Template:Regions of North America
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1. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
2. Eastern Canada – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island are also known as the Maritime Provinces. Ottawa, Canadas capital, is located in Eastern Canada, within the province of Ontario, the capitals of the provinces are in the list below. The total population of region is about 23,082,460. Most of the population resides in Ontario and Quebec, the region contains 3 of Canadas 5 largest metropolitan areas, Toronto being the fourth largest municipality in North America. Eastern United States List of regions of CanadaEastern Canada – Eastern Canada, defined politically.
3. Western Canada – The capital cities of the four western provinces, from West to East, are, Victoria, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg. Except for Winnipeg, which is the largest city in Manitoba, Manitoba established as a province of Canada in 1870, following the enacting of the Manitoba Act. Saskatchewan, Established as province in 1905, with the implementation of the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta, In 1905, the same year as Saskatchewan, Alberta also was established as province. Just like Saskatchewan had the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta had the Alberta Act and this represents 31. 5% of Canadas population. While Vancouver serves as the largest metropolitan area in Western Canada, the following is a list of these areas and their populations as of 2011. Western Canada consists of the four westernmost provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan. It covers 2.9 million square kilometres – almost 29% of Canada’s land area, British Columbia adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, while Manitoba has a coastline on Hudson Bay in its northeast of the province. Both Alberta and Saskatchewan are landlocked between British Columbia and Manitoba, the Canadian Prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba. The prairies form a significant portion of the area of Western Canada. The plains generally describes the expanses of flat, arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly. In Alberta and British Columbia, the Canadian Cordillera is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. The continental divide also defines much of the border between Alberta and British Columbia, the Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second- and third-largest rivers, respectively, to drain to the west coast of North America. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a belt of mountains. The coast of British Columbia enjoys an oceanic climate because of the influence of the Pacific Ocean. Winters are typically wet and summers relatively dry and these areas enjoy the mildest winter weather in all of Canada, as temperatures rarely fall much below the freezing mark. The mountainous Interior of the province is drier and has colder winters, Alberta has a dry continental climate with warm summers and cold winters. The province is open to cold Arctic weather systems from the north, winters are generally quite cold, though some areas can experience a phenomenon known as the chinook wind, wherein warm winds raise the winter temperatures temporarilyWestern Canada – Edmonton is the largest provincial capital city by population in western Canada.
4. Canadian Prairies – The Canadian Prairies is a region in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political. Notably, the Prairie provinces or simply the Prairies comprise the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, in a more restricted sense, the term may also refer only to the areas of those provinces covered by prairie, their portions of the physiographic region known as the Interior Plains. Prairie also covers portions of northeastern British Columbia, though that province is not included in the region in a political sense. Northern short grasslands in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, northern tall grasslands in southern Manitoba, and Aspen parkland, which covers central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba. The Prairie starts from north of Edmonton, it covers the three provinces east to the Manitoba-Minnesota border, the Canadian prairies typically experience about 12 to 15 in of annual precipitation in the semi-arid areas while they experience 16 to 20 in in the continental regions. Manitoba is generally the coldest and most humid of the three prairie provinces, the area is also prone to thunderstorms in the spring and summer. Some of these storms, especially further south, are enough for tornadoes. The plains comprise both prairies and forests while, with the exception of Arctic tundra along the Hudson Bay, three main grassland types occur in the Canadian prairies, tallgrass prairie, mixed grass prairie, and fescue prairie. Each has a geographic distribution and characteristic mix of plant species. All but a fraction of one percent of the tallgrass prairie has been converted to cropland, what remains occurs on the 6,000 km2 plain centred in the Red River Valley in Manitoba. Mixed prairie is more common and is part of the dry plains that extend from Canada south to the U. S. state of Texas. More than half of the native grassland in the Canadian prairies is mixed. Though widespread in southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, because of extensive cattle grazing, fescue prairie occurs in the moister regions, occupying the northern extent of the prairies in central and southwestern Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan. The southwestern Canadian prairies, supporting brown and black soil types, are semi-arid and highly prone to frequent, the zones around the cities of Regina and immediately east of Calgary are also very dry. Most heavy precipitation quickly dissipates by the time it passes Cheadle on its way heading east, in an average year, southern Saskatchewan receives between 30–51 cm of precipitation, with the majority falling between April and June. Frost from October to April limits the growing season for certain crops, the eastern section of the Canadian prairies in Manitoba is well watered with several large lakes such as Lake Winnipeg and several large rivers. The area also gets reasonable amounts of precipitation, the middle sections of Alberta and Saskatchewan are also wetter than the south and have better farmland, despite having a shorter frost-free season. The areas around Edmonton and Saskatoon are especially notable as good farmland, both lie in the northern area of the Pallisers Triangle, and are within aspen parkland a transitional prairie ecozoneCanadian Prairies – Farm on the prairies near Hartney, Manitoba
5. Central Canada – Central Canada is a region consisting of Canadas two largest and most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec. Geographically, they are not at the centre of the country, due to their high populations, Ontario and Quebec have traditionally held a significant amount of political power in Canada, leading to some amount of resentment from other regions of the country. Before Confederation, the term Canada specifically referred to Central Canada, today, the term Central Canada is less often used than the names of the individual provinces. The longitudinal centre of Canada passes just east of Winnipeg, Manitoba, before Confederation, the region known as Canada was what is now called Central Canada. Southern Ontario was once called Upper Canada and later Canada West, both were made part of the United Province of Canada in 1841. Combined, the two provinces have approximately 20 million inhabitants which represents 62% of Canadas population and they are represented in the House of Commons of Canada by 199 Members of Parliament out of a total of 338Central Canada – Central Canada, defined politically
6. Northern Canada – Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, similarly, the Far North may refer to the Canadian Arctic, the portion of Canada north of the Arctic Circle and lies east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canadas total land area, for some purposes, Northern Canada may also include Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called northernness that other Arctic territories share. Canada is the northernmost country in the Americas and roughly 80% of its 35 million inhabitants are concentrated along its border with the United States. Combined with the fact that all of the country experiences severely cold winters along with short and relatively cool summers. Due to the concentration of its population along the border. Southern Canada is therefore considered to be a region only when it is contrasted against or viewed from the North, as a social rather than political region, the Canadian north is often subdivided into two distinct regions based on climate, the near north and the far north. The different climates of these two regions result in different vegetation, and therefore very different economies, settlement patterns. The near north or subarctic is mostly synonymous with the Canadian boreal forest and this area has traditionally been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, that is the First Nations, who were hunters of moose, freshwater fishers and trappers. This region was involved in the North American fur trade during its peak importance. The area was part of Ruperts Land or the North-Western Territory under the nominal control of the Hudsons Bay Company from 1670–1869. The HBCs claim was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and this opened the region to non-Native settlement, as well as to forestry, mining, and oil and gas drilling. Today several million people live in the north, around 15% of the Canadian total. The far north is synonymous with the north of the tree line. This area is home to the various sub-groups of the Inuit and these are people who have traditionally relied mostly on hunting marine mammals and caribou, mainly barren-ground caribou, as well as fish and migratory birds. This area was somewhat involved in the fur trade, but was influenced by the whaling industry. Very few non-Aboriginal people have settled in areas, and the residents of the far north represent less than 1% of Canadas total populationNorthern Canada – A boreal forest landscape in Northern Quebec.
