Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani, more known as Amoli Larijani, is an Iranian cleric and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution. He was born in 1339 solar in Najaf and his father, the late Ayatollah Mirza Hashem Amoli, was an eminent Mujtahid of his time who worked in Najaf after being exiled by Mohammad Reza Shah. The family moved to Iran after the Iranian Revolution in 1979, larinjani became familiar with both religious sciences and modern sciences as child. He began his school in 1345 solar and finished high school in 1356 solar. Following high school, he began his studies in Qom. He finished his studies in 1368 solar began to teach in both seminary and university. He became a member of scientific staffs of Qom University and taught courses in theology. Larijani is a brother of Ali Larijani, Mohammad Javad Larijani, Bagher Larijani and he is fluent in Persian and English. Larijani served as one of the 12 members of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran for eight years.
According to leading Iranian human rights defense lawyer Mohammad Seifzadeh, the head of the Judicial System of Iran is required to be a Mojtahed with significant experience in the field. Larijani, was neither an experienced jurist nor a highly ranked cleric, shortly after his appointment, Larijani appointed Saeed Mortazavi to the post of deputy prosecutor general of Iran. Mortazavi was prosecutor general of Tehran for more than seven years during which he was involved in murdering and torturing a number of Iranian civilians, one of the high-profile deaths attributed to Mortazavi is that of Canadian-Iranian photojournalist Zahra Kazemi. The police refused to give a receipt of the items, the office was organized by Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Mousavi for supporting the victims of torture in Iranian prisons. That same month, the authorities from the Judiciary System began targeting the children of leaders of the opposition groups, the Judiciary released her after twenty-four hours in the South of Tehran in an inappropriate condition.
In 2015, he said it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, in 2016, he warned president Hassan Rouhani against voicing opposition to Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Sadegh Larijani stated that the government does not derive its legitimacy from the votes of the nation and he is a well-known critic of ex-president Mohammad Khatami and his reforms. In March 1998 an article by him attacking Khatamis call for a civil Islamic society, at the same time he considered as leading figure in the sphere of philosophy of law or fiqh. Larijani condemned protesters and those who expressed doubts in the 2009 presidential election results, calling the protests illegal, on 23 May 2012, Larijani was put into the sanction list of the European Union, which was published in the Official Journal of the Union
2. Ali Larijani
Ali Larijani is an Iranian philosopher, conservative politician and the current chairman of the Parliament of Iran. Larijani was the Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 15 August 2005 to 20 October 2007, appointed to the position by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Larijani was one of the two representatives of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei to the council, the other being Hassan Rouhani. In his post as secretary he effectively functioned as the top negotiator on issues of national security, Ali Larijani was born on 3 June 1957 in Najaf, Iraq to Iranian parents. He hails from a family based in Behshahr in the province of Mazandaran. His father is a cleric, Ayatollah Mirza Hashem Amoli. His parents moved to Najaf in 1931 due to pressure of ruler Reza Shah, Larijani is a graduate of the Haqqani school in Qom. He holds a bachelor of degree in computer science and mathematics from Sharif University of Technology and holds a masters degree. Initially, he wanted to continue his studies in computer science.
Larijani has published books on Immanuel Kant, Saul Kripke, Larijani is a former commander of the Revolutionary Guards. From 1981 to 1989, Larijani served as the deputy minister of labour, following the election of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani as President of Iran, he was appointed deputy minister of information and communications technology. After Mohammad Khatamis resignation as minister of culture and Islamic guidance, he was appointed as acting minister, in March 1994, he was appointed as head of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, replacing Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani in the post. He was in office until 21 July 2004 and was succeeded by Ezzatollah Zarghami after serving ten years in the post and he became security adviser to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in August 2004. Larijani was a candidate for the 2005 presidential elections, where he ranked sixth. He was considered the most important presidential candidate of the alliance for the 2005 presidential elections. He was supported by the Islamic Society of Engineers, among other conservative groups, but he proved to be the least popular of the three conservative candidates, the others being Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf.
