1. Polar regions – The polar regions of Earth, also known as Earths frigid zones, are the regions of Earth surrounding its geographical poles. These regions are dominated by Earths polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica. The Arctic has various definitions, including the north of the Arctic Circle, or the region north of 60° north latitude. The Antarctic is usually defined as south of 60° south latitude, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty uses the former definition. The axial tilt of the Earth has an effect on climate of the polar regions. Since the polar regions are the farthest from the equator, they receive the least amount of sunlight and are therefore frigid, the large amount of ice and snow also reflects a large part of what little sunlight the Polar regions receive, contributing to the cold. There are many settlements in Earths north polar region, countries with claims to Arctic regions are, the United States, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Russia. Arctic circumpolar populations often share more in common with other than with other populations within their national boundaries. As such, the polar region is diverse in human settlements. The southern polar region has no permanent human habitation, mcMurdo Station is the largest research station in Antarctica, run by the United States. Other notable stations include Palmer Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Esperanza Base and Marambio Base, Scott Base, while there are no indigenous human cultures, there is a complex ecosystem, especially along Antarcticas coastal zones. Coastal upwelling provides abundant nutrients which feeds krill, a type of marine crustacea, other planets and natural satellites in the solar system have interesting quirks about their polar regions. Earths Moon is thought to contain deposits of ice in deep craters in its polar regions. Mars, like Earth, has ice caps. Meanwhile, on Uranus, the tilt of the planets axis leads to the poles alternately pointing almost directly at the Sun. Man and the Conquest of the Poles, trans. by Scott Sullivan, new York, Simon & Schuster,1963Polar regions – North polar region polar bears
2. Antarctic – The Antarctic is a polar region, specifically the region around the Earths South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises in the sense the continent of Antarctica. The region covers some 20% of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5. 5% is the area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administrated under the Antarctic Treaty System, in a biogeographic sense, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earths land surface. Most of the Antarctic region is situated south of 60°S latitude parallel, there are only two species of flowering plant, Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort, but a range of mosses, liverworts, lichens and macrofungi. The first Antarctic land discovered was the island of South Georgia, the first human born in the Antarctic was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen born on 8 October 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia. However, the region is visited by more than 40,000 tourists annually, the definitive results of the conference was presented at the Antarctic Treaty states meeting in Uruguay in May 2010. The Antarctic hosts the worlds largest protected area comprising 1.07 million km2, the South Georgia, because Antarctica surrounds the South Pole, it is theoretically located in all time zones. For practical purposes, time zones are based on territorial claims or the time zone of a stations owner country or supply base. Antarctic Circle History of Antarctica Krupnik, Igor, Michael A. Lang, smithsonian at the Poles, Contributions to International Polar Year ScienceAntarctic
3. Antarctic Peninsula – The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere. At the surface, it is the biggest, most prominent peninsula in Antarctica as it extends 1,300 km from a line between Cape Adams and a point on the south of Eklund Islands. They are joined together by an ice sheet. Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America, lies only about 1,000 km away across the Drake Passage, the Antarctic Peninsula is currently dotted with numerous research stations and nations have made multiple claims of sovereignty. The peninsula is part of disputed and overlapping claims by Argentina, Chile, none of these claims has international recognition and, under the Antarctic Treaty System, the respective countries do not attempt to enforce their claims. Argentina has the most bases and personnel stationed on the peninsula, the first sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula by Europeans is disputed but apparently occurred in 1820. But the party did not recognize as the mainland what they thought was a covered by small hillocks. Three days later on 30 January 1820, Edward Bransfield and William Smith, with a British expedition, were the first to part of the Antarctic Peninsula. This area was later to be called Trinity Peninsula and is the extreme northeast portion of the peninsula, the next confirmed sighting was in 1832 by John Biscoe, a British explorer, who named the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula as Graham Land. The first European to land on the continent is also disputed, a 19th-century seal hunter, John Davis, was almost certainly the first. But, sealers were secretive about their movements and their logbooks were deliberately unreliable, between 1901 and 1904, Otto Nordenskiöld led the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, one of the first expeditions to explore parts of Antarctica. They landed on the Antarctic Peninsula in February 1902, aboard the Antarctica and they were later rescued by an Argentine ship. The British Graham Land Expedition between 1934 and 1937 carried out surveys and concluded that Graham Land was not an archipelago but was a peninsula. This dispute was resolved by making Graham Land the part of the Antarctic Peninsula northward of a line between Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz, and Palmer Land the part southward of that line, Palmer Land is named for the United States seal hunter Nathaniel Palmer. In Chile, the peninsula is officially named OHiggins Land, after Bernardo OHiggins, other Spanish-speaking countries call it Península Antártica, among them Argentina. It officially also refers to this as Tierra de San Martín, the first Antarctic research stations were established during World War II by a British military operation, Operation Tabarin. The 1950s saw an increase in the number of research bases as Britain, Chile. Meteorology and geology were the research subjectsAntarctic Peninsula – Location of Antarctic Peninsula within Antarctica.