7. Atlantic Canada – The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $110.308 billion in 2011, the first Premier of Newfoundland, Joey Smallwood, coined the term Atlantic Canada when Newfoundland joined the Dominion of Canada in 1949. Today Atlantic Canada is a distinct region of Canada, with the original founding cultures of Celtic, English and French remaining strong. Although Quebec has physical Atlantic coasts on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Ungava Bay,2016 census figures for Metropolitan Areas and Population Centres in Atlantic Canada. The list includes communities above 15,000, by Metropolitan Area population, or 10,000 by Population Centre populationAtlantic Canada – Map of Atlantic Canada
8. The Maritimes – The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The Maritimes had a population of 1,813,606 in 2016, the Maritimes, along with a fourth province – Canadas easternmost province, Newfoundland and Labrador – make up Atlantic Canada. Located along the Atlantic coast, various aquatic sub-basins are located in the Maritimes, such as the Gulf of Maine, the region is located northeast of New England, southeast of Quebecs Gaspé Peninsula, and southwest of the island of Newfoundland. All three provinces are entirely south of the southernmost extremity of Western Canada, and are the provinces of Canada without large. The Mikmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy people are indigenous to the Maritimes, while Acadian, the word maritime is an adjective that simply means of the sea, thus any land associated with the sea can be considered a maritime state or province. Nonetheless, the term Maritimes has historically been applied to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The Middle Period, starting 6,000 years ago, and this is also when what is called the Laurentian tradition started among Archaic Indians, existing First Nations peoples of the time. Evidence of Archaic Indian burial mounds and other ceremonial sites existing in the Saint John River valley has been uncovered, the primarily agrarian Maliseet Nation settled throughout the Saint John River and Allagash River valleys of present-day New Brunswick and Maine. The Passamaquoddy Nation inhabited the coastal regions of the present-day Bay of Fundy. The Maritimes were the area in Canada to be settled by Europeans. Both Giovanni Caboto and Giovanni da Verrazzano are reported to have sailed in or near Maritime waters during their voyages of discovery for England, several Portuguese explorers/cartographers have also documented various parts of the Maritimes, namely Diogo Homem. However, it was French explorer Jacques Cartier who made the first detailed reconnaissance of the region for a European power, and in so doing, claimed the region for the King of France. Champlain went on to fame as the founder of New Frances province of Canada which comprises much of the present-day lower St. Lawrence River valley in the province of Quebec. Most Acadian fishing activities were overshadowed by the comparatively enormous seasonal European fishing fleets based out of Newfoundland which took advantage of proximity to the Grand Banks. In 1613, Virginian raiders captured Port-Royal, and in 1621 Acadia was ceded to Scotlands Sir William Alexander who renamed it Nova Scotia. By 1632, Acadia was returned from Scotland to France under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, colonial administration by France throughout the history of Acadia was contemptuous at best. Frances priorities were in settling and strengthening its claim on New France and the exploration and settlement of interior North America, over 74 years there were six colonial wars, which involved continuous warfare between New England and Acadia. Throughout these wars, New England was allied with the Iroquois Confederacy, in the first war, King Williams War, natives from the Maritime region participated in numerous attacks with the French on the Acadia/ New England border in southern MaineThe Maritimes – Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, an archetypal classic Maritime scene
9. French Canadians – French Canadians are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, French Canadians constitute the main French-speaking population in Canada, today, French Canadians live across North America. The province of Quebec has the largest population of French-Canadian descent, though smaller communities exist throughout Canada, between 1840 and 1930, roughly 900,000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States, mostly to the New England region. Other terms for French Canadians who continue to reside in the province of Quebec, are Quebecers or Québécois, the other major group of French Canadians are the Acadians who reside in the Maritime Provinces. In total, those who identify as French Canadian, French, Québécois, the French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th century. The original use of the term Canada referred to the area along the St. From 1535 to the 1690s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona, at the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. French Canadians living in Canada express their identity using a number of terms. The Ethnic Diversity Survey of the 2006 Canadian census found that French-speaking Canadians identified their ethnicity most often as French, French Canadians, Québécois, the latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as French New World ancestries because they originate in Canada. Canadien was used to refer to the French-speaking residents of New France beginning in the last half of the 17th century, the English-speaking residents who arrived later from Great Britain were called Anglais. This usage continued until Canadian Confederation in 1867 and those reporting French New World ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada. Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their group, with 70% and 61%, respectively. The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. As a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker, for example, only 50% of third generation Canadians strongly identify as such, bringing down the overall average. The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities and these identities include French New World ancestries such as Québécois, Acadian. Since the 1960s, French Canadians in Quebec have generally used Québécois or Québécoise to express their cultural and national identity, rather than Canadien français, francophones who self-identify as Québécois and do not have French-Canadian ancestry may not identify as French Canadian. Those who do have French or French-Canadian ancestry, but who support Quebec sovereignty and this is a reflection of the strong social, cultural, and political ties that most Quebeckers of French-Canadian origin, who constitute a majority of francophone Quebecers, maintain within Quebec. French Canadians outside Quebec are more likely to self-identify as French Canadian, identification with provincial groupings varies from province to province, with Franco-Ontarians, for example, using their provincial label far more frequently than Franco-Columbians doFrench Canadians – Hubert Reeves
10. Acadia – Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River, the actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became Canadian provinces, the population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis, the first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English, during these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Annes War, present-day New Brunswick, present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rales War, during King Georges War, France and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutres War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British, finally, during the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758. Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are associated with the lands, descendants. It can also be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, in the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions. People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians, Arcadia derives from the Arcadia district in Greece which since Classical antiquity had the extended meanings of refuge or idyllic place. In 1603 a colony south of the St. Lawrence between the 40th and 46th parallels was agreed by Henry IV, who recognised the territory as La Cadie, also in the 17th century Champlain fixed its present orthography with the r omitted. William Francis Ganong, a cartographer, has shown its gradual progress northeastwards, in a succession of maps, another interesting note is the similarity in the pronunciation of Acadie and the Míkmawísimk suffix -akadie, which means a place of abundance. The modern usage is seen in place names such as Shunacadie or Shubenacadie. It is thought that intercultural conversation between early French traders and Mikmaq hunters may have resulted in the name lArcadie being changed to lAcadie, the history of Acadia was significantly influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th century. Prior to that period, the Mi’kmaq lived in Acadia for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi’kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years. Early European colonists, who would become known as Acadians, were French subjects primarily from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central FranceAcadia – Siege of Saint John (1645) – d'Aulnay defeats La Tour in Acadia
11. Acadian Peninsula – The Acadian Peninsula is situated in the northeastern corner of New Brunswick, Canada, encompassing portions of Gloucester and Northumberland Counties. It derives its name from the large Acadian population located there, two major islands off the northeast tip of the peninsula, Lamèque Island and Miscou Island, are culturally considered part of the Acadian Peninsula. Fishing is the dominant industry on the peninsula, with an agricultural sector as well. The disappearance of the Lady Audette and Lady Dorianne vessels in 1970/71 shocked the peninsula, peat bogs are found in the Shippagan and Lameque areas. Major towns on the Acadian Peninsula include, Caraquet Shippagan Tracadie Neguac LamèqueAcadian Peninsula – New Brunswick electoral districts, with districts of the peninsula highlighted in green
12. Peace River Country – The Peace River Country is an aspen parkland region centring on the Peace River in Canada. It extends from northwestern Alberta to the Rocky Mountains in northeastern British Columbia, the Peace River Country includes the incorporated communities of Fort St. John, Dawson Creek, Tumbler Ridge and Chetwynd in British Columbia. Major communities in the Alberta portion of the Peace Country include Grande Prairie, Peace River, High Level and it has no fixed boundaries but covers some 260,000 to 390,000 km². In British Columbia, the area extends from Monkman Provincial Park and Tumbler Ridge in the south, to Hudsons Hope and the Williston Lake in the west, to Fort St. John and Charlie Lake in the north. The term is used also in a sense to mean the whole of the Northeastern Interior past the Rockies, including Fort Nelson and other parts of the Liard drainage. Bennett Dam included the upper Peace River through its canyon between Finlay Forks and Hudsons Hope. In Alberta, the stretches from Grande Prairie and Valleyview in the south, to High Prairie and Lesser Slave Lake in the east, to Fort Vermilion, High Level. The first European to explore the area was Sir Alexander MacKenzie, who travelled down the Peace in 1789 and eventually reached the Mackenzie River, in 1793 he used the same route to reach the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the region saw a surge in the fur trade, at the beginning of the 20th century, the farming potential of the area was advertised by the federal government, but settlement was scarce because of difficult travel conditions through the muskeg. With the arrival of the railway in 1916, and following the opening of land for homesteaders in 1910, forestry plays a large role in the Peace Country economy. Pulp mills were built in Chetwynd, Peace River and Grande Prairie beginning in the 1970s, the economy received another boost when oil and gas were found in the region. In 1952, gas was struck in the Fort St. John No.1 well, the massive Elmworth natural gas field in northwestern Alberta was discovered in the mid-70s along with other major gas fields in British Columbia and Alberta. Both Fort St. John and Grande Prairie experienced rapid economic, Peace Country contains Canadas northernmost lands suitable for agriculture. Crops raised include canola, oats, peas and barley, some cattle ranching and beekeeping is also done in the area. In 2006, the region accounted for 14. 4% of Canadas total bison-producing herd, other industries include oil and gas extraction and forestry. Lumber, oriented strand board, and pulp are produced in many forestry mills throughout the region, Peace Country is crossed by the southern leg of the Alaska Highway, the western extremity of Alberta Highway 43 and the southern portion of the Mackenzie Highway. Other important transportation routes include the part of Alberta Highway 2, Alberta Highway 35, British Columbia Highway 29, British Columbia Highway 97. Regional air transport hubs are Grande Prairie Airport and Peace River Airport in Alberta, Health care is provided through Alberta Health Services and British Columbias Northern HealthPeace River Country – Peace River in Fort Vermilion
13. Cypress Hills (Canada) – The Cypress Hills are a geographical region of hills in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, Canada. The highest point in the Cypress Hills is at Head of the Mountain in Alberta at 1,466 metres, the highest point in Saskatchewan is at 1,392 m. Its location is at 49°33′N 109°59′W, the Cypress Hills have been known by a wide number of native and European names throughout their history. An 1882 Blackfoot–English dictionary written by C. M. Lanning provided the Blackfoot name I-kim-e-kooy, early Métis hunters, who spoke a variation of French, called the hills les montagnes des Cyprès, in reference to the abundance of jack pine trees. In the Canadian French spoken by the Métis, the pine is called cyprès. The English translation is Cypress Hills, the hills are not true mountains but are rather the remnants of erosion of a Tertiary plateau of sediment formed during the initial uplift of the Rocky Mountains. There is a ranch northwest of Eastend, Saskatchewan, called Dividing Springs Ranch and this gives them an appearance very different from the typical alpine mountains of most of Canada, with a flat top and steep sides. This suggests that during a very severe glaciation of the Pre-Illinoian Stage the hills would have become a true nunatak, like the hills of Gros Morne National Park. The undulating terrain comes from a series of morainal ridges composed of till deposited when a glacier paused during its retreat 15,000 years ago. The hills, because of the precipitation they receive, support extensive forest. Most of the flora is shared with the mountains in states such as Montana, the altitude of the hills, which is similar to the altitude of Banff also shares some similar flora and fauna with the Alberta mountain parks. Southern facing slopes tend to support prairie, northern slopes are covered with forest, during the 19th century Métis settled in the hills, hunting and often wintering there. Fort Walsh was established to bring law and order to the Canada–US border region, the Centre Block is located 30 kilometres south of Maple Creek on Highway 21. The West Block is located 45 kilometres southwest of Maple Creek on Highway 271, the Alberta portion of the Cypress Hills contains the tourist destination of Elkwater, a community with campground facilities located on the southern shore of Elkwater Lake. The townsite is mainly made up of summer cabins, Elkwater is located about 70 kilometres southeast of Medicine Hat. List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories Encyclopedia of SaskatchewanCypress Hills (Canada) – The Cypress Hills