In 2005, Larijani was appointed secretary of the Supreme National Security Council and he replaced Hassan Rouhani in the post. Larijani took a line on the nuclear file before his appointment as negotiator. ”As chief nuclear negotiator, Iranian analysts said he differed with the president over how to pursue negotiations with his European counterparts. In the March 2008 parliamentary election, Larijani won a seat from Qom and he said that he was willing to work with Ahmadinejad, according to Larijani, he did not disagree with Ahmadinejad on ideological issues and they had only differences in style
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who is a member of cabinet. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Mohammad Javad Zarif, who was approved by the Parliament on 15 August 2013 after being nominated by the President, the first minister of foreign affairs of Iran was Mirza Abdulvahab Khan, who served from 1821 to 1823. The incumbent minister is Mohammad Javad Zarif, who was appointed on 15 August 2013 to succeed Ali Akbar Salehi, the building of the Ministry was completed in 1939. Politics of Iran Foreign relations of Iran List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran
Foreign relations of Iran refers to inter-governmental relationships between the Islamic Republic of Iran and other countries. Geography is a significant factor in informing Irans foreign policy. Irans bilateral dealings are accordingly sometimes confused and contradictory, Iran currently maintains full diplomatic relations with 97 countries worldwide. It is entirely plausible that the BBC did indeed help hasten revolutionary events, in Khomeinis own words, We shall export our revolution to the whole world. Until the cry There is no God but God resounds over the whole world, the nerve centre of the revolutionary crusade, operational since shortly after the 1979 revolution, was located in downtown Tehran and known to outsiders as the Taleghani Centre. These groups came under the umbrella of the Council for the Islamic Revolution, which was supervised by Ayatollah Hussein Ali Montazeri, most of the councils members were clerics, but they reportedly included advisors from the Syrian and Libyan intelligence agencies.
The council apparently received more than $1 billion annually in contributions from the faithful in other countries, for example, the Islamic Republic expressed its opinion of Egypts secular government by naming a street in Tehran after Egyptian President Anwar Sadats killer, Khalid al-Istanbuli. Arab and other Muslim volunteers who came to Iran were trained in camps run by the Revolutionary Guards. There were three primary bases in Tehran, and others in Ahvaz, Qom and Mashad, nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeria, began to mistrust Iran. With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Iran was thought to be supporting the creation of the Hizballah organization, Iran went on to oppose the Arab–Israeli peace process, because it saw Israel as an illegal country. Relations with Iraq had never been historically, they took a turn for the worse in 1980. The stated reason for Iraqs invasion was the sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab and this period saw Iran become even more isolated, with virtually no allies.
Exhausted by the war, Iran signed UN Security Council Resolution 598 in July 1988, after the United States, the ceasefire resulting from the UN resolution was implemented on 20 August 1988. Neither nation had any real gains in the war, which left one million dead and had a dramatic effect on the countrys foreign policy. From this point on, the Islamic Republic recognized that it had no choice but to moderate its radical approach and this was the beginning of what Anoushiravan Ehteshami calls the reorientation phase of Iranian foreign policy. Like other revolutionary states, practical considerations have led the Islamic Republic to inconsistency. In this regard the Islamic Republic resembles another revolutionary state, the old Soviet Union, since the end of the Iran–Iraq War, Irans new foreign policy has had a dramatic effect on its global standing
Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi is an Iranian politician and first vice president of Hassan Rouhanis government. Jahangiri was the minister of industries and mines from 1997 to 2005 under President Mohammad Khatami, before that, he was governor of Isfahan Province. He was a member of Parliament for two terms, Jahangiri was born on 10 January 1957 in Kuh Shah Rural District, kerman Province. He graduated from University of Kerman with a degree in physics and he was active in revolutionary groups prior to the Iranian Revolution and once was wounded by the forces of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He received his second Ph. D from Iran University of Science, Jahangiri began his political career following the Iranian revolution. He became deputy head of the department in Kerman in July 1980. Then, he was appointed its head in 1982 and he was elected to the Iranian Parliament in 1984 election. He was reelected in next election and he was appointed governor of Isfahan on 1 September 1992 by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani to replace with Gholamhossein Karbaschi.
