Template:Segregation by type
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Segregation in countries by type
1. Religious segregation – Religious segregation is the separation of people according to their religion. The term has been applied to cases of religious-based segregation occurring as a phenomenon, as well as to segregation arising from laws. The similar term religious apartheid has also used for situations where people are separated based on religion. In 2012 Foreign Policy reported that The number of walls, physical barriers separating Catholic. Most people in the region cannot envisage the barriers being removed and this figure has remained stubbornly low despite the cessation of violence. Jonathan Steele of The Guardian has argued that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a dependent, stifled, in his view, the U. N. Shia Islam has been the state religion of Iran since the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The U. S. State Department has claimed that religious minorities have been subject to harassment, other religious minorities like the Baháí are not recognized by the government and thus do not have any legal protections nor the constitutional right to practice their religion. The Muslim Network for Baháí Rights has reported cases of Baháí students being expelled from university due to their religion, according to the Times Higher Education, Baháí educators are required to renounce their faith in order to teach in Iranian universities. Pakistan is officially an Islamic country and defines who and who is not a Muslim, under these conditions, Ahmadi Muslims are declared non-Muslim by law of the land and cannot practice their faith freely. They are not permitted to call their mosques as mosques, or meet with people with the Islamic greeting of Peace, Ahmadi Muslims are excluded from government and any other high-profile positions within Pakistan. There have been cases when the Ahmadi Muslims have been expelled from schools, colleges and Universities, once the entire population of Rabwah, the Pakistani headquarters of Ahmadi Muslims was charged under Anti-Ahmadiyya laws. Prior to March 1,2004, the official Saudi government website stated that Jews were forbidden from entering the country, however, in the City of Mecca, only Muslims are allowed. Non-Muslims may not enter or travel through Mecca, attempting to enter Mecca as a non-Muslim can result in such as a fine. In the City of Medina, both Muslims and Non-Muslims are allowed in, the exception are non-Muslims entering the Nabawi Square, where the Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi is located. On the banks of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu, Nepal is a Pashupatinath Temple dedicated to Pashupatinath and this temple complex which is on the UNESCO World Heritage Sitess list since 1979 was erected anew in the 15th century by King kirat Yalamber. Entry into the courtyard is strictly monitored by the temple security. Practicing Hindus and Buddhists of Indian and Tibetan descendant are only allowed into temple courtyard, practicing Hindus of western descent are not allowed into the temple complex along with other non Hindu visitors. Others can look at the temple from adjacent side of the riverReligious segregation – Road sign on a highway into Mecca, stating that one direction is "Muslims only" while another direction is "obligatory for non-Muslims". Religious police are stationed beyond the turnoff on the main road to prevent non-Muslims from proceeding into Mecca.
2. Partition of India – The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, the two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947. The violent nature of the created an atmosphere of hostility. The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa, other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and The Maldives were unaffected by the partition. The Hindu elite of Bengal, among many who owned land in East Bengal that was leased out to Muslim peasants. The pervasive protests against Curzons decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters also took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians. The violence, however, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed, the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcuttas English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. Since Calcutta was the capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known. In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, in December 1906, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca, although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu political and social groups. In 1905, when Tilak and Lajpat Rai attempted to rise to positions in the Congress. It was not lost on many Muslims, for example, that the rallying cry, World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Indias international profile would thereby rise and would continue to rise during the 1920s, back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, it would lead to calls for greater self-government for Indians. Secretary of State for India, Montagu and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford presented a report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India the previous winterPartition of India – The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.
3. Israel and the apartheid analogy – Some commentators extend the analogy to include treatment of Arab citizens of Israel, describing their citizenship status as second-class. Opponents of the claim that the comparison is factually, morally. Opponents state that the West Bank and Gaza are not part of sovereign Israel and they took Israel away from the Arabs after the Arabs lived there for a thousand years. In that, I agree with them, Israel, like South Africa, is an apartheid state. Since then, a number of sources have used the analogy in their examination of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1967, after the Six-Day War, David Ben-Gurion stated that unless Israel managed to rid itself of the territories and their Arab population as soon as possible, it would become an apartheid state. In the early 1970s, Arabic language magazines of the PLO, in 1979 the Palestinian sociologist Elia Zureik argued that while not de jure an apartheid state, Israeli society was characterized by a latent form of apartheid. The analogy has gained traction following Israels construction of the West Bank Barrier. By 2013 the analogy between the West Bank and Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa was widely drawn in international circles, also in the United States, where the notion had previously been taboo, Israels rule over the occupied territories was increasingly compared to apartheid. Hafrada is the description of the policy of the government of Israel to separate the Palestinian population in Palestinian territories from the Israeli population. The word has been compared to the term Apartheid by scholars and commentators, aaron Klieman has distinguished between partition plans based on hafrada, which he translated as detachment, and hipardut, translated as disengagement. Since its first public introductions, the concept-turned-policy or paradigm has dominated Israeli political and cultural discourse and debate. In 2014, United Nations Special Rapporteur Richard A. Falk used the term in his Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967. Israel is perceived as a Western democracy and is likely to be judged by the standards of such a state. Western commentators, too, may feel an affinity to a like minded polity than to an autocratic Third World state. In contrast, the similar Israeli dispossession of Palestinians is perceived as self-defense, in their self-concept, Zionists are simply returning to their ancestral homeland from which they were dispersed two millennia ago. Originally most did not intend to exploit native labor and resources, Adam and Moodley stress, because people give meaning to their lives and interpret their worlds through these diverse ideological prisms, the perceptions are real and have to be taken seriously. Adam and Moodley contend that the relationship of South African apartheid to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has been misinterpreted as justifying suicide bombing and glorifying martyrdom, the second question, regarding apartheid, was the major focus of the studyIsrael and the apartheid analogy – Huwwara Checkpoint, one of many Israeli checkpoints and closures (dismantled 2011) that restricted the movement of Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and have been compared to the apartheid pass laws.