14. Canadian Shield – Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil. Human population is sparse, and industrial development is minimal, while mining is prevalent, the Canadian Shield is a physiographic division, consisting of five smaller, physiographic provinces, the Laurentian Upland, Kazan Region, Davis, Hudson and James. The shield extends into the United States as the Adirondack Mountains, the Canadian Shield is U-shaped and is a subsection of the Laurentia craton signifying the area of greatest glacial impact creating the thin soils. The Canadian Shield is more than 3.96 billion years old, the Canadian Shield once had jagged peaks, higher than any of todays mountains, but millions of years of erosion have changed these mountains to rolling hills. The Canadian Shield was the first part of North America to be elevated above sea level and has remained almost wholly untouched by successive encroachments of the sea upon the continent. It is the Earths greatest area of exposed Archean rock, the metamorphic base rocks are mostly from the Precambrian Supereon, and have been repeatedly uplifted and eroded. Today it consists largely of an area of low relief 300 to 610 m above sea level with a few monadnocks, during the Pleistocene Epoch, continental ice sheets depressed the land surface, scooped out thousands of lake basins, and carried away much of the regions soil. When the Greenland section is included, the Shield is approximately circular, bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland and it covers much of Greenland, Labrador, most of Quebec north of the St. In total, the area of the Shield covers approximately 8,000,000 km2. The underlying rock structure also includes Hudson Bay, the Canadian Shield is among the oldest on earth, with regions dating from 2.5 to 4.2 billion years. The multitude of rivers and lakes in the region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young. It has some of the oldest volcanoes on the planet and it has over 150 volcanic belts whose bedrock ranges from 600 to 1200 million years old. Each belt probably grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, many of Canadas major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. The Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario, is one of the worlds best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, the Canadian Shield also contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, which is the largest dike swarm known on Earth. Mountains have deep roots and float on the denser mantle much like an iceberg at sea, as mountains erode, their roots rise and are eroded in turn. The rocks that now form the surface of the Shield were once far below the Earths surface, the high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Although these mountains are now eroded, many large mountains still exist in Canadas far north called the Arctic Cordillera. This is a vast deeply dissected mountain range, stretching from northernmost Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador, the ranges highest peak is Nunavuts Barbeau Peak at 2,616 metres above sea levelCanadian Shield
15. Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga – The Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga ecoregion, in the Taiga and Boreal forests Biome, of far northern North America. This is an area of low hills and flatlands from sea level to 600m, the underlying soil of the ecoregion is permafrost and even though the area is close to the sea it has a continental climate with short summers and long, cold winters, especially inland. Specific habitats include the peat bogs and fens of the Old Crow Flats, warmer, south-facing valley slopes are home to rare plants that have survived in this harsh climate including Shackletts cryptantha, Erysimum asperum and alpine golden buckwheat. Finally the Porcupine River system is an important breeding ground for Chinook salmon, the forest is regularly renewed by naturally occurring forest fires. The Bonnet Plume River and Wind Rivers that flow north into the Peel River are popular destinations for rafting and kayakingInterior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga – Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
16. Newfoundland (island) – Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and it blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary. Newfoundlands nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, with an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the worlds 16th-largest island, Canadas fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. Johns, is located on the southeastern coast of the island, Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo, by that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres. Additionally 6. 1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry, the islands total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105. Long settled by peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century. The next European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French, the island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot, working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a attempt to find the Northwest Passage. Newfoundland is considered Britains oldest colony, at the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. While there is evidence of ancient indigenous peoples on the island. LAnse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, the site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. There is a second suspected Norse site in Point Rosee, the island is a likely location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed. The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, later immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island, Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. In the 19th century, it also had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish, Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing, in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a Trosg, or literally, similarly, the Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means Land of the Fish. The first inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no link to other groups in Newfoundland historyNewfoundland (island) – The Humber River on the Newfoundland island on an October 2007 autumn day
17. Vancouver island – Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia, the island is 460 kilometres in length,100 kilometres in width at its widest point, and 32,134 km2 in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of North America and this area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, and since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons. Vancouver Island has a population of 759,366 according to the Canada 2011 Census, nearly half of that figure live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville, Courtenay, and Campbell River. Victoria, the city of British Columbia, is located on the island. Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years, the island was explored by British and Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century. Quadras name was dropped from the name. It is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, Vancouver Island is the worlds 43rd largest island, Canadas 11th largest island, and Canadas second most populous island after the Island of Montreal. It is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand, Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The groupings, by language, are the Kwakwakawakw, Nuu-chah-nulth and their cultures are connected to the natural resources abundant in the area. The Kwakwakawakw today number about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and they are also known as Kwakiutl in English, from one of their tribes, but they prefer their autonym Kwakwakawakw. Their indigenous language, part of the Wakashan family, is Kwakwala, the name Kwakwakawakw means speakers of Kwakwala. The language is now spoken by less than 5% of the population—about 250 people, today 17 separate tribes make up the Kwakwakawakw. Some Kwakwakawakw groups are now extinct, Kwakwala is a Northern Wakashan language, a grouping shared with Haisla, Heiltsuk and Wuikyala. The Nuu-chah-nulth are indigenous peoples in Canada and their traditional home is on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Nuu-chah-nulth speak a Southern Wakashan language and are related to the Makah of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington State. The Coast Salish are the largest of the southern groups and they are a loose grouping of many tribes with numerous distinct cultures and languagesVancouver island – Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait.
18. Gulf Islands – The Gulf Islands are the islands in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. BCGNIS further notes that Quadra Island is increasingly described as the northernmost of the Gulf Islands, the division of the Gulf Islands into two groups, the Southern and Northern Gulf Islands, is relatively common. The dividing line is approximately that formed by the city of Nanaimo on Vancouver Island, BC Ferries distinguishes between the Southern Gulf Islands and the Northern Gulf Islands. Their Northern Gulf Islands includes both Quadra Island and Cortes Island, as well as some islands far to the north, such as Malcolm Island and Cormorant Island. Natural Resources Canada maps the Gulf Islands as including the Southern Gulf Islands, the islands of Howe Sound, along with Lasqueti Island, Hornby Island, and Denman Island. The Southern Gulf Islands are perhaps best known for their artists, wineries, fromageries, boating, kayaking, hiking, camping and wildlife viewing are all possible in the Southern Gulf Islands. It is more often designated as part of the Discovery Islands, the Gulf refers to all such waters collectively, and to those communities and shores surrounding it. The term Salish Sea was adopted in 2010 to refer to the Strait of Georgia, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, the islands and surrounding ocean are rich with ecologically diverse plants and sea life including Garry oaks, wild lilies, kelp beds and Orcas. Gulf Islands National Park Reserve of Canada was established in 2003 by Parks Canada to protect the unique ecosystem. The Gulf Islands are home to one of the last remaining pockets of Garry oak ecosystems, only about five percent of Garry oak ecosystems remain in their natural state, landing 91 of the approximately 350 species it supports on the provinces list of species at risk. The unique Mediterranean characteristics of the climate supports the Garry oak ecosystem. Garry oak ecosystems are home to plant species, such as the camas. Since then, GOERT has been working to motivate public and private restoration of the rare ecosystem and promote conservation activities. C. s Gulf Islands Southern Gulf Islands AtlasGulf Islands – North Pender, Mayne and Galiano Islands
19. Strait of Georgia – The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait is a strait between Vancouver Island, and the mainland coast of British Columbia, Canada and extreme northern Washington, United States. It is approximately 240 kilometres long and varies in width from 20 to 58 kilometres, along with the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, it is a constituent part of the Salish Sea. Archipelagos and narrow channels mark each end of the Strait of Georgia, the Gulf Islands and San Juan Islands in the south, the main channels to the south are Haro Strait and Rosario Strait, which connect the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. In the north, Discovery Passage is the channel connecting the Strait of Georgia to Johnstone Strait. This line touches the edges of Rosario Strait, which leads south to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Boundary Pass, which leads south to Haro Strait. The mean depth of the Strait of Georgia is 157 metres and its surface area is approximately 6,800 square kilometres. The Fraser River accounts for roughly 80 percent of the water entering the strait. Water circulates in the strait in a general counterclockwise direction, several major islands are in the strait, the largest being Quadra Island and Texada Island. First Nations communities have surrounded the Strait of Georgia for thousands of years, the first European exploration of the area was undertaken by Captain Jose Maria Narvaez and Pilot Juan Carrasco of Spain in 1791. At this time Francisco de Eliza gave the strait the name Gran Canal de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera. In 1792, it was renamed for King George III as the Gulf of Georgia by George Vancouver of Great Britain, Vancouver designated the mainland in this region as New Georgia, and areas farther north as New Hanover and New Bremen. The June 23,1946 Vancouver Island earthquake shocked the Strait of Georgia region, the two busiest routes of the BC Ferries system cross the strait, between Tsawwassen and Swartz Bay and between Horseshoe Bay and Nanaimo. The Strait of Georgia is known as a scuba diving. In 1967, the Georgia Strait inspired the name of Vancouvers alternative newspaper, The Georgia Straight, across the border in the United States, Bellingham, Washington and other communities also lie on the eastern shore. Other settlements on Vancouver Island and the mainland are separated from Georgia Strait itself by islands, a controversial idea has existed since 1872 of a bridge connecting Vancouver Island to the BC Mainland. Later proposals have focussed on bridging the Strait of Georgia itself, some crossing design suggestions include a partly floating, partly submerged tunnel to allow ship traffic to move freely. The hurricane-force windstorms of Typhoon Freda in 1962 and of December 2006 call into question the safety of such a project, proponents of the bridge argue that a reliable link to Vancouver Island from mainland British Columbia will increase tourism and growth on Vancouver Island. Opponents argue that construction of a bridge will result in further urbanization of the island and that the environment will be negatively affected by constructionStrait of Georgia – The Strait of Georgia at centre, the Strait of Juan de Fuca below, Puget Sound at the lower right, Johnstone Strait at the extreme upper left. Sediment from the Fraser River clearly visible.