4. East Antarctica – It lies almost entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere and its name has been accepted for more than a century. It is generally higher than West Antarctica and includes the Gamburtsev Mountain Range in the centre, apart from small areas of the coast, East Antarctica is permanently covered by ice. The only terrestrial plant life is lichens, mosses and algae clinging to rocks, the coasts are the breeding ground for various seabirds and penguins, and the leopard seal, Weddell seal, elephant seal, crabeater seal and Ross seal breed on the surrounding pack ice in summer. Almost completely covered in thick, permanent ice, East Antarctica comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Kemp Land, Mac. Robertson Land, Princess Elizabeth Land, Wilhelm II Land, Queen Mary Land, Wilkes Land, Adélie Land, George V Land, Oates Land, all but a small portion of this region lies within the Eastern Hemisphere, a fact that has suggested the name. The name was approved in the United States by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in 1962, East Antarctica is generally higher than West Antarctica, and is considered the coldest place on Earth. There are no trees or shrubs, as very limited plant life can survive here, the flora consists of lichens, moss, and algae that are adapted to the cold and wind. The coasts are home to seabirds, penguins, and seals, which feed in the ocean, including the emperor penguin. Seabirds of the coast include southern fulmar, the southern giant petrel, Cape petrel, snow petrel, the small Wilsons storm-petrel, the large south polar skua. The seals of the Antarctic Ocean include leopard seal, Weddell seal, there are no large land animals but bacteria, nematodes, springtails, mites, and midges live on the mosses and lichens. The remote and extremely cold bulk of Antarctica remains almost entirely untouched by human intervention, East Antarctic craton Polar plateau This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document East Antarctica. World Wildlife Fund, C. M. Hogan, S. Draggan, marielandia Antarctic tundra. in C. J. Cleveland, ed. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DCEast Antarctica – Image of a variety of ice types off the coast of East Antarctica.