4. Segregation in Northern Ireland – Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of Northern Ireland. The segregation involves Northern Irelands two main voting blocs – Irish nationalist/republicans and unionist/loyalist and it is often seen as both a cause and effect of the Troubles. A combination of political, religious and social differences plus the threat of intercommunal tensions, Catholics and Protestants lead largely separate lives in a situation that some have dubbed self-imposed apartheid. The academic John H. Whyte argued that the two factors which do most to divide Protestants as a whole from Catholics as a whole are endogamy, education in Northern Ireland is heavily segregated. Most state schools in Northern Ireland are predominantly Protestant, while the majority of Catholic children attend schools maintained by the Catholic Church, in all,90 per cent of children in Northern Ireland still go to separate faith schools. The consequence is, as one commentator has put it, that the majority of Ulsters children can go from four to 18 without having a serious conversation with a member of a rival creed. The prevalence of segregated education has been cited as a factor in maintaining endogamy. The integrated education movement has sought to reverse this trend by establishing non-denominational schools such as the Portadown Integrated Primary, such schools are, however, still the exception to the general trend of segregated education. Integrated schools in Northern Ireland have been established through the efforts of parents. The churches have not been involved in the development of integrated education, emigration to seek employment was therefore significantly more prevalent among the Catholic population. As a result, Northern Irelands demography shifted further in favour of Protestants leaving their ascendancy seemingly impregnable by the late 1950s, however, large organisations were much less likely to be segregated, and the level of segregation has decreased over the years. Public housing is overwhelmingly segregated between the two communities, the extent of self-segregation grew very rapidly with the outbreak of the Troubles. In Belfast, the 1970s were a time of rising residential segregation and it was estimated in 2004 that 92. 5% of public housing in Northern Ireland was divided along religious lines, with the figure rising to 98% in Belfast. Self-segregation is a process, despite the Northern Ireland peace process. It was estimated in 2005 that more than 1,400 people a year were being forced to move as a consequence of intimidation, in response to intercommunal violence, the British Army constructed a number of high walls called peace lines to separate rival neighbourhoods. These have multiplied over the years and now number forty separate barriers, in 2008 a process was proposed for the removal of the peace walls. The effective segregation of the two communities significantly affects the usage of services in interface areas where sectarian neighbourhoods adjoin. 60% refused to shop in areas dominated by the other community and this figure remained largely constant throughout the TroublesSegregation in Northern Ireland – An 18 feet (5.5 m) high " peace line " along Springmartin Road in Belfast, with a fortified police station at one end
5. Population exchange between Greece and Turkey – It involved approximately 2 million people, most of whom were forcibly made refugees and de jure denaturalized from their homelands. By the end of 1922, the vast majority of native Asia Minor Greeks had fled the recent Greek genocide, according to some calculations, during the autumn of 1922, around 900,000 Greeks had arrived in Greece. According to Fridtjof Nansen in 1922 before the stage, of the 900,000 Greek refugees 300,000 were from Eastern Thrace or 33%. The Greek-Turkish population exchange was a result of the Turkish War of Independence, two weeks after the treaty, the Allied Powers turned over Istanbul to the Nationalists, marking the final departure of occupation armies from Anatolia. The state of Turkey was headed by Mustafa Kemals Peoples Party, the Greco-Turkish War left many of the settlements plundered and in ruins. After the Balkan Wars, Greece had almost doubled its territory, with this newly annexed population, the proportion of non-Greek minority groups in Greece rose to 13%, and following the end of the First World War, it had increased to 20%. Most of the populations in these annexed territories were Muslim. This is particularly true in the case of ethnic Albanians who inhabited the region of Albania. During the deliberations held at Lausanne, the question of exactly who was Greek, Greek and Albanian representatives determined that the Albanians in Greece, who mostly lived in the northwestern part of the state, were not all mixed, and were distinguishable from the Turks. The government in Ankara still expected a thousand Turkish-speakers from the Çamëria to arrive in Anatolia for settlement in Erdek, Ayvalık, Menteşe, Antalya, Senkile, Mersin, and Adana. Ultimately, the Greek authorities decided to deport thousands of Muslims from Thesprotia, Larissa, Langadas, Drama, Vodina, Serres, Edessa, Florina, Kilkis, Kavala, between 1923 and 1930, the infusion of these refugees into Turkey would dramatically alter Anatolian society. By 1927, Turkish officials had settled 32,315 individuals from Greece in the province of Bursa alone, according to some sources, the population exchange, albeit messy and dangerous for many, was executed fairly quickly by respected supervisors. If the goal of the exchange was to achieve ethnic-national homogeneity, for example, in 1906, nearly 20 percent of the population of present-day Turkey was non-Muslim, but by 1927, only 2.6 percent was. The architect of the exchange was Fridtjof Nansen, commissioned by the League of Nations, as the first official high commissioner for refugees, Nansen proposed and supervised the exchange, taking into account the interests of Greece, Turkey, and West European powers. He was chosen to be in charge of the resolution of the Greek-Turkish war of 1919–22. Although a compulsory exchange on this scale had never been attempted in modern history, Balkan precedents, the population exchange was seen as the best form of minority protection as well as the most radical and humane remedy of all. Nansen believed that what was on the table at Lausanne was not ethno-nationalism, but rather. Nansen recognized that the difficulties were truly immense, acknowledging that the population-exchange would require the displacement of populations of more than 1,000,000 peoplePopulation exchange between Greece and Turkey – The impact of the population exchange on the demography of Greece
6. Partition of Bengal (1947) – The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan. Predominantly Hindu West Bengal became a province of India, and predominantly Muslim East Bengal became a province of Pakistan, liberal Muslim leaders had earlier proposed an independent United Bengal, but met opposition from various parties, particularly Muslim and Hindu conservatives. The partition, with the transferred to Pakistan and India on 14–15 August 1947, was done according to what has come to be known as the 3 June Plan or Mountbatten Plan. India’s independence on 15 August 1947 ended over 150 years of British influence in the Indian subcontinent, in 1905, the first partition in Bengal was implemented as an administrative preference, making governing the two provinces, West and East Bengal, easier. While the Muslims were in favour of the partition, as they would have their own province and this controversy led to increased violence and protest and finally, in 1911, the two provinces were once again united. This was followed by the meeting of the members of the non-Muslim-majority areas of Bengal who by a division of 58–21 voted for partition of the province. This set the stage for the creation of West Bengal as a province of the Union of India, also in accordance with the Mountbatten Plan, in a referendum held on 7 July, the electorate of Sylhet voted to join East Bengal. Further, the Boundary Commission headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe decided on the demarcation between the two newly created provinces. Power was transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 and 15 August, respectively, most important of all, Calcutta, then the largest city in India, an industrial and commercial hub and the largest port, would also go to the western part. Suhrawardy floated his idea on 24 April 1947 at a conference in Delhi. However, the plan directly ran counter to that of the Muslim Leagues, initially, Bengal provincial Muslim League leadership opinion was divided. Barddhamans League leader Abul Hashim supported it, on the other hand, Nurul Amin and Mohammad Akram Khan initially opposed it. But Muhammad Ali Jinnah realised the validity of Suhrawardys argument and gave his support to the plan. After Jinnahs approval, Suhrawardy started gathering support for his plan, on the Congress side, only a handful of leaders agreed to the plan. Among them was the influential Bengal provincial congress leader Sarat Chandra Bose, however most other BPCC leaders and Congress leadership including Nehru and Patel rejected the plan. The Hindu nationalist party Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Shyama Prasad Mukherjee vehemently opposed it. They also opined that though the plan asked for a sovereign Bengal state, in practice it will be a virtual Pakistan. Like Suhrawardy, Bose also felt that the partition would severely hamper Bengals economy, the agreement was published on 24 May 1947Partition of Bengal (1947) – Map showing the location of East and West Bengal
7. Racial segregation – Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. As a result, the act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental, in the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws. Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races. Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been racial segregation, only areas with extensive miscegenation, or mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification, seem to be exempt. Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory which has described as quasi-apartheid. Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that, n contrast with the Moroccan and Tunisian protectorates and this internal system of apartheid met with considerable resistance from the Muslims affected by it, and is cited as one of the causes of the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war. In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i. e. Slavic, according to Wilhelm Raabe, down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend. The ban on marriage was a part of the Nuremberg Laws. At first the laws were aimed primarily at Jews but were extended to Gypsies, Negroes. Aryans found guilty could face incarceration in a camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty. To preserve the purity of the German blood, after the war began. In an effort to split Polish identity they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals, based on these groups alleged Germanic component. During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, Jewish doctors were not allowed to treat Aryan patients nor were Jewish professors permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, after Kristallnacht, the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as undesirable racial groups in the Holocaust, the Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people, the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000. Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour, although Nazi Germany also used forced laborers from Western Europe, Poles, along with other Eastern Europeans viewed as racially inferior, were subject to deeper discriminatory measuresRacial segregation – Nur für Deutsche ("Only for Germans") on the tram number 8 in German-occupied Kraków, Poland.