20. Canadian Arctic Archipelago – The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is showing some effects of global warming, British claims on the islands were based on the explorations in the 1570s by Martin Frobisher. Canadian sovereignty was only over island portions that drained into Foxe Basin, Hudson Bay. Canadian sovereignty over all of the islands was not established until the 1880 transfer by Britain to Canada of the remaining islands, the District of Franklin – established in 1895 – comprised almost all of the archipelago, the district was dissolved upon the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Canada claims all the waterways of the Northwestern Passages as Canadian Internal Waters, however the United States, disagreement over the passages status has raised Canadian concerns about environmental enforcement, national security, and general sovereignty. Hans Island, in the Nares Strait east of Ellesmere Island, is a territory contested between Canada and Denmark. The archipelago extends some 2,400 km longitudinally and 1,900 km from the mainland to Cape Columbia, the northernmost point on Ellesmere Island. It is bounded on the west by the Beaufort Sea, on the northwest by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by Greenland, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, and on the south by Hudson Bay and the Canadian mainland. The various islands are separated from other and the continental mainland by a series of waterways collectively known as the Northwestern Passages. Two large peninsulas, Boothia and Melville, extend northward from the mainland, the archipelago consists of 36,563 islands, of which 94 are classified as major islands, being larger than 130 km2, and cover a total area of 1,400,000 km2. The climate of the islands is arctic, and the terrain consists of tundra except in mountainous areas, most of the islands are uninhabited, human settlement is extremely thin and scattered, being mainly coastal Inuit settlements on the southern islands. Islands not on map British Arctic Territories List of Canadian islands by area List of islands of CanadaCanadian Arctic Archipelago – Satellite image of Baffin Island, the largest island by total area of the Arctic Archipelago
21. Labrador Peninsula – The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and it has an area of 1,400,000 km2. The peninsula is surrounded by sea on all sides except for the southwest where it connects to the mainland, the northwestern part of the Labrador Peninsula is shaped as a lesser peninsula, the Ungava Peninsula, surrounded by Hudson Bay, the Hudson Strait, and Ungava Bay. The northernmost point of the Ungava Peninsula, Cape Wolstenholme, also serves as the northernmost point of the Labrador Peninsula, the peninsula is a plateau threaded by river valleys. The mountains also host Torngat Mountains National Park, the national park of Canada on the Labrador Peninsula. The park is located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and it is widely accepted that the peninsula is named after Portuguese explorer João Fernandes Lavrador. He was granted a patent by King Manuel I of Portugal in 1499 which gave him the right to explore that part of the Atlantic Ocean as set out in the Treaty of Tordesillas, together with Pêro de Barcelos, he first sighted Labrador in 1498. Fernandes charted the coasts of Southwestern Greenland and of adjacent Northeastern North America around 1498 and gave notice of them in Portugal and his landowner status allowed him to use the title lavrador, Portuguese for farmer or landholder. Fernandes actually gave the name of Terra do Lavrador to Greenland which was the first land he sighted, but eventually the name was spread to all areas and finally was set for LabradorLabrador Peninsula – A hillside at Nain, east coast of the peninsula
22. Avalon Peninsula – The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. The peninsula is home to 262,410 people, about 51% of Newfoundlands population, the peninsula is the location of St. Johns, the provincial capital and largest city. It is connected to the section of the island by the 5 km wide Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the fishing zones near the Grand Banks. Its four major bays—Trinity Bay, Conception Bay, St. Marys Bay, the Avalon Peninsula is itself pinched into peninsulas by St. Marys Bay and Conception Bay. St. Johns is located in the northeast of the peninsula, the Avalon Peninsula is a noted region for Precambrian fossils, and many Lagerstätten of the diverse Ediacaran biota are found on the peninsula. Mistaken Point is the location of the first documented Ediacaran. The peninsula gives its name to the ancient micro-continent Avalonia of which it was part, explorer John Cabot led an unsuccessful expedition from England to try and reach the Banda Islands in The Orient, supposedly ended up off what is now Bonavista. The first permanent English settlement was established at Cupers Cove in 1610, sir George Calvert was later given a large land holding on the peninsula. The initial colony of Ferryland grew to a population of 100, Calvert wished to make the colony a refuge for Roman Catholics facing persecution in England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord Baltimore, in 1696, during King Williams War, the French destroyed many English villages in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign. During Queen Annes War, Rear Admiral John Leake of the Royal Navy led an expedition aimed at capturing French ships around the Peninsula, during this same conflict, the French attacked the fortified English port of St. Johns, but were defeated. They later returned and captured the town, burning it to the ground, later, during King Georges War, a single British Man-of-war, HMS Kinsale, cruised along the coast, attacking and capturing French ships. On June 8th,1755, three British and three French Men-of- War met off Cape Race on the Peninsula and engaged each other in battle and this battle was one of a series that ignited the French and Indian War in North America. The Peninsula played a role in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, in which it served as a training ground for Royal Navy sailors. Avalon Explosion British colonization of the Americas New Cambriol Snows Pond Heritage of Newfoundland - Colony of AvalonAvalon Peninsula – The coast of the Avalon Peninsula, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador
23. Bay de Verde Peninsula – The Bay de Verde Peninsula is the largest peninsula that makes up part of the Avalon Peninsula, of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The peninsula separates both Trinity and Conception Bay, starting from the Conception Bay side it commences at the bottom of Conception Bay at Holyrood and continues north to Bay de Verde and Split Point the boundary for Conception Bay. Continuing around the tip of the peninsula to Breakheart Point the boundary point for Trinity Bay, the highways servicing the Bay de Verde Peninsula are Route 60, Route 70, Route 80, and many local roads. This peninsula contains the oldest settlements on the island of Newfoundland, the communities and towns on the Bay de Verde Peninsula have grown due to the fishing grounds in its proximity and its closeness to the rich fishing grounds of the Grand BanksBay de Verde Peninsula – Bay de Verde Peninsula
24. Brodeur Peninsula – Brodeur Peninsula is an uninhabited headland on Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is located on the part of the island and is bounded by Prince Regent Inlet, Lancaster Sound. The peninsula is connected to the rest of Baffin Island by a narrow isthmus, the habitat is characterized by rocky shores and coastal cliffs, as well as barrens and rocky flats. Northwestern Brodeur Peninsula,475 km2 in size, is a Canadian Important Bird Area and it is home to the ivory gull, but researchers have been witnessing a dramatic decrease in breeding populations in the region in recent times. The western side of the Brodeur Peninsula is known as a polar bear mating ground, serious efforts are underway to find minerals in the area. Twin Mining owns a 1,300,000 acres, diamond property on the peninsula, Brodeur Peninsula at the Atlas of CanadaBrodeur Peninsula – In this satellite image, the Brodeur Peninsula can be viewed on the northwestern part of Baffin Island
25. Melville Peninsula – Melville Peninsula is a large peninsula in the Canadian Arctic north of Hudson Bay. To the east is Foxe Basin and to the west the Gulf of Boothia, to the north the Fury and Hecla Strait separates it from Baffin Island. To the south Repulse Bay and Frozen Strait separate it from Southampton Island at the end of Hudson Bay. On the southwest it is connected to the mainland by the “Rae Isthmus” named after arctic explorer Dr John Rae, between 1821 and 1823 its east side was mapped by William Edward Parry. Since 1999, it has been part of Nunavut, before that, it was part of the District of Franklin. Most of the lies in Nunavuts Qikiqtaaluk Region, while its southwesternmost section, around Repulse Bay. Communities on the peninsula include the hamlets of Repulse Bay and Hall Beach, the hamlet of Igloolik is located on an island lying just off the northeastern coast of the peninsulaMelville Peninsula – The Melville Peninsula is the west side of Foxe Basin
26. Bruce Peninsula – The Bruce Peninsula is a peninsula in Ontario, Canada, that lies between Georgian Bay and the main basin of Lake Huron. The Bruce Peninsula contains part of the formation known as the Niagara Escarpment. From an administrative standpoint, the Bruce Peninsula is part of Bruce County, named after James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Governor General of the Province of Canada. A popular tourist destination for camping, hiking and fishing, the area has two parks, more than half a dozen nature reserves, and the Bruce Peninsula Bird Observatory. The Bruce Trail runs through the region to its terminus in the town of Tobermory. The Bruce Peninsula is a key area for plant and animal wildlife. An important flyway for migrating birds, the peninsula is habitat to a variety of animals, including bear, massasauga rattlesnake. Up until the mid-19th century, the known as the Bruce Peninsula was territory controlled by the Saugeen Ojibway Nations. The nations included the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation and Saugeen First Nation, oral history from Saugeen and Nawash suggests their ancestors have been here as early as 7500 years ago. The area of Hope Bay is known to natives as Nochemoweniing, in 1854, the Saugeen Ojibway agreed to sign another treaty – this time for the peninsula itself. The claim seeks the return of lands held by the Crown. European settlement began on the peninsula in the century, despite its poor potential for agricultural development. Attracted by the fisheries and lush forest, settlers found the land known then as the “Indian or Saugeen Peninsula” to be irresistible. In 1881 settlers built the first sawmill on the peninsula in Tobermory, in less than 20 years most of the valuable timber was gone and timber industry jobs declined. Fuelled by the left behind by the rapid logging and land clearances. By the mid-1920s formerly abundant forests of the peninsula were nearly barren, when the lamprey eel was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in 1932, the devastation on the fish supply made the peninsula a less attractive place to live. Many left when fish stocks were depleted, the peninsula underwent a steady decline in population until the 1970s. In the late 20th century, the peninsula started to attract a new kind of resident, today seasonal residents out-number permanent residentsBruce Peninsula – The Niagara Escarpment in the Bruce Peninsula National Park.