5. West Antarctica – West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica, one of the two major regions of Antarctica, is the part of that continent that lies within the Western Hemisphere, and includes the Antarctic Peninsula. It is separated from East Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains and is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and it lies between the Ross Sea, and the Weddell Sea. It may be considered a giant peninsula stretching from the South Pole towards the tip of South America. West Antarctica is largely covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, but there have been signs that climate change is having some effect, the coasts of the Antarctic Peninsula are the only parts of West Antarctica that become ice-free. These constitute the Marielandia Antarctic tundra and have the warmest climate in Antarctica, the rocks are clad in mosses and lichens that can cope with the intense cold of winter and the short growing-season. Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names approved the name in 1962, West Antarctica is mostly covered by a massive ice sheet referred to as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. In recent decades this ice sheet has shown signs of decreasing mass, unlike East Antarctica, West Antarctica has shown some effects of global warming. The parts of West Antarctica not covered with ice, which are the coasts of the Antarctic Peninsula, tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains West Antarctic Rift This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document West AntarcticaWest Antarctica – Antarctic iceberg in the Amundsen Sea
6. Antarctic ecozone – Antarctica is one of eight terrestrial biogeographic realms. The ecosystem includes Antarctica and several groups in the southern Atlantic. Antarcticas two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort, are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica is also home to a diversity of animal life, including penguins, seals, and whales. These islands have a milder climate than Antarctica proper, and support a greater diversity of tundra plants, although they are all too windy. The ocean there is so full of phytoplankton because around the ice continent water rises from the depths to the light flooded surface, on August 20,2014, scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living 800 metres below the ice of Antarctica. Millions of years ago, Antarctica was warmer and wetter, and supported the Antarctic flora, including forests of podocarps, Antarctica was also part of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwanaland, which gradually broke up by continental drift starting 110 million years ago. The separation of South America from Antarctica 30-35 million years ago allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to form, the Antarctic flora subsequently died out in Antarctica, but is still an important component of the flora of southern Neotropic and Australasia, which were also former parts of Gondwana. Some botanists recognize an Antarctic Floristic Kingdom that includes Antarctica, New Zealand, four tundra ecoregions are recognized, Terauds, A, Chown, SL, Morgan, F, Peat, HJ, Watts, D, et al. CS1 maint, Explicit use of et alAntarctic ecozone – The Antarctic ecozone
7. Extreme points of the Antarctic – This is a list of the extreme points of the Antarctic, the points of Antarctic and subantarctic lands that are farther to the south than any other location classified by continent and country. Geographical position and distance to the South Pole, according to the Antarctic Treaty, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of the 60th parallel south. Mainland, The South Pole at 90°S 0°E/90°S 0°W, the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. See Extreme points of Antarctica for details of the continent itself, the Southern Ocean comprises the southernmost waters of the worlds three transequatorial oceans, north from 60° S latitude. The northern boundary, defined by the limit of icebergs is not precise. Australia, Bishop and Clerk Islets, Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean at 55°03′S 158°46′E,3900 km, the southernmost point on land on the Eastern hemisphere outside Antarctica, including the Pacific Ocean. Also the southernmost possession of Australia, Heard Island, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, South Indian Ocean at 53°06′0″S 73°31′0″E,4116 km. The southernmost point on land in the Indian Ocean, france, Islet south of Kerguelen Islands, South Indian Ocean at 50°1′0″S 68°52′0″E,4459 km. New Zealand, Islet 50 meters south of Jacquemart Island, Campbell Islands, the southernmost possession of New Zealand. Norway, Bouvet Island, South Atlantic Ocean at 54°26′S 3°24′E,3968 km, the southernmost possession of Norway, except for Peter I Island that lies within the area defined by the Antarctic Treaty. South Africa, Marion Island, Prince Edward Islands, Indian Ocean at 46°54′45″S 37°44′37″E,4804 km, the southernmost possession of an African country. United Kingdom, Thule Island, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the southernmost point on land outside Antarctica, including the Atlantic Ocean. Also the southernmost possession of United Kingdom, argentina All lands, Cabo San Pío, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Tierra del Fuego Province at 55°3′S 66°31′W,3904 km. Mainland, Punta Dúngeness, Santa Cruz Province at 52°23′54″S 68°26′6″W,4194 km, chile All lands, Águila Islet, Diego Ramírez Islands, Antártica Chilena Province at 56°32′9″S 68°42′48″W. The southernmost point of continental South America,3734 km, South America proper, Cape Horn, Isla Hornos, Hermite Islands, Antártica Chilena Province at 55°59′00″S 067°16′00″W,3795 km. Generally considered the southernmost point of South America, mainland, Cape Froward, Brunswick Peninsula, Magallanes Province at 53°53′46. 70″S 71°17′39. 53″W,4028 km. The southernmost point on any mainland continent outside Antarctica, United Kingdom All lands, Beauchene Island, Falkland Islands at 52°53′11″S 59°12′13″W,4140 km. South Africa, Cape Agulhas, Western Cape Province at 34°50′00″S 20°00′09. 15″E,6146 km, the southernmost point of continental Africa, but actually closer to the EquatorExtreme points of the Antarctic
