall M. English Heritage Book of Maiden Castle. Bank Barrow monument class description from English Heritage Bank barrow search results from the Megalithic PortalBank barrow – Long Bredy bank barrow on Martin's Down, Dorset, U.K.
26. Causewayed enclosure – A causewayed enclosure is a type of large prehistoric earthwork common to the early Neolithic in Europe. More than 100 examples are recorded in France and 70 in England, while further sites are known in Scandinavia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Ireland and Slovakia. The term causewayed enclosure is now preferred to the older term causewayed camp as it has demonstrated that the sites did not necessarily serve as occupation sites. Causewayed enclosures are located on hilltop sites, encircled by one to four concentric ditches with an internal bank. Enclosures located in lowland areas are larger than hilltop ones. Crossing the ditches at intervals are causeways which give the monuments their names and it appears that the ditches were excavated in sections, leaving the wide causeways intact in between. With regard to defensive functionality, however, evidence of timber palisades has been found at sites such as Hambledon Hill. Archaeological evidence implies that the enclosures were visited occasionally by Neolithic groups rather than being permanently occupied, animal remains, domestic waste and pottery have been found at the sites. But there has been limited evidence of any structures, in some locations, such as Windmill Hill, Avebury, evidence of human occupation predates the enclosure. Generally, it appears that the ditches were permitted to silt up, even while the camps were in use and it is unlikely that they had a strong defensive purpose. The earthworks may have designed to keep out wild animals rather than people. The sequential addition of second, third and fourth circuits of banks, in some cases, they appear to have evolved into more permanent settlements. Most causewayed enclosures have been ploughed away in the millennia and are recognized through aerial archaeology. The first were constructed in the fifth millennium BC and by the third millennium BC. French examples begin to demonstrate elaborate horn-shaped entrances which are interpreted as being designed to impress from afar rather than any practical purpose. Aubrey Burl believes that building of causewayed enclosures declined by 3000 BC and they were superseded by more localised types of earthworks, in Britain, such replacements include Stonehenge I, Flagstones, Duggleby Howe and Ring of Bookan, and the later henge monuments. Examples of causewayed enclosures include, Whitehawk Camp Robin Hoods Ball near Stonehenge The Trundle, West Sussex Hambledon Hill Windmill Hill, rams Hill Crickley Hill near Cheltenham Some tor enclosures such as that at Carn Brea are believed to have served a similar purpose in south western Britain. Champ Durand La Coterelle Diconche Chez Reine near Semussac La Mastine Donegore, sligo Castro of Zambujal in its second construction phaseCausewayed enclosure – Causewayed enclosure at Burham, Kent.
27. Cist – A cist is a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead. Examples can be found across Europe and in the Middle East, a cist may have been associated with other monuments, perhaps under a cairn or long barrow. Several cists are sometimes found close together within the cairn or barrow. Often ornaments have been found within an excavated cist, indicating the wealth or prominence of the interred individualCist – Kistvaen on the southern edge of Dartmoor in Drizzlecombe (England) showing the capstone and the inner cist structure.
28. Cursus – Cursus monuments are Neolithic structures which represent some of the oldest prehistoric monumental structures of the British Isles. Relics found within them show that they were built between 3400 and 3000 BC and they range in length from 50 yards to almost 6 miles and the distance between the parallel earthworks can be up to 100 yards. Banks at the terminal ends enclose the cursus, over fifty have been identified via aerial photography while many others have doubtless been obliterated by farming and other subsequent landscaping activities. Examples include the four cursuses at Rudston in Yorkshire, that at Fornham All Saints in Suffolk, the Cleaven Dyke in Perthshire, a notable example is the Stonehenge Cursus, within sight of the more famous stone circle, on land belonging to The National Trusts Stonehenge Landscape. More recent studies have reassessed the original interpretation and argued that they were used for ceremonial competitions, anthropological parallels exist for this interpretation. Contemporary internal features are rare and it has been thought that the cursuses were used as processional routes. They are often aligned on and respect the position of pre-existing long barrows and bank barrows, the Dorset Cursus, the longest known example, crosses a river and three valleys along its course across Cranborne Chase and is close to the henge monuments at Knowlton. Larger scale modern ceremonial analogs might include the National Mall in Washington, avenue Cursus publicus Jim Champion, The Enigmatic Cursus, Megalithic Portal,23 April 2005, ed. A. Burnham CCursus – Stonehenge Cursus, Wiltshire
29. Dolmen – A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone, although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic, Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the skeleton of the burial mound intact. It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made, the oldest known dolmens are in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7,000 years ago. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it and they are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these date from the time when the stones were originally set in place. The word dolmen has a confused history, the word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour dAuvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin. The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning stone table but doubt has been cast on this. Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, granja is used in Portugal, Galicia, and Spain. The rarer forms anta and ganda also appear, in the Basque Country, they are attributed to the jentilak, a race of giants. The etymology of the German, Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch, of other Celtic languages, Welsh, cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is commonly used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Korean dolmens exhibit a distinct from the Atlantic European dolmen. The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula, with an estimated 35,000 dolmens, Korea alone accounts for nearly 40% of the world’s total. Three specific UNESCO World Heritage sites at Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa by themselves account for over 1,000 dolmens, the Korean word for dolmen is goindol supported stone. Serious studies of the Korean megalithic monuments were not undertaken until relatively recently, after 1945, new research is being conducted by Korean scholars. In 1981 a curator of National Museum of Korea, Gongil Ji, the boundary between them falls at the Bukhan River although examples of both types are found on either side. Korean dolmens can also be divided into three types, the table type, the go-table type and the unsupported capstone typeDolmen – A dolmen on Ganghwado, South Korea