He held the position until 20 August 1997 when he was nominated by Mohammad Khatami as the minister of mines and his portfolio was changed to the minister of industries and mines and he held that position until President Ahmadinejads cabinet took over in 2005. In 2008, it was rumored that Jahangiri would run for a seat in the Parliament and he was a potential reformists candidate in 2013 presidential election but he withdrew in favor of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and became Rafsanjanis campaign manager. He was co-founder of Executives of Construction Party and served as its secretary general from 2006 to 2010 and he was a member of Mir-Hossein Mousavis presidential campaign in 2009 presidential election. On 23 July 2013, it was reported that Jahangiri is the next First Vice President, on 29 July, it was confirmed officially, pending his appointment for the post in the inauguration day. He was formally appointed on 4 August by Rouhani as his first vice president, replacing Mohammad-Reza Rahimi
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era. After the 1979 overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty by the Islamic Revolution, the legal code is now based on Islamic law or sharia, although many aspects of civil law have been retained, and it is integrated into a civil law legal system. According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic, the judiciary in Iran is an independent power, parliamentary bills pertaining to the constitution are vetted by the Council of Guardians. Some aspects of the law remained in the hands of the mullahs. Among the ways law in Iran and the rest of the Muslim world differed from European law was in its lack of a law code. Thirteen centuries of Islamic—more particularly Shiah—tradition called for jurists to base decisions on their training as it applied to the situation being judged. There was no appeal in traditional Islamic law, as far as the judicial system is concerned, the changes were quite minor until the end of the nineteenth century.
As European military and technological power began to be felt in 19th century Iran, the Europeans insisted on this legal veto right—called the regime of capitulations—on the grounds that Iran had no written legal code so that no one knew what laws foreigners would be judged by. Iran followed traditional Islamic practice of each giving his own interpretation of Islamic law for a given litigation. Under the secularist reign of Reza Shah many changes were made in Irans judicial system, by April 1927 Iran had 600 newly appointed judges in Tehran. Davar subsequently attempted to expand the new system into other cities of Iran through a programme involving training of 250 judges, Reza Shah represented his legal reforms as tentative experiments and allowed the religious judges to keep their courts for matters such as inheritance. In 1936, the new system was made permanent, there were still sharia courts that ruled on issues of family and inheritance up to the Islamic Revolution. In 1979 the secular, westernizing Pahlavi Dynasty was overthrown and replaced by an Islamic Republic under the rule of Ayatollah Khomeini, between 1979 and 1982, the entire pre-Revolutionary judiciary was purged, and their duties replaced by Revolutionary Tribunals set up in every town.
These tribunals ruled on Islamic law, but were in practice unfair, many people were executed or given harsh punishments for both political and criminal acts. There were no appeals either, and trials often lasted minutes in an un-orthodox court, in 1982, the regular court system was reinstated, but with the judges now trained in Islamic law. In 1982, in response to military threats, a separate Military Revolutionary Court was formed. The Retribution Law of 1982 replaced sections of the Public Punishment Law, the 1979 Constitution of the Islamic Republic called for the judiciary to be an independent power, and charges it with investigating and passing judgement on grievances. Supervising the proper enforcement of laws, uncovering crimes, prosecuting and chastising criminals, taking suitable measures to prevent crime and reform criminals
The Supreme Audit Court of Iran is a government agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Located in Tehran, it is supervised by the Iranian Parliament, since 2010, SAC has been charged with supervising the Iranian Economic Reform Plan. SAC monitors the Oil Ministry’s deposits into the treasury on a monthly basis. It is in charge of the supervision of the National Development Fund, in May 2009, SAC reported that 1 billion was missing from Oil Stabilization Fund. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad says the issue of the missing $1 billion from the countrys currency reserve fund is in fact an accounting error, SAC defended both methodology and accuracy of its work and revealed that there had been 1463 cases of infractions regarding the countrys 2007-2008 budget. As a consequence, Iran was not able to obtain a payment for the oil it sold following the international oil embargo. According to Freedomhouse SAC is little more than a ceremonial body because judges appointed by the judiciary often overturn its verdicts.
They are not permitted to inspect any of the related to the Revolutionary Guards. This does not mean that Iran rejects the report and the country should make efforts to fulfill their criteria, he added
This article provides an overview of liberalism in Iran. It is limited to the Iranian liberal movement and liberal parties with substantial support, freedom is a universal human possibility. A politician and former Iranian Prime Minister, Foroughis writings and translations during that period were mainly discussions of the norms of constitutionality. During a political career lasted over seventy years, the political views of Hasan Taqizadeh are not characterized by an ideological continuity. Taqizadeh was raised in Tabriz, the capital of Azarbaijan province and this led to him showing an early interest in enlightenment ideas and constitutionalism. Under Taqizadeh’s guidance the first modern political party, Ferqeh-ye Demokrat-e Iran, was founded in Iran in 1909, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Taqizadeh allied with Germany against Russia and Britain. In Berlin he established the Komiteh-ye Iran, and with other prominent Iranian intellectuals, published the influential periodical Kaveh, Kaveh was a political and literary journal which greatly contributed to creation of Iranian consciousness and national identity.