8. List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands – This is a list of Antarctic and subantarctic islands. Antarctic islands are the islands around Antarctica situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, subantarctic islands are the islands around Antarctica situated north of and adjacent to the Antarctic Convergence. According to the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, claims to sovereignty over lands south of 60°S are not asserted and this includes some of the Antarctic islands and none of the subantarctic ones. Antipodes Islands (49. 67°S178. 77°E / -49.67,178, geological Survey, Atlas of Antarctic ResearchList of Antarctic and subantarctic islands – Antarctica and surrounding islands
9. Arctic – The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska, Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost-containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places, the Arctic region is a unique area among Earths ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold, in recent years, Arctic sea ice decline has been caused by global warming. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants, Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic. The word Arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός, near the Bear, northern, there are a number of definitions of what area is contained within the Arctic. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle, the southern limit of the midnight sun. The Arctics climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers and its precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm. High winds often stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall, average winter temperatures can be as low as −40 °C, and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately −68 °C. Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having generally warmer temperatures, the Arctic is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland ice sheet, and Arctic methane release as the permafrost thaws. Due to the migration of the planets isotherms, the Arctic region is currently shrinking. Perhaps the most spectacular result of Arctic shrinkage is sea ice loss, there is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100. Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra. As one moves northward, the amount of available for plant growth decreases considerably. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance, productivity and variety of plants to decrease, trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height, sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare, non-vascular plants such as lichens and mosses predominate, along with a few scattered grasses, herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. They are preyed on by the owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bearArctic – Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region
10. Arctic Alaska – Arctic Alaska or Far North Alaska is a region of the U. S. state of Alaska generally referring to the northern areas on or close to the Arctic Ocean. It commonly includes North Slope Borough, Northwest Arctic Borough, Nome Census Area, some notable towns there include Prudhoe Bay, Barrow, Kotzebue, Nome, and Galena. Most of these communities have no highways and can only be reached by aircraft or snowmobile in good weather, Arctic Alaska is also the location of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The Arctic experiences midnight sun in the summer and polar night in the winter, Arctic Policy of the United States U. S. Arctic Research Commission Regions of Alaska, including description of Far North AlaskaArctic Alaska – Sign indicating the point where the Dalton Highway crosses the Arctic Circle
11. Canadian Arctic Archipelago – The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is showing some effects of global warming, British claims on the islands were based on the explorations in the 1570s by Martin Frobisher. Canadian sovereignty was only over island portions that drained into Foxe Basin, Hudson Bay. Canadian sovereignty over all of the islands was not established until the 1880 transfer by Britain to Canada of the remaining islands, the District of Franklin – established in 1895 – comprised almost all of the archipelago, the district was dissolved upon the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Canada claims all the waterways of the Northwestern Passages as Canadian Internal Waters, however the United States, disagreement over the passages status has raised Canadian concerns about environmental enforcement, national security, and general sovereignty. Hans Island, in the Nares Strait east of Ellesmere Island, is a territory contested between Canada and Denmark. The archipelago extends some 2,400 km longitudinally and 1,900 km from the mainland to Cape Columbia, the northernmost point on Ellesmere Island. It is bounded on the west by the Beaufort Sea, on the northwest by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by Greenland, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, and on the south by Hudson Bay and the Canadian mainland. The various islands are separated from other and the continental mainland by a series of waterways collectively known as the Northwestern Passages. Two large peninsulas, Boothia and Melville, extend northward from the mainland, the archipelago consists of 36,563 islands, of which 94 are classified as major islands, being larger than 130 km2, and cover a total area of 1,400,000 km2. The climate of the islands is arctic, and the terrain consists of tundra except in mountainous areas, most of the islands are uninhabited, human settlement is extremely thin and scattered, being mainly coastal Inuit settlements on the southern islands. Islands not on map British Arctic Territories List of Canadian islands by area List of islands of CanadaCanadian Arctic Archipelago – Satellite image of Baffin Island, the largest island by total area of the Arctic Archipelago