8. White Australia policy – The term White Australian policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from immigrating to Australia. There was never any specific policy titled such, but the term was invented later to describe a collection of policies that were designed to exclude people from Asia, the policy was progressively dismantled between 1949 and 1973. From the 1850s, there were restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners already in Australia, the colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Towards the end of the century, there was also a push by the labour unions to stop work done by Chinese immigrants in the furniture. Australian furniture had to be labelled Made with Chinese Labour, soon after Australia became a federation, it passed the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The passage of bill is considered the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of the Second World War and these policies effectively allowed for British migrants to be preferred over all others through the first four decades of the 20th century. In 1975, the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act, in the decades since, Australia has maintained largescale multi-ethnic immigration. The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 led to an influx of immigrants from all around the world, over the next 20 years,40,000 Chinese men and over 9,000 women immigrated to the goldfields seeking prosperity. Gold brought great wealth but also new social tensions, multiethnic migrants came to New South Wales in large numbers for the first time. Governor Hotham, on 16 November 1854, appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian goldfields problems and this led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from 1855 with New South Wales following suit in 1861. During this time, thousands of Kanakas were brought into Australia as indentured workers, in the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour. Their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from men, worked for substandard wages, lowered working conditions. Objections to these arguments came largely from wealthy land owners in rural areas and it was argued that without Asiatics to work in the tropical areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland, the area would have to be abandoned. Despite these objections to restricting immigration, between 1875 and 1888 all Australian colonies enacted legislation which excluded all further Chinese immigration, Asian immigrants already residing in the Australian colonies were not expelled and retained the same rights as their Anglo and Southern compatriots. Agreements were made to increase these restrictions in 1895 following an Inter-colonial Premiers Conference where all colonies agreed to extend entry restrictions to all non-white races. However, in attempting to enact legislation, the Governors of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania reserved the bills, due to a treaty with Japan. Instead, the Natal Act of 1897 was introduced, restricting undesirable persons rather than any specific race, the British government in London was not pleased with legislation that discriminated against certain subjects of its Empire, but decided not to disallow the laws that were passedWhite Australia policy – This badge from 1910 was produced by the Australian Natives' Association, comprising Australian-born whites. Prime Minister Alfred Deakin was a member. It shows the use of the slogan "White Australia" at that time.
9. Social apartheid in Brazil – This idea contradicts the notion of racial democracy. Internal migrants, who were descended from Amerindians or African slaves, were given no government assistance or training in adapting to large urban centers. They became concentrated in a kind of social apartheid, living in slums and taking menial, income disparity is a major source of social inequality in Brazil. The World Bank estimates that the top 20% of the richest Brazilians have roughly 33 times the share of the poorest 20%. The causes of Brazils income disparity are linked to inequitable distribution of resources, disadvantages in education. According to the World Bank, this accounts for around 39% of income inequality, the World Bank estimates that this accounts for about 29% of total inequality. Finally, there is a considerable and increasing wage gap between jobs requiring higher and lower skill levels, the world bank attributes 32% of inequality to the wage gap. Black Brazilians have levels of educational attainment that is two thirds the level of whites, which limits their access to paying jobs. Women earn 29% less than men, despite women having an average of one year more education, according to São Paulo Congressman Aloizio Mercadante, a member of Brazils leftist Workers Party, Just as South Africa had racial apartheid, Brazil has social apartheid. Journalist Kevin G. Hall wrote in 2002 that Afro-Brazilians trail White Brazilians in almost all social indicators, including income and those living in cities are far more likely to be abused or killed by police, or incarcerated than are members of other groups. Brazils social situation has negative effects on educational opportunities for the disadvantaged, civil rights activist Carlos Verrisimo writes that Brazil is a racist state, and that the inequities of race and class are often inter-related. Despite Brazils retreat from military rule and return to democracy in 1988, Social apartheid is tied to the exclusion of poor youth from Brazilian society. According to Hecht, the persistent presence of these children embod the failure of a social apartheid to keep the poor out of view. In a recent survey of 1,500 of the most influential members of Brazils political and economic elite, close to 90 percent believed that Brazil had achieved economic success, close to half viewed the enormous inequities as a form of social apartheid. He writes that instead of a spectrum of inequality, there is now a break between the included and the excluded, in place of inequality, a separation, a social apartheid, has arisen. According to research, the possibility of being black homicide victims murdered by blacks in Brazil is even greater in groups with similar educational, the chance of a black teenager being murdered by other blacks is 3.7 times higher compared with whites. The survey also shows that blacks are more criminal and thus have more contact with police, the National Victimization Survey shows that in 2009,6. 5% of blacks who had suffered an aggression as aggressors police or private security guards, compared with 3. 7% of whites. While the homicide rate for blacks is 36.5 per 100000 inhabitants, in the case of whites, the ratio is 15.5 per 100000 inhabitantsSocial apartheid in Brazil – 19th-century picture of a white woman being carried by slaves in her litter
10. Social situation in the French suburbs – The word banlieue, which is French for suburb, does not necessarily refer to an environment of social disenfranchisement. Indeed, there exist many wealthy suburbs, such as Neuilly-sur-Seine, the destruction of World War II, coupled with an increase in the countrys population left France with a severe housing shortage. During the 1950s, shantytowns developed on the outskirts of major cities, during the winter of 1954, popular priest Abbé Pierre urged the government to work on behalf of the countrys large homeless population. To relieve the shortage, and end the practice of illegal squatting in public places and these included the villes nouvelles of Sarcelles, Cergy-Pontoise, Marne-la-Vallée and Sénart. These were financed in part by the Marshall Plan, and organized through central planning, fixing industrial objectives to meet, the villes nouvelles owe much to Le Corbusiers architectural theories, which had been decried before the war. In 1962, upon the conclusion of the Algerian War 900,000 pieds-noirs were repatriated to France, the latter were put in internment camps, while the pieds-noirs settled mainly in the south of France. For example, the city of Montpellier experienced population growth of 94% between 1954 and 1975, Harkis were not officially given permission to migrate, but some French military officers helped facilitate their migration to France in order to save them from certain reprisals in Algeria. After being freed from the internment camps, many went on to live alongside other Algerian. In 1963, 43% of French Algerians lived in shantytowns, the vast new apartment blocks, or flats, were at first chiefly inhabited by members of the middle class. As the housing situation improved, most middle-class residents moved to better houses, the blocks are termed HLM — habitation à loyer modéré, and districts of blocks are termed cités. You can see some Parisian housing estates here and this model became increasingly contested, in the 1990s there were a number of demolitions of housing facilities in inhumane areas. Some towns refused to build buildings, leaving the poor further concentrated in certain towns which placed no or few restrictions on the construction of social housing. Most were forced to live in the northern suburbs, in The Global City, Saskia Sassen has analyzed the relationship between a new economic model and the shape of modern cities. The public services offered did not follow the tremendous increase of the population in these areas and this phenomenon has been termed ghettoisation. The 13 December 2000 SRU law, required that communes devote at least 20% of their capacity to social housing. Many locally elected officials opposed the law, which sought to relieve residential segregation that had developed as a consequence of the earlier, uneven construction of the cités. In the wealthy Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, of which President Nicolas Sarkozy served as mayor from 1983–2002, the children of immigrants often feel torn between the culture of their parents and the culture they have grown up in. Many may feel themselves fully belonging to neither one, a typical illustration of this is the use by some members of the French media of the words second-generation immigrantsSocial situation in the French suburbs – The Grand Mail de la Paillade in the Mosson Quarter of Montpellier was built in the early 1960s. View from the summit of Tour d'Assas.