This journal emphasized the need for independence, and internal reforms, especially secular. The implementation of liberal values in Iran following the Islamic Revolution has been characterized by extreme shifts, revolutionary Guards were dispatched to crush Kurdish and other groups agitating for a new place in the republic. When the Iran–Iraq War broke out in September 1980, this kind of sub-national agitation became at once blasphemy, although pluralism is officially condemned, the regime was particularly characterized by a denial of the principal of popular sovereignty. Sovereignty is God’s alone, and although in the Islamic republic the people elect their political representatives, moreover, a Constitutional Council reviews all parliamentary legislation to ensure that it conforms to the sharia and the Iranian constitution. The theory of vilayet-e faqih, in respects, represents the continuation of the imamate doctrine in Shiite Islam. It features the element of rational deputyship according to the peoples choice, the main factor – the individual rule of a charismatic leader – remains unchanged.
For example, connections to foreign institutions, persons, or sources of funding are enough to bring criminal charges such as undermining national security against individuals, the predominantly reformist parliament drafted several bills allowing increased freedom of speech, gender equality, and the banning of torture. Despite the initial optimism, these bills were all dismissed or significantly watered down by the Guardian Council and leading conservative figures in the Iranian government at the time. Regarding the gradual unraveling of the reformist movement, an article from The Economist magazine said, the new government continues to close down newspapers, silence dissenting voices and ban or censor books and websites. The peaceful demonstrations and protests of the Khatami era are no longer tolerated, in January 2007 security forces attacked striking bus drivers in Tehran, in March, police beat hundreds of men and women who had assembled to commemorate International Womens Day. At least twenty people were hospitalized and hundreds were arrested, in the attack, ahmad Batebi, a demonstrator in the July 1999 Iranian student riots, received a death sentence for propaganda against the Islamic Republic System
Hassan Rouhani is the seventh and current President of Iran since 2013. He is a lawyer and former diplomat and he has been a member of Irans Assembly of Experts since 1999, member of the Expediency Council since 1991, member of the Supreme National Security Council since 1989. Rouhani was deputy speaker of the fourth and fifth terms of the Parliament of Iran and he has expressed official support for upholding the rights of ethnic and religious minorities. In 2013, he appointed former industries minister Eshaq Jahangiri as his first vice-president, on 7 May 2013, Rouhani registered for the presidential election that was held on 14 June 2013. He said that, if elected, he would prepare a civil rights charter, restore the economy, Rouhani is frequently described as a moderate. He was elected as President of Iran on 15 June, defeating Tehran mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and he took office on 3 August 2013. In 2013, TIME magazine named him in its list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World and his name is spelled as Hasan Rouhani, Hassan Rohani, Hasan Rohani, Hassan Rowhani or Hasan Rowhani.
He was born Hassan Fereydoun and changed his last name to Rouhani and it is not clear when he officially changed his last name. Hassan Rouhani was born on 12 November 1948 in Sorkheh, near Semnan and his father, Haj Asadollah Fereydoun, had a spice shop in Sorkheh and his mother lived in Semnan until her death in 2015 with her daughters and sons-in-law. Rouhani started religious studies in 1960, first at Semnan Seminary before moving on to the Qom Seminary in 1961. In addition, he studied modern courses, and was admitted to the University of Tehran in 1969, in 1973, Rouhani entered military service in the city of Nishapur. Rouhanis Caledonian research was initially supervised by Iranian lawyer and scholar Professor Sayed Hassan Amin, analysis by three bloggers indicated that two passages in his PhD thesis were taken from a 1991 book by Mohammad Hashim Kamali. The University library confirmed that Rouhani had cited Kamalis work both in the body of the thesis and in the bibliography and that his theses were under no academic investigation.
As a young cleric Hassan Rouhani started his activities by following the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini during the beginning of the Iranian Islamist movement. In 1965, he began traveling throughout Iran making speeches against the government of the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, during those years he was arrested many times and was banned from delivering public speeches. It has been suggested that the title has been used for Khomeini by others before, including by the Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, since he was under surveillance by SAVAK, the Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti and the Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari advised him to leave the country. Outside Iran he made speeches to Iranian students studying abroad. He was elected to the Parliament of Iran in 1980, among responsibilities shouldered by him in the post-revolution era was leadership of the supervisory council of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting from 1980 to 1983