12. Finnmark – Finnmark is a county in the extreme northeastern part of Norway. By land, it borders Troms county to the west, Finland to the south, and Russia to the east, and by water, the Norwegian Sea to the northwest, the county was formerly known as Finmarkens amt or Vardøhus amt. Since 2002, it has had two names, Finnmark and Finnmárku. It is part of the Sápmi region, which spans four countries, as well as the Barents Region, Vardø, the easternmost municipality in Norway, is located farther east than the cities of St. Petersburg and Istanbul. The Old Norse form of the name was Finnmǫrk, the first element is finn, the Norse name for the Sámi people. The last element is mǫrk which means woodland or borderland, in Norse times the name referred to any places where Sámi people were living. The coat of arms are black with a castle tower, technically described as Sable. The design is from 1967 and shows the old Vardøhus Fortress on the border with Russia. Finnmark is the northernmost and easternmost county in Norway, by area, Finnmark is Norways largest county, even larger than the neighboring country of Denmark. However, with a population of about 75,000, it is also the least populated of all Norwegian counties, Finnmark has a total coastline of 6,844 kilometres, including 3,155 kilometres of coastline on the islands. Nearly 12,300 people or 16.6 percent of the population in 2000 was living in the 100-meter belt along the coastline. Honningsvåg in Finnmark claims to be the northernmost city of the world, the coast is indented by large fjords, many of which are false fjords, as they are not carved out by glaciers. The highest point is located on the top of the glacier Øksfjordjøkelen, which has an area of 45 square kilometres, both Øksfjordjøkelen and Seilandsjøkelen are located in the western part of Finnmark. The Øksfjord plateau glacier calved directly into the sea until 1900, the central and eastern part of Finnmark is generally less mountainous, and has no glaciers. The land east of Nordkapp is mostly below 300 m, the nature varies from barren coastal areas facing the Barents Sea, to more sheltered fjord areas and river valleys with gullies and tree vegetation. About half of the county is above the line. This valley has the highest density of Brown bears in Norway, lynx and moose are common in large parts of Finnmark, but rare on the coast. The interior parts of the county are part of the great Finnmarksvidda plateau, with an elevation of 300 to 400 m, with numerous lakes, the plateau is famous for its tens of thousands of reindeer owned by the Sami, and swarms of mosquitos in mid-summerFinnmark – Finnmark fylke Finnmárkku fylka
13. Greenland – Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup and it also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it GrœnlandGreenland – Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle ages).
14. Northern Canada – Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, similarly, the Far North may refer to the Canadian Arctic, the portion of Canada north of the Arctic Circle and lies east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canadas total land area, for some purposes, Northern Canada may also include Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called northernness that other Arctic territories share. Canada is the northernmost country in the Americas and roughly 80% of its 35 million inhabitants are concentrated along its border with the United States. Combined with the fact that all of the country experiences severely cold winters along with short and relatively cool summers. Due to the concentration of its population along the border. Southern Canada is therefore considered to be a region only when it is contrasted against or viewed from the North, as a social rather than political region, the Canadian north is often subdivided into two distinct regions based on climate, the near north and the far north. The different climates of these two regions result in different vegetation, and therefore very different economies, settlement patterns. The near north or subarctic is mostly synonymous with the Canadian boreal forest and this area has traditionally been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, that is the First Nations, who were hunters of moose, freshwater fishers and trappers. This region was involved in the North American fur trade during its peak importance. The area was part of Ruperts Land or the North-Western Territory under the nominal control of the Hudsons Bay Company from 1670–1869. The HBCs claim was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and this opened the region to non-Native settlement, as well as to forestry, mining, and oil and gas drilling. Today several million people live in the north, around 15% of the Canadian total. The far north is synonymous with the north of the tree line. This area is home to the various sub-groups of the Inuit and these are people who have traditionally relied mostly on hunting marine mammals and caribou, mainly barren-ground caribou, as well as fish and migratory birds. This area was somewhat involved in the fur trade, but was influenced by the whaling industry. Very few non-Aboriginal people have settled in areas, and the residents of the far north represent less than 1% of Canadas total populationNorthern Canada – A boreal forest landscape in Northern Quebec.