11. Bumiputera (Malaysia) – Bumiputera or Bumiputra is a Malaysian term to describe the Malay race and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, and used particularly in Malaysia. The term comes from the Sanskrit word bhumiputra, which can be translated literally as son of the land or son of the soil and these policies have succeeded in creating a significant urban Malay and Native Bornean middle class as well. They have been effective in eradicating poverty among rural communities. Some analysts have noted a backlash of resentment from excluded groups, in particular the sizeable Chinese, the concept of a bumiputra ethnic group in Malaysia was coined by Tun Abdul Razak. It recognised the position of the Malays provided in the Federal Constitution of Malaysia. But, the constitution does not use the term bumiputra, it defines only Malay and indigenous peoples, natives of Sarawak, definitions of bumiputra in public use vary among different institutions, organisations, and government departments and agencies. Most of these communities that were established in southeast Asia prior to the arrival of the British colonialists who forever altered the demographics of Malaysia. Others favour a definition encompassing all children of Bumiputra, there have been cases of people with one Bumiputra parent. At the time of Malayas independence from the British in 1957, thuraisingham later said, I and others believed that the backward Malays should be given a better deal. Malays should be assisted to attain parity with non-Malays to forge a united Malayan Nation of equals, the massive demographic change happened to all British colonised countries of which these countries become multi religion and multiracial while Britain itself remain homogenous. British workers on the hand not only were encouraged to migrate to the colonised countries. Thus affirmative action was implemented in British colonised countries using models of affirmative actions for the natives in Canada, USA, New Zealand, the term of the Bumiputras special position has been disputed. The Reid Commission, which drafted the Constitution, initially proposed that Article 153 expire after 15 years unless renewed by Parliament and this qualification was struck from the final draft. After the 13 May Incident in 1969, representatives within the government argued over whether the position of the bumiputras ought to have a sunset clause. Ismail Abdul Rahman argued that the question be left to the Malays themselves because, as more and more Malays became educated and gained self-confidence, they themselves would do away with this special position. Ismail believed the position was a slur on the ability of the Malays. In 1970, however, one member of the Cabinet said that Malay special rights would remain for hundreds of years to come. In the 1970s, the government implemented the New Economic Policy, Article 153 provides specifically for the use of quotas in the granting of scholarships, positions in the civil service, and business licences, as well as native reservations of landBumiputera (Malaysia) – A diagram of the special position of Bumiputras under the Malaysian Constitution
12. Ghetto benches – Ghetto benches or bench Ghetto was a form of official segregation in the seating of students, introduced in Polands universities beginning in 1935 at Lwow Polytechnic. By 1937, when this practice became conditionally legalized, most rectors at other education institutions had adopted this form of segregation. Under the ghetto ławkowe system, Jewish university students were forced, under threat of expulsion and it antagonized not only Jews, but also many Poles. Jewish students protested these policies, along with some Poles who supported them by standing instead of sitting, the segregation continued until the invasion of Poland in World War II and Polands occupation by Nazi Germany suppressed the entire Polish educational system. In the half of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, all discrimination against Jews was lifted, the percentage of Polands Jewish population increased greatly during the Russian Civil War. Several hundred thousand joined the already numerous Polish Jewish minority living predominantly in urban environments, in the early 1920s, Jews constituted over one-third of all students attending Polish universities. At the same time, Polish universities had become the stronghold of the nationalist, proposals to reinstitute the numerus clausus, which would restrict Jewish enrollment to 10% of the student body were made as early as 1923. However, as this would have violated the Little Treaty of Versailles, in spite of these earlier objections, Poland later renounced the Treaty in 1934. Polish nationalism and hostility towards minorities, particularly Jews, increased, issues that had earlier been resolved by the Russian Empire were now decided locally, uniting the Poles while dividing the nation as a whole. Various means of limiting the number of Jewish students were adopted, seeking to reduce the Jewish role in Polands economic and social life. The situation of Jews improved under Józef Piłsudski, but after his death in 1935 the National Democrats regained much of their power and the status of Jewish students deteriorated. A student Green Ribbon League was organized in 1931, its members distributed anti-semitic material and called for the boycott of Jewish businesses, agitation against Jewish students intensified during the economic recession of the 1930s and afterwards, as unemployment began to affect the Polish intellectual strata. There were growing demands to decrease the number of Jews in science, in November 1931, violence accompanied demands to reduce the number of Jewish students at several Polish universities. The majority of Jewish students refused to accept this system of seating, considering it to be a violation of their civil rights, at some universities Polish students even attempted to forcibly move Jews to the ghetto benches. Following Piłsudskis death in 1935, anti-Jewish riots broke out at the University of Warsaw, the violence spread from the campuses to the streets of Warsaw. Subsequently violence broke out at other universities in Poland as well, the student riots and violence were however mutual. Especially Jewish students from Academic Zionist Association Kadimah were involved in violence against Polish students, an uninterrupted wave of anti-Jewish violence eventually led to the temporary closure of all of Warsaws institutions of higher education in November 1935. The National Democracy press put the blame for the riots on Jews refusing to comply with special seating arrangements set by Polish students, while the Polish government initially opposed the segregation policies, the universities enjoyed significant level of autonomy and were able to impose their local regulationsGhetto benches – 1937 demonstration of Polish students demanding implementation of ghetto benches at Lwów Polytechnic.
13. Apartheid – Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991, when it was abolished. The countrys first multiracial elections under a universal franchise were held three years later in 1994, Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party during the countrys 1948 general elections. Apartheid was also enforced in South West Africa until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990, with the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became increasingly rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated specifically against black Africans began appearing shortly before 1900, the policies of the Boer republics were also racially exclusive, for instance, the Transvaal constitution barred nonwhite participation in church and state. Places of residence were determined by racial classification, from 1960 to 1983,3.5 million nonwhite South Africans were removed from their homes, and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass removals in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the population to ten designated tribal homelands, also known as bantustans. The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans, Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations, some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed in appeasing most activist groups. In 1990, prominent ANC leaders such as Nelson Mandela were released from detention, Apartheid legislation was abolished in mid-1991, pending multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning separateness, or the state of being apart and its first recorded use was in 1929. The governors and assemblies that governed the process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters, in 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes. Ordinance No.49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, the United Kingdoms Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation. To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835 and this was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery. The Glen Grey Act of 1894, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold, in 1905 the General Pass Regulations Act denied blacks the vote, limited them to fixed areas and inaugurated the infamous Pass System. The Asiatic Registration Act required all Indians to register and carry passes, one of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by Jan Smuts United Party government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill, which banned land sales to Indians. The United Party government began to move away from the enforcement of segregationist laws during World War IIApartheid – Daniel François Malan, the first apartheid prime minister (1948–1954)
14. Racial segregation in the United States – Legal segregation of schools was stopped in the U. S. by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. All legally enforced public segregation was abolished by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and it passed after demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation. De facto segregation—segregation in fact, without sanction of law—persists in varying degrees to the present day, the contemporary racial segregation seen in the United States in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination, and redlining, among other factors. Hypersegregation is a form of segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the city are African Americans. As a result, Federal occupation troops in the South assured blacks the right to vote, the Reconstruction amendments asserted the supremacy of the national state and the formal equality under the law of everyone within it. However it did not prohibit segregation in schools, when the Republicans came to power in the Southern states after 1867, they created the first system of taxpayer-funded public schools. Southern Blacks wanted public schools for their children but they did not demand racially integrated schools, almost all the new public schools were segregated, apart from a few in New Orleans. After the Republicans lost power in the mid-1870s, conservative whites retained the school systems. Almost all private academies and colleges in the South were strictly segregated by race, the American Missionary Association supported the development and establishment of several historically black colleges, such as Fisk University and Shaw University. In this period, a handful of northern colleges accepted black students, Northern denominations and their missionary associations especially established private schools across the South to provide secondary education. They provided an amount of collegiate work. Tuition was minimal, so churches supported the colleges financially, in 1900 churches—mostly based in the North—operated 247 schools for blacks across the South, with a budget of about $1 million. They employed 1600 teachers and taught 46,000 students, prominent schools included Howard University, a federal institution based in Washington, Fisk University in Nashville, Atlanta University, Hampton Institute in Virginia, and many others. Most new colleges in the 19th century were founded in northern states, Jim Crow segregation began somewhat later, in the 1880s. Disfranchisement of the began in the 1890s. By 1910, Segregation was firmly established across the South and most of the border region, the legitimacy of laws requiring segregation of blacks was upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson,163 U. S.537. Plessy thus allowed segregation, which became standard throughout the southern United States, everyone was supposed to receive the same public services, but with separate facilities for each raceRacial segregation in the United States – An African-American man drinking at a "colored" drinking fountain in a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City, 1939.