27. Gulf of Boothia – The Gulf of Boothia /ˈbuːθiə/ is a body of water in Nunavut, Canada. Administratively it is divided between the Kitikmeot Region on the west and the Qikiqtaaluk Region on the east and it merges north into Prince Regent Inlet, the two forming a single bay with different names for its parts. The south end is Committee Bay, northwest of which are the Simpson Peninsula, in addition to its connection to Prince Regent Inlet one can use an icebreaker to go east through the Fury and Hecla Strait, or, with luck, pass the Bellot Strait westward. In 1822 it was seen by some of William Edward Parrys men who went on foot along the ice-choked Fury, in 1829 it was entered by John Ross who was frozen in for four years and named it for his patron Sir Felix Booth. Its south end was explored by John Rae in 1846/47 who reached it overland from the southGulf of Boothia – Nunavut
28. Georgian Bay – Georgian Bay is a large bay of Lake Huron, located entirely within Ontario, Canada. The main body of the bay lies east of the Bruce Peninsula, to its northwest is the North Channel. Georgian Bay is surrounded by the districts of Manitoulin, Sudbury, Parry Sound and Muskoka, as well as the more populous counties of Simcoe, Grey, the Main Channel separates the Bruce Peninsula from Manitoulin Island and connects Georgian Bay to the rest of Lake Huron. The shores and waterways of the Georgian Bay are the domain of the Anishinaabeg First Nations peoples to the north. The bay was thus a major Algonquian-Huron trade route, Samuel de Champlain, the first European to explore and map the area in 1615–1616, called it La Mer douce, also a reference to the bays freshwater. It was named Georgian Bay by Lieutenant Henry Wolsey Bayfield of the Royal Navy in 1822, Georgian Bay is about 190 kilometres long by 80 kilometres wide. It covers approximately 15,000 square kilometres, making it nearly 80% the size of Lake Ontario. If Georgian Bay were considered a lake in its own right, it would be the fourth largest lake located entirely within Canada after Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg. Eastern Georgian Bay is part of the edge of the Canadian Shield, granite bedrock exposed by the glaciers at the end of the last ice age. The granite rock formations and windswept eastern white pine are characteristic of the islands, the rugged beauty of the area inspired landscapes by artists of the Group of Seven. The western part of the bay, from Collingwood north, and including Manitoulin, Drummond, Cockburn and St. Joseph islands, there are tens of thousands of islands in Georgian Bay. Most of these islands are along the east side of the bay and are known as the Thirty Thousand Islands. Manitoulin Island, lying along the side of the bay, is the worlds largest island in a freshwater lake. The Trent–Severn Waterway connects Georgian Bay to Lake Ontario, running from Port Severn in the corner of Georgian Bay through Lake Simcoe into Lake Ontario near Trenton. Further north, Lake Nipissing drains into Georgian Bay through the French River, in October 2004, the Georgian Bay Littoral was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. Archeological records reveal an Aboriginal presence in the regions of the Canadian Shield dating from 11,000 years ago. Evidence of later Paleo-Indian settlements have found on Manitoulin Island. At the time of European contact, the Ojibwe and Ottawa First Nations, the Huron and Tionontati inhabited the lands along the southern coast, having migrated from the northern shores of Lake OntarioGeorgian Bay – Georgian Bay at Cabot Head
29. Hudson Bay – Hudson Bay is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 square kilometres. Hudson Bays southern arm is called James Bay, the Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw or Wînipâkw, meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg, Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 square kilometres, making it the second-largest bay in the world. The bay is shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea. It is about 1,370 km long and 1,050 km wide, on the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait, on the north, with the Arctic Ocean by Foxe Basin, and Fury and Hecla Strait. Geographic coordinates, 78° to 95° W, 51° to 70° N. Hudson Bay is part of the North Atlantic Ocean, sometimes the Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait basins are considered part of the Arctic Ocean even though their waters flow predominantly to the Atlantic. Some sources describe Hudson Bay as a sea of the Atlantic Ocean. English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2,1610 on his ship Discovery. On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenlands west coast and into the bay, Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, and the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay. When the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area and they left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, in 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudsons Bay Company which still bears the historic name. The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the British crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Ruperts Land, france contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht. See Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay, during this period, the Hudsons Bay Company built several forts and trading posts along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers. The strategic locations were bases for inland exploration, more importantly, they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season. The HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use these posts until the beginning of the 20th century, the port of Churchill is still an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia. HBCs trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, and it ceded Ruperts Land to Canada, starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Governments CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a port for wheat exports in 1929. Due to a change in naming conventions, Hudsons Bay is now called Hudson Bay, as a result, the names of the body of water and the company are often mistaken for one anotherHudson Bay – Ice begins to form in early November at Hudson Bay.
30. James Bay – James Bay is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. Both bodies of water extend from the Arctic Ocean, of which James Bay is the southernmost part and it borders the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, islands within the bay are part of Nunavut. The James Bay watershed is the site of major hydroelectric projects. As with the rest of Hudson Bay, the waters of James Bay routinely freeze over in winter, although it is the last to freeze over in winter, and conversely the first to thaw in summer. Human presence along the shores of the bay can be traced back to the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last ice age around 8,150 years ago, since contact with Europeans, the indigenous peoples along both shores of the bay were ethnically Cree peoples. The bay first came to the attention of Europeans in 1610 and it received its name in honour of Thomas James, a Welsh captain who explored the area more thoroughly in 1630 and 1631. James Bay is important in the history of Canada as one of the most hospitable parts of the Hudson Bay region despite its low human population, as a result, its corresponding importance to the Hudsons Bay Company and British expansion into Canada. Des Groseilliers accompanied Captain Zachariah Gillam on the ketch Nonsuch and they founded the first fur-trading post on James Bay. Their success, though lacking in minerals, was such that the company was chartered by Charles II on their return and this charter granted a complete trading monopoly of the whole Hudson Bay basin to the company. At the same time, the first English colony on what is now mainland Canada, Ruperts Land, was formed and it was, nevertheless, the gateway to British settlements in what would become Manitoba (Winnipeg, and as far west as the Rocky Mountains. James Bay represents the extent of the Arctic Archipelago Marine ecozone. While the coastal areas are primarily in the Hudson Plains, the northeastern coast bordering Quebec is in the Taiga Shield ecozone. This rocky and hilly eastern shore forms the edge of the Canadian Shield in Quebec. The western shore however is characterised by broad tundra lowlands that are an extension of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a large portion of this area is part of the Polar Bear Provincial Park. Ringed seals are common elsewhere along James Bay and polar bears can be seen targeting the seals for prey, beluga whales within James Bay basin could be distinct from those found in Hudson Bay. Hundreds of rivers flow into James Bay, the geography of the region gives many of them similar characteristics. They tend to be wide and shallow near the Bay, whereas they are steeper and narrower farther upstream, for a larger list of waterways in the region, see list of Hudson Bay rivers. Hannah Bay is the southernmost bay of James Bay, here the Kesagami and Harricana Rivers flow into James BayJames Bay – A satellite image of James Bay
31. Greenland – Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup and it also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it GrœnlandGreenland – Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle ages).