15. Northwest Territories – The Northwest Territories is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 and its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission. The Northwest Territories are bordered by Canadas two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south. The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the era to indicate where it lay in relation to Ruperts Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory, in Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, beautiful land. There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut, one proposal was Denendeh, as advocated by the former premier Stephen Kakfwi, among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory Bob – began as a prank, in the end a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name Northwest Territories. This name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canadas north-central and it possibly meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has an area of 1,183,085 km2. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island and its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north, the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with highs in the mid teens Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C, extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, in the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, and lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C, thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are extremely rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower, the Territory has a fairly dry climate due to the mountains in the westNorthwest Territories – Ice road on Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, 2009
16. Nunavik – Nunavik comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region. Covering a land area of 443,684.71 km2 north of the 55th parallel, Nunavik means great land in the local dialect of Inuktitut and the Inuit inhabitants of the region call themselves Nunavimmiut. Until 1912, the region was part of the District of Ungava of the Northwest Territories, negotiations for regional autonomy and resolution of outstanding land claims took place in the 2000s. The seat of government would be Kuujjuaq, negotiations on better empowering Inuit political rights in their land are still ongoing. A flag for Nunavik was proposed by Nunavik artist and graphic designer Thomassie Mangiok during an April 2013 Plan Nunavik consultation in Ivujivik, the proposal was announced in the meeting and then through Nunatsiaq News, the explanation of design was also made available on YouTube. Nunavik is a vast territory, larger than the U. S. state of California and it lies in both the Arctic and subarctic climate zones. All together, about 12,000 people live in Nunaviks communities, Nunavik is separated from the territory of Nunavut by Hudson Bay to the west and Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay to the north. Nunavik shares a border with the Côte-Nord region of Quebec and the Labrador region of the province of Newfoundland, the Ungava Peninsula forms the northern two-thirds of the region. Nunavik has fourteen villages, the vast majority of residents are Inuit. The village population ranges from 2,375 to 195, there is a year-round air link to all villages and seasonal shipping in the summer and autumn. Parts of the interior of southern Nunavik can be reached using several trails which head north from Schefferville, there are three meteor craters in Nunavik, Pingualuit crater, Couture crater, and La Moinerie crater. The climate of Nunavik is a severe one dominated by the long, since this moderation exists in summer when the surrounding sea thaws, even those temperatures are subdued. Inukjuak for example has summer highs averaging just 13 °C with January highs of −21 °C and this is exceptionally cold for a sea-level settlement more than 1/3 from the North Pole en route to the Equator. Annual temperatures are up to 15 °C colder than marine areas of Northern Europe on similar parallels, areas less affected by summertime marine moderation have somewhat warmer temperatures and unlike the west coast, features marginal taiga due to summers being warmer than 10 °C in mean temperatures. Federal government geopolitical manoeuvrings forced several Inuit families to leave Nunavik in the 1950s, eight Inuit families from Inukjuak were relocated after being promised homes and game to hunt, but the relocated people discovered no buildings and very little familiar wildlife. Eventually, the Inuit learned the local beluga whale migration routes and were able to survive in the area, in 1993, the Canadian government held hearings to investigate the relocation program. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report the year entitled The High Arctic Relocation. The government paid $10 million CAD to the survivors and their families, the whole story is told in Melanie McGraths The Long Exile, A Tale of Inuit Betrayal and Survival in the High ArcticNunavik – Kuujjuamiuq or "people of Kuujjuaq "
17. Nunavut – Nunavut is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canadas political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland, Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, and most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, the capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Rankin Inlet and Cambridge Bay and it is Canadas only geo-political region that is not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the largest in area and the second least populous of Canadas provinces and territories. One of the worlds most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944, mostly Inuit, spread over an area of just over 1,750,000 km2, Nunavut is also home to the worlds northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. A weather station farther down Ellesmere Island, Eureka, has the lowest average temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means our land in Inuktitut, Nunavut covers 1,877,787 km2 of land and 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada. This makes it the fifth largest subnational entity in the world, if Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area. It also shares borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec, Ontario. Nunavuts highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island, the population density is 0.019 persons/km2, one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has approximately the area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude. In more southerly continental areas very cold climates can be found. The region now known as Nunavut has supported an indigenous population for approximately 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and possibly settlers on Baffin Island and they seem to indicate prolonged contact, possibly up to 1450. So you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the InuitNunavut – Niungvaliruluit (”pointer like a window“) inuksuk, Foxe peninsula, Baffin Island