15. School segregation in the United States – School segregation in the United States began in its de jure form with the passage of Jim Crow laws in the American South in the late th century. The formal segregation of blacks and whites in the United States began with the passage of Jim Crow laws following the end of the Reconstruction Era in 1877, in some areas, Native Americans were classified with blacks and similarly excluded from white facilities. The obstacles for Mexican Americans was not greater than for blacks, the fact that separate facilities for blacks and other minorities were chronically underfunded and of lesser quality was not successfully challenged in court for decades. This decision was overturned in 1954, when the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education ended de jure segregation in the United States. In the decade following Brown, the South resisted enforcement of the Court’s decision, States and school districts did little to reduce segregation, and schools remained almost completely segregated until 1968, after Congressional passage of civil rights legislation. Desegregation efforts reached their peak in the late 1960s and early 1970s, parents of both African-American and Mexican-American students challenged school segregation in coordination with civil rights organizations such as the NAACP, ACLU, and LULAC. Both groups challenged discriminatory policies through litigation in courts, with varying success, Segregation can be defined in terms of two different measures, racial isolation, and racial unevenness. Measures of exposure define segregation according to the proportion of various races and ethnicities present in a school. According to this measure, a student attending a school with a very high proportion of other blacks students would be considered “racially isolated. ”Critics of measures of exposure point out that these are highly sensitive to changes in the demographic composition of schools. As the share of minority students in an area increases, these students will necessarily attend schools with smaller proportions of white students. Because of this, some prefer to define segregation according to measures of racial imbalance, or the extent to which racial. Measures of imbalance are independent of the changes in the composition of a larger population. From 1968-1980, segregation between blacks and whites in schools declined according to measures of both isolation and imbalance, measures of isolation within school districts show that school integration peaked in the 1980s and then gradually declined over the course of the 1990s, as income differences increased. In the 1990s and early 2000s, minority students attended schools with a proportion of white students. The study found that minority students became more isolated and less exposed to whites, another 2013 study found that segregation measured as exposure increased over the previous 25 years due to changing demographics. The study did not, however, find an increase in racial balance, rather, fiel believes that increasing interdistrict segregation will exacerbate racial isolation. Residential segregation is related to growing income inequality in the United States, because the two variables moved in opposite directions, changes in residential patterns are not responsible for changes in school segregation trends. By 2000, however, racial composition of schools had more closely correlated to neighborhood compositionSchool segregation in the United States – Jim Crow laws formalized school segregation in the United States, 1877-1954
16. Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States – Anti-miscegenation laws were a part of American law since before the United States was established and remained so until ruled unconstitutional in 1967 by the U. S. Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia. In the United States, anti-miscegenation laws were laws passed by individual states to prohibit miscegenation, nowadays more commonly referred to as interracial marriage. Typically defining miscegenation as a felony, these laws prohibited the solemnization of weddings between persons of different races and prohibited the officiating of such ceremonies. Sometimes, the individuals attempting to marry would not be guilty of miscegenation itself. All anti-miscegenation laws banned the marriage of whites and non-white groups, primarily blacks, in many states, anti-miscegenation laws also criminalized cohabitation and sex between whites and non-whites. While anti-miscegenation laws are regarded as a Southern phenomenon, most western. Although anti-miscegenation amendments were proposed in United States Congress in 1871, 1912–1913 and 1928, prior to the California Supreme Courts ruling in Perez v. Sharp, no court in the United States had ever struck down a ban on interracial marriage. In 1967, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Loving v. Virginia that anti-miscegenation laws are unconstitutional. At first, in the 1660s, the first laws in Virginia, in 1664, Maryland enacted a law which criminalized such marriages—the 1681 marriage of Irish-born Nell Butler to an African slave was an early example of the application of this law. Virginia was the first English colony in North America to pass a law forbidding free blacks and whites to intermarry, followed by Maryland in 1692. This was the first time in American history that a law was invented that restricted access to marriage partners solely on the basis of race, later these laws also spread to colonies in the Thirteen Colonies with fewer slaves and free blacks, such as Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Moreover, after the independence of the United States had been established, a sizable number of the early indentured servants in the British American colonies were brought over from the Indian subcontinent by the British East India Company. Anti-miscegenation laws discouraging interracial marriage between white Americans and non-whites affected South Asian immigrants as early as the 17th century, for example, a Eurasian daughter born to an Indian father and Irish mother in Maryland in 1680 was classified as a mulatto and sold into slavery. Anti-miscegenation laws there continued into the early 20th century, for example, the Bengali revolutionary Tarak Nath Dass white American wife, Mary K. Das, was stripped of her American citizenship for her marriage to an alien ineligible for citizenship. In 1918, there was controversy in Arizona when an Indian farmer B. K. Singh married the sixteen-year-old daughter of one of his white tenants. In 1685, the French government issued a special Code Noir restricted to Louisiana, however, interracial cohabitation and interracial sex were never prohibited in French Louisiana. The situation of the children followed the situation of the mother, under Spanish rule, interracial marriage was possible with parental consent under the age of 25 and without it when the partners were older. In 1806, three years after the U. S. gained control over the state, interracial marriage was again bannedAnti-miscegenation laws in the United States – No laws passed
17. Taliban treatment of women – While in power in Afghanistan, the Taliban became notorious internationally mostly for their apparent sexism and misogyny. Afghan women were forced to wear the burqa at all times in public, because, according to one Taliban spokesman, Women seeking an education were forced to attend underground schools, where they and their teachers risked execution if caught. They were not allowed to be treated by male doctors unless accompanied by a male chaperone and they faced public flogging and execution for violations of the Talibans laws. The Taliban allowed and in some cases encouraged marriage for girls under the age of 16, amnesty International reported that 80% of Afghan marriages were forced. From the age of eight, females were not allowed to be in contact with males other than a close blood relative, husband. For example, womens garden was renamed spring garden and these women faced virtual house arrest. A woman who was beaten by the Taliban for walking the streets alone stated my father was killed in battle. I have no husband, no brother. How am I to live if I cant go out alone, a field worker for the NGO Terre des hommes witnessed the impact on female mobility at Kabuls largest state-run orphanage, Taskia Maskan. After the female staff was relieved of their duties, the approximately 400 girls living at the institution were locked inside for a year without being allowed outside for recreation, decrees that affected women’s mobility were, Ban on women riding bicycles or motorcycles, even with their mahrams. Women were forbidden to ride in a taxi without a mahram, segregated bus services introduced to prevent males and females traveling on the same bus. The lives of women were less dramatically affected as they generally lived and worked within secure kin environments. A relative level of freedom was necessary for them to continue with their chores or labor, If these women traveled to a nearby town, the same urban restrictions would have applied to them. The Taliban disagreed with past Afghan statutes that allowed the employment of women in a mixed sex workplace and they claimed this was a breach of purdah and sharia law. On September 30,1996, the Taliban decreed that all women should be banned from employment and it is estimated that 25 percent of government employees were female, and when compounded by losses in other sectors, many thousands of women were affected. This had a impact on household incomes, especially on vulnerable or widow-headed households. Another loss was for those whom the women served. Elementary education of children, not just girls, was shut down in Kabul, thousands of educated families fled Kabul for Pakistan after the Taliban took the city in 1996. Among those who remained in Afghanistan, there was an increase in mother, Taliban Supreme Leader Mohammed Omar assured female civil servants and teachers they would still receive wages of around US$5 per month, although this was a short term offeringTaliban treatment of women – A member of the Taliban's religious police beating an Afghan woman in Kabul on August 26, 2001. The footage, filmed by the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, can be seen here .