32. Contiguous United States – The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states plus Washington, D. C. on the continent of North America. S. The greatest distance entirely within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles, the greatest north-south line is 1,650 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D. C. occupy an area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area,2,959,064.44 square miles is land, composing 83. 65% of U. S. land area, officially,160,820.25 square miles is water area, composing 62. 66% of the nations total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of states and dependencies by area. The 2010 census population of area was 306,675,006, comprising 99. 33% of the nations population. While conterminous U. S. has the meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms commonly used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. The term was in use prior to the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states of the United States, the District of Columbia is not always specifically mentioned as being part of CONUS. OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States, the term Lower 48 is also used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, both Alaskans and Hawaiians have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3,1959, Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States Pacific coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, several other terms have been used over the years. Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21,1959 and it is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America, in Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U. S. Mainland are often used to refer to the continental United States, apart from off-shore US islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous US are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada. Point Roberts, Washington, Elm Point, Minnesota, and the Northwest Angle in Minnesota are three such places, alburgh, Vermont, is not directly connected by land, but is accessible by road via bridges from within Vermont and from from New York. The 48 contiguous United States are, Washington, D. C. is distinct from the state of Washington, extreme points of the United States Mainland Definition of continental Definition of contiguous Definition of coterminous and conterminousContiguous United States – This map shows the contiguous United States and in insets at the lower left, the two states that are not contiguous
33. Pacific Northwest – The Pacific Northwest, sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Though no agreed boundary exists, a common conception includes the U. S. states of Oregon and Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader conceptions reach north into Alaska and Yukon, south into far northern California and east to the Continental Divide, thus including Idaho, Western Montana, narrower conceptions may be limited to the northwestern US or to the coastal areas west of the Cascade and Coast mountains. The variety of definitions can be attributed to partially overlapping commonalities of the history, geography, society. The Northwest Coast is the region of the Pacific Northwest. The term Pacific Northwest should not be confused with the Northwest Territory or the Northwest Territories of Canada. The border — in two sections, along the 49th parallel south of British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle west of northern British Columbia — has had an effect on the region. According to Canadian historian Ken Coates, the border has not merely influenced the Pacific Northwest—rather, definitions of the Pacific Northwest region vary, and there is no commonly agreed-upon boundary, even among Pacific Northwesterners. A common conception of the Pacific Northwest includes the U. S. states of Oregon and Washington as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader definitions of the region may include the U. S. state of Alaska, the Canadian territory of Yukon, the portion of the state of California. Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide, thus including all of Idaho and parts of western Montana. Sometimes the Pacific Northwest is defined as being the Northwestern United States, often these definitions are made by government agencies whose scope is limited to the United States. Some definitions include, in addition to Washington, Oregon, Idaho and British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, western Montana, the coast of northern California, the Pacific Northwest has been occupied by a diverse array of indigenous peoples for millennia. The Pacific Coast is seen by scholars as a major coastal migration route in the settlement of the Americas by late Pleistocene peoples moving from northeast Asia into the Americas. Other evidence for human occupation dating back as much as 14,500 years ago is emerging from Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon, however, despite such research, the coastal migration hypothesis is still subject to considerable debate. Due in part to the richness of Pacific Northwest Coast and river fisheries, in the interior of the Pacific Northwest, the indigenous peoples, at the time of European contact, had a diversity of cultures and societies. Some areas were home to mobile and egalitarian societies, others, especially along major rivers such as the Columbia and Fraser, had very complex, affluent, sedentary societies rivaling those of the coast. In British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, the Tlingit and Haida erected large, throughout the Pacific Northwest, thousands of indigenous people live, and some continue to practice their rich cultural traditions, organizing their societies around cedar and salmonPacific Northwest – The Pacific Northwest from outer space.
34. Northeastern United States – The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics. The Census Bureau-defined region has an area of 181,324 sq mi with 162,257 square miles of that being land mass. Though lacking a unified identity, the Northeastern region is the nations most economically developed, densely populated. Of the nations four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its residing in urban areas. The region is subdivided into New England and the Mid-Atlantic States and this definition has been essentially unchanged since 1880 and is widely used as a standard for data tabulation. C. Similarly, the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland, the narrowest definitions include only the states of New England. Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, States beyond the Census Bureau definition that other entities include in the Northeast United States are, Delaware, Maryland, and Washington, D. C. Delaware, Maryland, Washington, D. C. and West Virginia Delaware, Maryland, Washington, most did not settle in North America until the 17th century. Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those made up the Iroquois nations. In the United States of the 21st century,18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast, the two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories. The first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, the Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years later, a group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1636, colonists established Connecticut Colony and Providence Plantations, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, who was banished by Massachusetts for his beliefs in freedom of religion, and it was the first colony to guarantee all citizens freedom of worship. Anne Hutchinson, who was banished by Massachusetts, formed the town of Portsmouth. Providence, Portsmouth, and two towns consolidated to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Although the first settlers of New England were motivated by religion, in recent history. In a 2009 Gallup survey, less than half of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Massachusetts reported religion as an important part of their daily life. In a 2010 Gallup survey, less than 30% of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, New England played a prominent role in early American educationNortheastern United States – High Point Monument as seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County, the highest elevation in New Jersey at 1803 feet above sea level
35. New England – New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeast United States, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and south, the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Its largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which also includes Worcester, Manchester, ten years later, more Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts Bay Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts and surrounding areas experienced one of the most infamous cases of hysteria in the history of the Western Hemisphere. The Boston Tea Party was a protest to which Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government, the confrontation led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775, and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns. The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the populated northern regions of Vermont, New Hampshire. The region is one of the U. S. Census Bureaus nine regional divisions, the earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. Prominent tribes included the Abenaki, Mikmaq, Penobscot, Pequot, Mohegans, Narragansett Indians, Pocumtuck, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine, the Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine. The Narragansett and smaller tribes under Narragansett sovereignty lived in most of modern-day Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, the Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket. The Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, and the Mohegan and Pequot tribes in the Connecticut region, the Connecticut River Valley includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and linked different indigenous communities culturally, linguistically, and politically. As early as 1600, French, Dutch, and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal, glass, on April 10,1606, King James I of England issued a charter for each of the Virginia Companies, London and Plymouth. These were privately funded ventures, intended to land for England, conduct trade. In 1620, Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts was settled by Pilgrims from the Mayflower, in 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region New England. As the first colonists arrived in Plymouth, they wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact, the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633, roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636New England – Clockwise from top: skyline of Boston, Massachusetts financial district at night; a building of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut; a view from Nubble Light on Cape Neddick, Maine; view from Mount Mansfield, Vermont; and a fisherman on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
36. Mid-Atlantic states – The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region often includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, when discussing climate, Connecticut is often included with the Mid-Atlantic region. The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade and it has been called the typically American region by Frederick Jackson Turner. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington. But also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Albany, and Buffalo, New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income, there are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic. Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to consist of Maryland, Delaware, other sources consider New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania to be the core Mid-Atlantic states, with others sometimes included. West Virginia and parts of Virginia are atypical of this region in several ways, although a few of West Virginias eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington, D. C. MSA, the portion of the state is rural. Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era, the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1609 and claimed it for the Dutch, jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America seven years earlier in 1607. From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a range of European people than in New England or the South. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to Quakers, in time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities. The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution, cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, United, New York City FC, New York Red Bulls and Philadelphia Union, as well as two WNBA teams, New York Liberty and Washington MysticsMid-Atlantic states – An 1897 map displays an inclusive definition of the Mid-Atlantic region, including Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.
37. Commonwealth (U.S. state) – Each was, prior to 1776, a British colony, or parts thereof, and share a strong influence of English common law in some of their laws and institutions. The term Commonwealth does not describe or provide for any specific political status or legal relationship when used by a state and those that do use it are equal to those that do not. It refers to the common weal, or welfare, of the public and is derived from a translation of the Latin term res publica. Besides the four aforementioned states, other states may also, on occasion, vermont, for instance, uses the term commonwealth three times in its constitution, interchangeably with the term state. Also, while Delaware was primarily referred to as a State in its 1776 constitution, two U. S. territories are also designated as commonwealths, Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands. When used in connection with areas under U. S, on June 1,1792, Kentucky County officially became a state. Kentucky is the state outside of the first 13 that uses commonwealth in its name. Massachusetts is officially named The Commonwealth of Massachusetts by its constitution, the name State of Massachusetts Bay was used in all acts and resolves up to 1780 and the first draft of the constitution. The current name can be traced to the draft of the state constitution. In Massachusetts, the term State is occasionally used in an official manner and this is evident in the name of the agency Massachusetts State Police, the Massachusetts State House and in Bridgewater State Hospital. The Seal of Pennsylvania does not use the term, but legal processes are in the name of the Commonwealth and it is a traditional official designation used in referring to the state. In 1776, Pennsylvanias first state constitution referred to it as both Commonwealth and State, a pattern of usage that was perpetuated in the constitutions of 1790,1838,1874 and 1958, one of Pennsylvanias two intermediate appellate courts is called the Commonwealth Court. A detailed history describing the origins of Pennsylvanias government, including its designation as a commonwealth from colonial times, is available from the Secretary of the Commonwealths office, the name Commonwealth of Virginia dates back to its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Virginias first constitution directed that Commissions and Grants shall run, In the Name of the commonwealth of Virginia, the Secretary of the Commonwealth still issues commissions in this manner. Among other references, the constitution furthermore dictated that criminal indictments were to conclude against the peace, in Virginia, the term State is occasionally used in an official manner, but usually in a compound structure rather than as a stand-alone noun. This is evident in the name of the agency Virginia State Corporation Commission and in Virginia State Police, the state university in Richmond is known as Virginia Commonwealth University. In Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, state-level criminal prosecutions are brought in the name of the Commonwealth, in California, Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, and New York, they are brought in the name of the PeopleCommonwealth (U.S. state) – A map of the United States of America, showing the four states that refer to themselves as a "commonwealth" in red.