18. Extreme North – The Extreme North or Far North is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources. Its total area is about 5,500,000 square kilometres, due to the harsh conditions of the area, people who work there have traditionally been entitled by the Russian government to higher wages than workers of other regions. Murmansk, Yakutsk, Norilsk, Novy Urengoi, and Magadan are the largest cities within the Russian Far North proper, the larger and more southern Arkhangelsk is the largest among cities and territories equated to the Far North. The Far North is known for its harsh climate. People who work there, other indigenous populations involved in traditional occupations. Additional benefits include extra vacation, extra disability benefits, extra retirement benefits, such compensation had begun under the policy of the Soviet Union, and has been maintained by the Russian Federation. The regions were established based on climate, with harsher regions garnering greater compensation relative to milder regions. Russian Far East List of Russian explorers Small-numbered indigenous peoples of Extreme North Northern Sea RouteExtreme North – The Extreme North
19. Sakha Republic – The Sakha Republic is a federal subject of Russia. It has a population of 958,528, consisting mainly of ethnic Yakuts and it is larger than Argentina and just smaller than India which covers an area of 3,287,590 square kilometers. Its capital is the city of Yakutsk, the Sakha Republic is one of the ten autonomous Turkic Republics within the Russian Federation. The hypercontinental tendencies also result in warm summers for much of the republic. Borders, internal, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Magadan Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai. water, Arctic Ocean. These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the Northern Hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year, new Siberian Islands are a part of the republics territory. Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts, about 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which greatly influences the regions ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the region, where lichen. In the southern part of the belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region, larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south. Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and almost 90% of the cover is larch, Sakha spans three time zones, Yakutsk Time Zone. Covers the republics territory to the west of the Lena River as well as the territories of the located on the both sides of the Lena River. Covers most of the territory located between 127°E and 140°E longitude. Covers most of the territory located east of 140°E longitude. Districts, Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky, the Chersky Range runs east of the Verkhoyansk Range and has the highest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda. The second highest peak is Peak Mus-Khaya reaching 3,011 m, the Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the south. Sakha is well endowed with raw materials, the soil contains large reserves of oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold, silver, tin, tungsten and many others. Sakha produces 99% of all Russian diamonds and over 25% of the diamonds mined in the world, Sakha is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the Northern HemisphereSakha Republic – Fauna of the Sakha Republic: the Ross's gull, the Siberian crane, the polar bear, the horse, the reindeer. Russian post miniature sheet, 2006.
20. Yukon – Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canadas three federal territories. The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukons only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory, though officially bilingual, the Yukon Government also recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukons Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada, most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate, notable rivers include the Yukon River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White and Tatshenshini rivers. Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America. The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U. S. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks, European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive and this drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea and its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canadas highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territorys southwest, Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukons southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north, other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast, notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the growing season and severe climate. The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population, the second largest is Dawson City, which was the capital until 1952Yukon – Downtown Whitehorse along the Yukon River
21. North American Arctic – The North American Arctic comprises the northern portions of Alaska, Northern Canada and Greenland. Major bodies of water include the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay, the western limit is the Seward Peninsula and the Bering Strait. The southern limit is the Arctic Circle latitude of 66° 33’N, which is the limit of the midnight sun. The region is defined by environmental limits where the temperature for the warmest month is below 10 °C. The northernmost tree line roughly follows the isotherm at the boundary of this region, the area has tundra and polar vegetation. Arctic Arctic Institute of North America websiteNorth American Arctic – Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region