18. Balkanization – Foreign policies can be precipitous to Balkanization. The term is nondescript since the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were Balkan in origin and, for the most part, counter-examples to the term. The term refers to the division of the Balkan peninsula, formerly ruled almost entirely by the Ottoman Empire and it was coined in the early 19th century and has a strong negative connotation. The larger countries within Europe, often being the result of the union of several regions or nations, have faced the perceived issue of Balkanization. Two referendums have been held to decide this question, one in 1980, less mainstream, smaller movements also exist in the western provinces, namely Alberta, to protest what is seen as a domination by Quebec and Ontario of Canadian politics. Saskatchewan premier Roy Romanow had also considered separation from Canada if the 1995 Quebec independence referendum had succeeded, independence movements within Britain also exist in England, Wales, Cornwall and Northern Ireland. The term is used to describe other forms of disintegration, including, for instance. However, Robert Morgus and Tim Maurers study suggests that the alarmist term “Balkanization” should be replaced with more terms such as fragmentation. The term has been used in American urban planning to describe the process of creating gated communitiesBalkanization – Geographically fully located
19. Ethnic cleansing – Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces applied may be forms of forced migration, intimidation, as well as mass murder. An antecedent to the term is the Greek word andrapodismos, which was used in ancient texts to describe atrocities that accompanied Alexander the Greats conquest of Thebes in 335 BC. In the early 1900s, regional variants of the term could be found among the Czechs, the Poles, the French, a 1913 Carnegie Endowment report condemning the actions of all participants in the Balkan Wars contained various new terms to describe brutalities committed toward ethnic groups. During World War II, the euphemism čišćenje terena was used by the Croatian Ustaše to describe military actions in which non-Croats were purposely killed or otherwise uprooted from their homes. Viktor Gutić, a senior Ustaše leader, was one of the first Croatian nationalists on record to use the term as a euphemism for committing atrocities against Serbs. This process was repeated on a larger scale in 1939–41. During The Holocaust, Nazi Germany pursued a policy of ensuring that Europe was cleansed of Jews, according to Israeli historian Benny Morris, the term cleansing was used in Israeli military documents dating to the 1948 Israeli–Arab war, referring to the expulsion of Arabs from Israel. In the 1980s, the Soviets used the term ethnic cleansing to describe the violence in Nagorno-Karabakh. At around the time, the Yugoslav media used it to describe what they alleged was an Albanian nationalist plot to force all Serbs to leave Kosovo. It was widely popularized by the Western media during the Bosnian War, the first recorded mention of its use in the Western media can be traced back to an article in The New York Times dated 15 April 1992, in a quote by an anonymous Western diplomat. Those practices constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes, furthermore, such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention. As a category, ethnic cleansing encompasses a continuum or spectrum of policies, in the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, thnic cleansing defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation, at the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory. The term ethnic cleansing has frequently employed to refer to the events in Bosnia. General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to the abhorrent policy of ethnic cleansing and it can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide, there is no international treaty that specifies a specific crime of ethnic cleansing. There are however situations, such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II, timothy V. Waters argues that if similar circumstances arise in the future, this precedent would allow the ethnic cleansing of other populations under international lawEthnic cleansing – The Chios Massacre refers to the slaughter of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops in 1822.
20. Exclusionary zoning – Exclusionary zoning is the utilization of zoning ordinances to exclude certain types of land uses from a given community. This mechanism began gaining prominence in land-use regulations throughout the United States in the late 19th century, ultimately, despite resistance from excluded peoples and activists, the policy is still extensively used today across the country. The vast, land-rich country upheld the notion that state powers should not interfere with private property, also, given the countrys predominately rural and isolated composition, most citizens were unconcerned about who their neighbors were at the time. Thus, early Americans largely disapproved of any attempts at exclusionary zoning. However, around the turn of the 20th century, an urbanization process. Middle and upper-classes consequently encountered much greater diversity than they had before making the intrusion of unwanted people into their neighborhoods appear more conceivable, as a result, many cities began implementing the first exclusionary zoning policies. In 1908, Los Angeles adopted the first citywide zoning ordinance protecting residential areas from the entrance of these undesirable community elements, many of these early regulations directly debarred racial and ethnic minorities from community residence until explicit racial zoning was declared unconstitutional in 1917. Despite the unconstitutionality of such measures, exclusionary ordinances continued to gain popularity throughout the country. Given the increased utilization of zoning, the United States federal government finally addressed the issue with the enactment of the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act of 1922. This legislation established the framework for zoning ordinances. It delegated land-use power to local authorities for the conservation of community welfare, in light of these developments, the Supreme Court considered zonings constitutionality in the 1926 landmark case of Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. The court ultimately condoned zoning as a means of community regulation. Following this verdict, the number of municipalities with zoning legislation multiplied from 368 in 1925 to over 1,000 in 1930, many people had severed ties with the city and its unwanted elements as they searched for their suburban utopia. They feared that these very city elements that they escaped would follow them into the suburbs if left unchecked, thus, middle-class and affluent white, who constituted the majority of suburban inhabitants, more frequently employed measures preventing immigrant and minority integration. As a result of newly found protectionism, the number of jurisdictions with such ordinances increased to over 5,200 by 1968. While well-off whites mainly inhabited the suburbs, the city residents, primarily impoverished minorities. Many attributed their impecunious state to their exclusion from the suburbs, in response, a flurry of exclusionary zoning cases were brought before the Supreme Court in the 1970s that would ultimately determine the tactics fate. The Supreme Court sided with the proponents of exclusionary zoning in near unanimity which virtually halted any zoning reform movement, the ability of minorities and other excluded populations to challenge exclusionary zoning became essentially nonexistent, allowing the policys unabated continuation todayExclusionary zoning – Racial composition of Chicago area (2010 Census)
21. Forced migration – Forced displacement or forced migration is the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a migrant, a displaced person, rarely also a displacee, or if it is within the same country. In some cases the forced migrant can also become a refugee, a specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted persons, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Forced displacement has accompanied persecution, as well as war, throughout history but has only become a topic of serious study. The concept of forced displacement envelopes demographic movements like flight, evacuation, displacement, however this thought has been questioned, especially by Marxians, who argue that in most cases migrants have little or no choice. In such a scenario, migration becomes more of a strategy, as natural disasters often cause the loss of money, homes. For example, Hurricane Katrina resulted in displacement of almost the population of New Orleans, leaving the community and government with several economic. Biological, physical or chemical change in ecosystem, Migration can also occur as a result of slow-onset climate change, such as desertification or sea-level rise, of deforestation or land degradation. Man-made disasters can also cause forced migration, examples are industrial accidents and especially accidents that involve radioactivity, such as in Chernobyl or Fukushima. An elaboration of such migrants is given by Essam El-Hinnawi, Migrants who are able to return to their original habitat once the disruption is over, Migrants who seek better living conditions due to deterioration of environmental conditions in their present habitat, such as soil fertility. In the middle of the 19th century, for example, Ireland experienced a famine never before seen in the country’s history. War, civil war, political repression or religious conflicts, Some migrants are impelled to cross national borders by war or persecution, due to political, social, ethnic and these immigrants may be considered refugees if they apply for asylum in the receiving country. It has been associated with the construction of dams for hydroelectric power and irrigation purposes but also appears due to many other activities, such as mining. The best-known recent example of such development-induced displacement may be resulting from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China. This type of forced migration disproportionately affects low income earners and ethnic minorities, according to estimates, between 90 and 100 million people were forced to leave their homes due to development projects in the 1990s. Human trafficking and human smuggling, Migrants displaced through deception or coercion with purpose of their exploitation fall under this category, the data on such forced migration are limited since the activities involved are clandestine in nature. While migration of this nature is well covered for male migrants, the International Labour Organization considers trafficking an offence against labor protection and denies them the opportunity of utilizing their resources for their country. ILO’s Multilateral Framework includes principle no, slavery, Historys greatest forced migration was the Middle Passage of the Atlantic slave trade during the 15th through the 19th centuriesForced migration – Deportees to Siberia by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1894), National Museum in Warsaw, illustrating the torment of Polish Siberian deportees, patriots from the Russian zone of partitioned Poland in the period following the collapse of the January Uprising.