38. Western United States – The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U. S. expanded westward after its founding, prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier moved westward and eventually lands west of the Mississippi River came to be referred to as the West. The West contains several major biomes, the Western U. S. is the largest region of the country, covering more than half the land area of the United States. Given this expansive and diverse geography it is no wonder the region is difficult to specifically define, a majority of the historian respondents placed the eastern boundary of the West east of the Census definition out on the eastern edge of the Great Plains or on the Mississippi River. The survey respondents as a whole showed just how little agreement there was on the boundaries of the West, within a region as large and diverse as the Western United States, smaller areas with more closely shared demographics and geography have developed as subregions. Meanwhile, the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington can be considered part of the Northwest or Pacific Northwest, West Texas in the Chihuahuan Desert may be considered as part of the Western U. S. Fort Worth has long laid claim to be Where the West Begins, the West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with 49.5 inhabitants per square mile. Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi, Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi. The entire Western region has also strongly influenced by European, Hispanic or Latino, Asian and Native Americans. African and European Americans, however, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the rates of citizenship and voting among Asians. The West also contains much of the Native American population in the U. S. particularly in the reservations in the Mountain. The Western United States has a sex ratio than any other region in the United States. Because the tide of development had not yet reached most of the West when conservation became an issue, agencies of the federal government own. National parks are reserved for activities such as fishing, camping, hiking, and boating, but other government lands also allow commercial activities like ranching, logging. The largest city in the region is Los Angeles, located on the West Coast, Other West Coast cities include San Diego, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Francisco, Oakland, Bakersfield, Sacramento, Seattle, Tacoma, and Portland. Prominent cities in the Mountain States include Denver, Colorado Springs, Phoenix, Tucson, Albuquerque, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Boise, El Paso, and Cheyenne. Along the Pacific Ocean coast lie the Coast Ranges, which and they collect a large part of the airborne moisture moving in from the oceanWestern United States – While the West is defined by many cultures, the American cowboy is occasionally seen as iconic of the region, here portrayed by C.M. Russell
39. Midwestern United States – It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, all of which are also part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Indianapolis, Columbus, Detroit, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Cleveland, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, railroads, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, Indiana, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation. The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are also known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave statesMidwestern United States – Typical terrain of the Driftless Area as viewed from Wildcat Mountain State Park in Vernon County, Wisconsin
40. Upper Midwest – The Upper Midwest, or the North, is a region in the northern portion of the U. S. Census Bureaus Midwestern United States. It is largely a sub-region of the midwest, although there are no uniformly agreed-upon boundaries, the region is most commonly used to refer to the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. By most definitions, it extends into North and South Dakota, and northern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, the National Weather Service defines its Upper Midwest as the states of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The USGS Mineral Resources Program considers the area to contain Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The Association for Institutional Research in the Upper Midwest includes the states of Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, the region has dramatic variations between summer and winter temperatures, summers are very hot and winters very cold. The growing season is shorter, cooler, and drier than areas farther south, the regions western boundary is sometimes considered to be determined by where the climate becomes too dry to support growing non-irrigated crops other than small grains or hay grass. North Central American English, an accent of American English, is spoken in Minnesota, parts of Wisconsin and Iowa, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, portions of Montana. Minnesota narrowly supported native Walter Mondale in 1984 in an election where Ronald Reagan won every other state, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin also often favor Democratic candidates. By contrast, the lower Midwest includes swing states such as Ohio, Iowa, missouri has voted reliably for the Republican presidential candidates in recent elections. The Plains States/The Dakotas to the west are heavily Republican and have voted Republican in every presidential contest since 1964, the economy of the region was largely based upon the mining of iron and copper, as well as a very large timber industry. Mechanization has sharply reduced employment in areas, and the economy is increasingly based on tourism. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large audience who live within driving rangeUpper Midwest – The Upper Midwest region of the United States
41. Mountain States – The Mountain States form one of the nine geographic divisions of the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. It is a subregion of the Western United States, the Mountain States are usually split up into two other regions known as the Northwest and Southwest. Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming are considered part of the Northwest, while Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, the division consists of eight states, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. These eight states have the highest mean elevations of all 50 U. S. states, the word Mountain refers to the Rocky Mountains, which run north-south through portions of the states of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico. Arizona and Nevada, as well as parts of Utah and New Mexico, have other smaller mountain ranges. Sometimes the Trans-Pecos area of West Texas is considered part of the region, Mountain Time is observed in nearly the entire division, except Nevada and the Idaho Panhandle. Daylight saving time is not observed in Arizona, except for lands within the Navajo Nation which observe daylight saving time due to the Nation traversing state lines. For this reason, most of Arizona is one hour behind the rest of the Mountain Time Zone from the second Sunday in March until the first Sunday in November. Phoenix is the largest metropolitan area of the Mountain States, followed by Denver, Las Vegas, the Mountain West is one of the largest and most diverse regions in the United States. Most regional boundaries of the Mountain West are often looked at as the area from the High Plains to the Sierra Nevada, the southern and northern portions of the Mountain West are often split into two separate regions. The southern portion is called the Southwest region, while the northern portion is often included in either the Northwest states or called the Northern Rockies. The land area of the eight states together is some 855,767 square miles, the terrain of the Mountain West is more diverse than any other region in the United States. Its physical geography ranges from some of the highest mountain peaks in the continental United States, to desert lands. The Mountain West states contain all of the major found in North America. The Great Basin Desert is located in almost all of Nevada, western Utah, Wyoming also has a vast amount of desert land in the southwestern portion of the state, which is known as the Red Desert. Portions of the Mojave Desert are located in California, but over half of the desert is located in southern Nevada, in the Mountain West. Meanwhile, the Sonoran Desert is located in much of Arizona, Colorado also has scattered desert lands in the southern and northwestern portions of the state including the expansive San Luis Valley. Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona have other smaller desert lands, the Painted Desert is located in northern and northeastern Arizona, and the San Rafael Desert is located in eastern UtahMountain States – The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in Wyoming
42. Basin and Range Province – The Basin and Range Province is a vast physiographic region that covers much of the inland Western United States and northwestern Mexico. It is defined by unique basin and range topography, characterized by changes in elevation. The physiography of the province is the result of tectonic extension that began around 17 Mya in Early Miocene time, the numerous ranges within the Province in the United States are collectively referred to as the Great Basin Ranges, although many are not actually in the Great Basin. Major ranges include the Snake Range, the Panamint Range, the White Mountains, the Sandia Mountains, pico de Orizaba is unambiguously part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt which has little in common with the Basin and Range Province. The highest point fully within the Province is White Mountain Peak in California, the Provinces climate is arid, with numerous ecoregions. Most North American deserts are located in the Province, the Basin and Range Province includes much of western North America. The Basin and Range Province extends north to the Columbia Plateau and south as far as the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in Mexico, though the boundaries of the Basin. In Mexico, the Basin and Range Province is dominated by, common geographic features include numerous endorheic basins, ephemeral lakes, plateaus, and valleys alternating with mountains. The area is arid and sparsely populated, although there are several major metropolitan areas, including Mexico City. It is generally accepted that basin and range topography is the result of extension and thinning of the lithosphere, extensional environments like the Basin and Range are characterized by listric normal faulting, or faults that level out with depth. Opposing normal faults link at depth producing a horst and graben geometry, the average crustal thickness of the Basin and Range Province is approximately 30 –35 km and is comparable to extended continental crust around the world. The crust in conjunction with the mantle comprises the lithosphere. The base of the lithosphere beneath the Basin and Range is estimated to be about 60 –70 km, opinions vary regarding the total extension of the region, however, the median estimate is about 100% total lateral extension. Evidence exists to suggest that extension began in the southern Basin and Range. The tectonic mechanisms responsible for extension in the Basin and Range province are controversial. Most of the pertinent tectonic plate movement associated with the Basin and Range Province occurred in Neogene time, by Early Miocene time, much of the Farallon Plate had been consumed, and the seafloor spreading ridge that separated the Farallon Plate from the Pacific Plate approached North America. The movement at this boundary divided the East Pacific Rise and spawned the San Andreas transform fault, today, the Pacific Plate moves north-westward relative to North America, a configuration which has given rise to increased shearing along the continental margin. The tectonic activity responsible for the extension in the Basin and Range is a complex, the most accepted hypothesis suggests that crustal shearing associated with the San Andreas Fault caused spontaneous extensional faulting similar to that seen in the Great BasinBasin and Range Province – NASA satellite photo of typical Basin and Range topography across central Nevada