22. Internment – Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The term is used for the confinement of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects. Thus, while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive confinement, use of these terms is subject to debate and political sensitivities. Interned persons may be held in prisons or in known as internment camps. In certain contexts, these may also be known either officially or pejoratively, internment also refers to a neutral countrys practice of detaining belligerent armed forces and equipment on its territory during times of war under the Hague Convention of 1907. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights restricts the use of internment, article 9 states that No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. The United States set up camps for Cherokee and other Native Americans in the 1830s. From 1863 to 1868, the U. S, military persecuted and imprisoned 9,500 Navajo and 500 Mescalero Apache. Living under armed guards, more than 3,500 Navajo and Mescalero Apache men, women, the term concentration camp saw wider use during the Second Boer War, when the British operated such camps in South Africa for interning Boers. They built 45 tented camps for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans, of the 28,000 Boer men captured as prisoners of war, the British sent 25,630 overseas. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the camps were women and children. Some of them managed to go into exile or went off to join the armies of the Allies in order to fight against the Axis powers, while others ended up in Nazi concentration camps. During the 20th century, the internment of civilians by the state reached its most notorious excesses with the establishment of the Nazi concentration camps. The Nazi concentration camp system was notable for its size, with as many as 15,000 camps. Moreover, Nazi Germany established six camps, specifically designed to kill millionsInternment – Boer women and children in a British-run concentration camp in South Africa (1900–1902)
23. Labor camp – A labor camp or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code. Labor camps have many aspects with slavery and with prisons. Conditions at labor camps vary widely depending on the operators, some of those camps were dubbed reeducation facilities for political coercion, but most others served as backbone of industry and agriculture for the benefit of the state especially in times of war. Labor camps of forced labor were abolished by Convention no.105 of the United Nations International Labour Organization, albania Allied Forces The Allies of World War II operated a number of work camps after the war. At the Yalta Conference in 1945, it was agreed that German forced labor was to be utilized as reparations, see Forced labor of Germans after World War II. Bulgaria Burma According to the New Statesman, Burmese military government operated, from 1962 to 2011, China The anti-communist Kuomintang operated various camps between 1938 and 1949, including the Northwestern Youth Labor Camp for young activists and students. The Communist Party of China has operated many labor camps for some crimes at least since taking power in 1949, many leaders of China were put into labor camps after purges, including Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi. May Seventh Cadre Schools are an example of Cultural Revolution-era labor camps, According to CNN, hundreds — if not thousands — of labor camps and forced-labor prisons still exist in modern-day China, housing political prisoners and dissidents alongside dangerous criminals. Chinese state-run media Xinhua reported in early 2013 that the plans to reform its controversial re-education through labor system this year. Cuba Beginning in November 1965, people classified as against the government were summoned to work camps referred to as Military Units to Aid Production, Czechoslovakia After the communists took over Czechoslovakia in 1948, many forced labor camps were created. The inmates included political prisoners, clergy, kulaks, Boy Scouts leaders, about half of the prisoners worked in the uranium mines. Also between 1950 and 1954 many men were considered unreliable for compulsory military service, and were conscripted to labour battalions instead. Nazi Germany During World War II the Nazis operated several categories of Arbeitslager for different categories of inmates, the largest number of them held Jewish civilians forcibly abducted in the occupied countries to provide labor in the German war industry, repair bombed railroads and bridges or work on farms. By 1944,19. 9% of all workers were foreigners, the Nazis employed many slave laborers. They also operated concentration camps, some of which provided free forced labor for industrial, a notable example is the Mittelbau-Dora labor camp complex that serviced the production of the V-2 rocket. See List of German concentration camps for more, the Nazi camps played a key role in the extermination of millions. Hundreds of thousands of people died as a result of the overwork, malnutrition, preventable disease. North Korea North Korea is known to six camps with prison-labor colonies in remote mountain valleysLabor camp – Polish Jews are lined up by German soldiers to do forced labour, September 1939, Nazi-occupied Poland
24. Social exclusion – Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in Europe and was first used in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, such exclusionary forms of discrimination may also apply to people with a disability, minorities, LGBT people, drug users, institutional care leavers, the elderly and the young. Anyone who appears to deviate in any way from perceived norms of a population may thereby become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion. The outcome of social exclusion is that individuals or communities are prevented from participating fully in the economic, social. Most of the characteristics listed in this article are present together in studies of social exclusion, Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individuals exclusion from meaningful participation in society. An example is the exclusion of single mothers from the system prior to welfare reforms of the 1900s. A single mothers contribution to society is not based on formal employment, in some career contexts, caring work is devalued and motherhood is seen as a barrier to employment. Today the marginalization is primarily a function of class condition, more broadly, many women face social exclusion. Moosa-Mitha discusses the Western feminist movement as a reaction to the marginalization of white women in society. Women were excluded from the force and their work in the home was not valued. Feminists argued that men and women should equally participate in the force, in the public and private sector. They also focused on labor laws to increase access to employment as well as to recognize child-rearing as a form of labor. In some places today, women are marginalized from executive positions. Another example of marginalization is the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force. Cantor also discusses employer concern about the high cost of accommodating people with disabilities. There are also exclusions of lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender and other people because of their sexual orientations. The Yogyakarta Principles require that the states and communities abolish any stereotypes about LGBT people as well as stereotyped gender roles, many communities experience social exclusion, such as racial and economic communities. One example is the Aboriginal community in Australia, marginalization of Aboriginal communities is a product of colonizationSocial exclusion – Sociology
25. Discrimination – This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in countries and institutions in every part of the world. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination, the term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- distinguished between, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen distinction, from the verb discernere, Discrimination derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration, an individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason, in addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as different so much that they are treated inhumanly, social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable, the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement, Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world, important UN documents addressing discrimination include, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a United Nations convention, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination. The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as a bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities, the text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008, ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someones age. It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a persons age. Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents, Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, interestingly, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational yearsDiscrimination – Ethiopian Jews protest in Israel over non-employment of Ethiopian academics.