43. Oregon Trail – The Oregon Trail is a 2, 170-mile historic east–west, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of the state of Kansas. The western half of the trail spanned most of the states of Idaho. The Oregon Trail was laid by fur traders and traders from about 1811 to 1840, by 1836, when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri, a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho. From the early to mid-1830s the Oregon Trail and its offshoots were used by about 400,000 settlers, farmers, miners, ranchers. The eastern half of the trail was used by travelers on the California Trail, Mormon Trail. Use of the trail declined as the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, making the trip west substantially faster, cheaper, and safer. Today, modern highways, such as Interstate 80 and Interstate 84, follow parts of the same course westward and pass through towns originally established to serve those using the Oregon Trail. Although Lewis and William Clark found a path to the Pacific Ocean, it was not until 1859 that a direct and practicable route, the first land route across what is now the United States was mapped by the Lewis and Clark Expedition between 1804 and 1806. On the return trip in 1806 they traveled from the Columbia River to the Snake River and they then traveled overland up the Blackfoot River and crossed the Continental Divide at Lewis and Clark Pass and on to the head of the Missouri River. This was ultimately a shorter and faster route than the one they followed west and this route had the disadvantages of being much too rough for wagons and controlled by the Blackfoot Indians. They did show the way for the men, who within a decade would find a better way across. Founded by John Jacob Astor as a subsidiary of his American Fur Company in 1810, two movements of PFC employees were planned by Astor, one detachment to be sent to the Columbia River by the Tonquin and the other overland under an expedition led by Wilson Price Hunt. Hunt and his party were to find possible routes and trapping territories for further fur trading posts. Upon arriving at the river in March 1811, the Tonquin crew began construction of what became Fort Astoria, the ship left supplies and men to continue work on the station and ventured north up the coast to Clayoquot Sound for a trading expedition. While anchored there, Jonathan Thorn insulted an elder Tla-o-qui-aht who was elected by the natives to negotiate a mutually satisfactory price for animal pelts. Soon after the vessel was attacked and overwhelmed by the indigenous before being blown up, killing all the crew, from there they went over the Teton Range via Teton Pass and then down to the Snake River into modern Idaho. They abandoned their horses at the Snake River, made dugout canoes, after a few days travel they soon discovered that steep canyons, waterfalls and impassable rapids made travel by river impossibleOregon Trail – The route of the Oregon Trail shown on a map of the western United States from Independence, Missouri (on the. eastern end) to Oregon City, Oregon (on the western end)
44. Mormon Corridor – In academic literature, the area is also commonly called the Mormon culture region. It has also referred to as the Book of Mormon belt as a cultural reference to the Bible Belt of the southeastern United States. Beginning in Utah, the corridor extends northward through western Wyoming and it reaches south to San Bernardino, California on the west and through Mesa, Arizona on the east, extending southward to the U. S. -Mexico border. Settlements in Utah, south of the Wasatch Front, stretched from St. George in the southwest to Nephi in the northeast, the corridor is roughly congruent with the area between present-day Interstate 15 and U. S. Route 89. Outside of the Wasatch Front, and Utahs Cache Valley, most of the population of the state resides in this corridor, outside of the Western United States, isolated Mormon settlements were also founded in Western Canada and Mexico. The communities also served as waystations for migration and trade centered on Salt Lake City during the mid- to late 19th century, communities in the generally fertile but relatively dry valleys of the Great Basin, Southeastern Idaho, Nevada and Arizona were dependent on water supplies. Irrigation systems, including wells, dams, canals, headgates, road access to timber in the mountains and pasturage for stock were important, as were carefully tended crops, gardens and orchards. Brigham Young, President of the LDS Church, personally supervised the founding of many outlying communities, exploring parties were sent out to find settlement sites, and to identify sources of appropriate minerals, timber, and water. ”These colonies had four distinct purposes. At times, Young or his agents met incoming wagon trains of Mormon pioneers, after a relatively brief rest in the growing communities of the Salt Lake Valley, the groups would restock needed supplies and materials, gather livestock, and travel on. In addition, new colonizers could be called from the pulpit, Young read the names of men and their families who were called to move to outlying regions. These missions for church members often lasted for years, as the families were to remain in their area until released from the calling or given a new assignment. Colonizers traveled at their own expense and success depended on supplies and personal resourcefulness, as well as uncontrolled variables such as water supplies. The First Transcontinental Railroad was especially significant in reinforcing or altering settlement patterns, after Youngs death in 1877, successive leaders of the LDS Church continued to establish new settlements in outlying areas of the west. The Salt River Valley in western Wyoming, now known as Star Valley, was designated for settlement in August 1878, while Bunkerville and Mesquite, communities were also established in eastern and southeastern Utah and western Colorado, primarily populated by LDS converts from the southern United States. Historians James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard estimate that at least 120 new LDS based settlements were founded between 1876 and 1879, mounting legislation and prosecution of polygamists within the United States LDS population led to additional expansion. By the end of 1885, however, the Mormon colonists had been denied the opportunity to land within Chihuahua. While the colonists remained on rented land, negotiations between members of the LDS Quorum of Twelve Apostles and Mexican President Porfirio Díaz were successful, for his help towards the LDS settlers, the first Mormon colony in Mexico was named Colonia Díaz. This settlement was followed by two additional communities, In March 1886 Colonia Juarez and Colonia Dublán, with other smaller settlements emerging in future yearsMormon Corridor – The Mormon corridor, highlighted in red
45. Southwestern United States – The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave, yucca and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest, driest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest regionSouthwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
46. Llano Estacado – Llano Estacado commonly known as the Staked Plain, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. The Llano Estacado lies at the end of the Western High Plains ecoregion of the Great Plains of North America. The Canadian River forms the Llanos northern boundary, separating it from the rest of the High Plains, the Llano has no natural southern boundary, instead blending into the Edwards Plateau near Big Spring, Texas. This geographic area stretches about 250 miles north to south, and 150 miles east to west and it covers all or part of 33 Texas counties and four New Mexico counties. The landscape is dotted by numerous small lakes, depressions that seasonally fill with water. The Llano Estacado has a semiarid climate, characterized by long, hot summers. Rainfall is very low, the region receives fewer than 23 in of rainfall annually. High summer temperatures mean most of the amount of precipitation is lost to evaporation. The Texas State Historical Society states it covers all or part of 33 Texas counties, six fewer than as depicted by a US Geological Survey map, interstate 40 crosses the northern portion from east of Amarillo to Tucumcari, New Mexico. There was not a stone, nor bit of rising ground, nor a tree, nor a shrub, in the early 18th century, the Comanches expanded their territory into the Llano Estacado, displacing the Apaches who had previously lived there. The region became part of the Comancheria, a Comanche stronghold until the defeat of the tribe in the late 19th century. Rachel Plummer, while a captive of the Comanche in 1836, after his 1852 expedition to explore the headwaters of the Red and Colorado Rivers, General Randolph Marcy wrote, a tree, shrub, or any other herbage to intercept the vision. The almost total absence of water causes all animals to shun it, in his report for the United States Army, When we were upon the high table-land, a view presented itself as boundless as the ocean. Not a tree, shrub, or any object, either animate or inanimate, relieved the dreary monotony of the prospect. The great Sahara of North America and it is a region almost as vast and trackless as the ocean—a land where no man, either savage or civilized permanently abides. A treeless, desolate waste of uninhabitable solitude, which always has been, during the 1854 Marcy-Neighbors expedition, Dr. George Getz Shumard noted, Beyond the mountain appeared a line of high bluffs which in the distance looked like clouds floating upon the horizon. Herman Lehmann was captured by the Apache in 1870 and described the Llano Estacado as the country was open, but not exactly a desert. Robert G. Carter described it in 1871 while pursuing Quanah Parker with Ranald S. Mackenzie. all were over and out of the canyon upon what appeared to be a vast, almost illimitable expanse of prairieLlano Estacado – Northwest escarpment of the Llano Estacado
47. Frontier Strip – The Frontier Strip are the six states in the United States forming a north-south line from North Dakota to Texas. In the American Old West, westward from this strip was the frontier of the United States toward the latter part of the 19th century. The Frontier Strip states, or the Last American Frontier, form a straight line from north to south. Census Bureau that proclaimed where the civilization of the Eastern United States ended, in the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc. it can not, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports. The Frontier Strips land area is 1,642,083.585 km² and its population as of the 2000 census was 30,099,199 or 10. 695% of U. S. population. Its average population density was 18. 33/km², compared to the U. S. average of 30. 72/km². Its population is heavily tilted towards the south, with population and population density increasing as one goes state by state from North Dakota in the north towards Texas in the south. Texas by itself has 69. 28% of the regions population, the modern states included in the frontier strip are, The Frontier Strip has been one of the most reliably Republican regions of the United States. It was one of the few parts of the country where Republicans had any success during the heavily Democratic years of the Great Depression. The exception to this rule however could be found in Texas and Oklahoma. The last Democratic presidential candidate to win one of six states was Jimmy Carter. Texas and Oklahoma are often regarded as part of the South or Southwest, none are part of the West today as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau. The climate of the Frontier Strip states varies considerably, both north to south and east to west, in the northern parts, a humid-continental climate prevail, while a humid-subtropical is the general rule in southern sections. In the far areas of all of these states, semi-arid conditions exist. This is characterized by low amounts of rainfall, although the average monthly temperatures will vary considerably from north to south. Perhaps the most notable feature of the Frontier Strip states is its reputation for violent weather. Many of these make up a large portion of what it often referred to as Tornado Alley. The combinations of warm air from the southeast and proximity to the cold fronts coming in from Canada or the far western United StatesFrontier Strip – Piegan -Blackfoot tipis
48. Tallgrass prairie – The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem native to central North America. They were characteristically found in the central forest-grasslands transition, the tall grasslands, the upper Midwest forest-savanna transition. They flourished in areas with loess soils and moderate rainfall around 30 to 35 inches per year. To the east were the eastern savannas. In the northeast, where fire was infrequent and periodic windthrow represented the source of disturbance. In contrast, shortgrass prairie was typical in the western Great Plains, due to expansive agricultural land use, very little tallgrass prairie remains. Retreating glaciers deposited the parent material for soil in the form of till, i. e. unsorted sediment, wind-dropped loess and organic matter accumulated, resulting in deep levels of topsoil. Animals such as bison, elk, deer, and rabbits added nitrogen to the soil through urine, Prairie dogs, a ground squirrel-like rodent considered to be a keystone species, dug tunnels that aerated the soil and channeled water several feet below the surface. For 5,000 to 8,000 years, more than 240 million acres of prairie grasslands were a feature of the landscape. Between 1800 and 1930, the vast majority was destroyed, settlers transformed what they named the Great American Desert or The Inland Sea into farmland. Further, extensive tile drainage has changed the water content and hydrodynamics. Tallgrass prairie is capable of supporting significant biodiversity, parts of the ecoregion among the top ten ecoregions for reptiles, birds, butterflies, and tree species. Tallgrass species are found in the understory layer, oak and hickory tree species occur in some areas, but generally in moderate densities. The tallgrass prairie biome depends on fires, a form of wildfire. Tree seedlings and intrusive alien species without fire tolerance are eliminated by periodic fires, such fires may either be set by humans or started naturally by lightning. Technically, prairies have less than 5–11% tree cover, a grass-dominated plant community with 10–49% tree cover is a savanna. After the steel plow was invented by John Deere, this fertile soil became one of Americas most important resources, over 95% of the original tallgrass prairie is now farmland. In Oklahoma, the tallgrass prairie has been maintained by ranchers and they have reintroduced plains bison to the vast expanses of grassTallgrass prairie – Tallgrass Prairie, Midewin