26. Jim Crow laws – Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these continued in force until 1965. They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in 1890 with a separate. Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to available to European Americans. This body of law institutionalized a number of economic, educational, the U. S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces, initiated in 1913 under President Woodrow Wilson. By requiring candidates to submit photos, his administration practiced racial discrimination in hiring and these Jim Crow laws followed the 1800–1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. The phrase Jim Crow Law can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about voting laws in the South, as a result of Rices fame, Jim Crow by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning Negro. When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation which were directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, during the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U. S. South for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves, extensive voter fraud was also used. Gubernatorial elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana for years, in 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the governments withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained power in every Southern state. These Southern, white, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws, grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures, in Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the states population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0. 5% of eligible black men, in 27 of the states 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer, in 9 more parishes, only one black voter was. The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that voters were completely eliminated from voter rolls during the period from 1896–1904. The growth of their middle class was slowed. Alabama had tens of thousands of poor whites disenfranchised and those who could not vote were not eligible to serve on juries and could not run for local offices. They effectively disappeared from political life, as they could not influence the state legislatures, like schools, Jim Crow public libraries were underfunded and often stocked with secondhand books and other resourcesJim Crow laws – Cover to an early edition of " Jump Jim Crow " sheet music (c 1832)
27. Nativism (politics) – Nativism is the political policy or practice of preserving or reviving an indigenous culture. However this is more commonly described as an anti-immigrant position considering the policy to be one of protecting native interests against those of immigrants. According to Fetzer, opposition to immigration commonly arises in many countries because of issues of national, cultural, thus nativism has become a general term for opposition to immigration based on fears that the immigrants will distort or spoil existing cultural values. In situations where immigrants greatly outnumber the original inhabitants, nativistic movements can allow cultural survival, in scholarly studies nativism is a standard technical term. The term is not accepted by those who hold this political view. Do not consider themselves as nativists, for them it is a negative term and they rather consider themselves as Patriots. Anti-immigration offers a neutral term for opposition to immigration. In the United States, nativism has a long history, for a while Benjamin Franklin was hostile to Germans in colonial Pennsylvania, but he reversed himself and became a supporter. The Federalist Party in 1798 passed the Alien and Sedition Acts which lengthened the process to 14 years to weaken the political role of radical immigrants from France. This became a political issue in the 1800 election, the Jeffersonians won. They welcomed immigrants and repealed most of the restrictions, Nativism gained its name from the Native American parties of the 1840s and 1850s. In this context Native does not mean indigenous or American Indian and it impacted politics in the mid-19th century because of the large inflows of immigrants after 1845 from cultures that were different from the existing American culture. Nativists objected primarily to Irish Roman Catholics because of their loyalty to the Pope, labor unions were strong supporters of Chinese exclusion and limits on immigration, because of fears that they would lower wages and make it harder to organize unions. Historian Eric Kaufmann has suggested that American nativism has been explained primarily in psychological and economic terms to the neglect of a crucial cultural and ethnic dimension. Furthermore, Kauffman claims American nativism cannot be understood without reference to an American ethnic group which took shape prior to the immigration of the mid-eighteenth century. Nativist outbursts occurred in the Northeast from the 1830s to the 1850s, in 1836, Samuel Morse ran unsuccessfully for Mayor of New York City on a Nativist ticket, receiving 1,496 votes. In New York City, an Order of United Americans was founded as a nativist fraternity, following the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of the spring and summer. In 1849–50 Charles B. Allen founded a nativist society called the Order of the Star Spangled Banner in New York CityNativism (politics) – Heroes of the Fiery Cross 1928, published by the Pillar of Fire Church
28. Nuremberg Laws – The Nuremberg Laws were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany. They were introduced on 15 September 1935 by the Reichstag at a meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, the laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people and Afro-Germans. This supplementary decree defined Gypsies as enemies of the race-based state, out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their policies, books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks and they were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society. The Nuremberg laws had an economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the laws were imprisoned, and upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo. Non-Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a willing to take them. Prior to the formation of the German Empire in early 1871, the status of Jews varied from place to place within the German Confederation. Jews became equal citizens with the creation of the new constitution that May, however, they still faced discrimination and antisemitism. Nationalist sentiments and the idea of Germans as a race took hold at the beginning of the 20th century. Jews, with their different culture and ancestry, were viewed as being members of a separate, several nationalistic and antisemitic groups formed after the First World War. These groups committed acts of violence against Jews and lobbied for their disenfranchisement, the National Socialist German Workers Party was one of several far-right political parties active in Germany at the time. The party platform included removal of the Weimar Republic, rejection of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, radical antisemitism, the Nazis proposed national and cultural renewal based upon the Völkisch movement. In it, de Gobineau proposed that the Aryan race was superior, madison Grants work The Passing of the Great Race advocated Nordicism and proposed using a eugenic program to preserve the Nordic race. After reading the book, Hitler called it my Bible, the Nazis embraced the concept of Nordicism and wished for the Nordic race to dominate Germany, but they did not discriminate against Aryans who did not have Nordic physical characteristicsNuremberg Laws – Title page of RGB I No. 100 proclaiming the laws, issued 16 September 1935
29. Racism – Racism is discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term racism does not easily fall under a single definition, the Holocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led to the death of millions of people based on their race. Ethnicity is often used in a close to one traditionally attributed to race. Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, according to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms racial and ethnic discrimination. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life, Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. Associated social actions may include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, in the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races. The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, the origin of the root word race is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, a recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ras, which means head, beginning, origin or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists generally held that some races were inferior to others and these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions, the collective endeavors to adequately define and form hypotheses about racial differences are generally termed scientific racism. To date, there is evidence in human genome research indicating that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism simply as An earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it. The revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term racism in a quote from the year,1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as he theory that human characteristics and abilities are determined by race. Additionally, the Oxford English Dictionary records racism as a synonym of racialism, as its history indicates, popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism. It is commonly agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups, second, a set of ideas about racial differences, and, third, the UDHR was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form a part of humanityRacism – A rally against school integration in 1959.
30. Religious intolerance – Religious intolerance is intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof. The mere statement on the part of a religion that its own beliefs and practices are correct, Religious intolerance, rather, is when a group specifically refuses to tolerate practices, persons or beliefs on religious grounds. The modern concept of intolerance developed out of the controversies between Protestants and Catholics in 17th- and 18th-century England. The doctrine of religious toleration at this time, sought to eradicate religious sentiments, other states, whilst not containing constitutional provisions directly related to religion, nonetheless contain provisions forbidding discrimination on religious grounds. These constitutional provisions do not necessarily guarantee that all elements of the state free from religious intolerance at all times. Other countries, meanwhile, may allow for religious preference, for instance through the establishment of one or more state religions, some countries retain laws forbidding defamation of religious belief. Some retain laws forbidding all forms of blasphemy and this is seen by some as official endorsement of religious intolerance, amounting to the criminalization of religious views. The connection between intolerance and blasphemy laws is closest when the laws apply to one religion. In Pakistan blasphemy directed against either the tenets of the Quran or the Prophet Mohammed is punishable by life imprisonment or death. Article 18 also allows for the freedom to change religion, in its 2000 annual report on international religious freedom, the U. S. State Department cited China, Myanmar, Iran, Iraq and Sudan for persecuting people for their religious faith and practices. The report, which covers July 1999 through June 2000, details U. S. policy toward countries where freedom is violated in the view of the U. S. State Department. The advocacy group Freedom House produced a report entitled Religious Freedom in the World in 2000 which ranked countries according to their religious freedom. The countries receiving a score of 7, indicating those where religious freedom was least respected, were Turkmenistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Myanmar, China was given a score of 6 overall, however Tibet was listed separately in the 7 category. Those countries receiving a score of 1, indicating the highest level of freedom, were Estonia, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway. Within those countries that openly advocate religious tolerance there remain debates as to the limits of tolerance, Religious freedom has developed partly due to the agreeable relationship between religious groups in its society. Several non-governmental organizations promoted tolerance and better understanding among religions in the country, in 2003, in response to an increase in anti-Islamic sentiment, the HREOC undertook a project involving national consultations on eliminating prejudice against Arab and Muslim citizens. The commissions report, made public in June 2004, contained no findings on the status of Arab. On December 11,2005, there was a riot in the Sydney suburb of Cronulla, demonstrators against the assault displayed anti-Arab and anti-Muslim slogansReligious intolerance – Religious intolerance