United States Army Medical Command
The U. S. Army Medical Command is a direct reporting unit of the U. S. MEDCOM is commanded by the Army Surgeon General, currently Lt. Gen. Nadja West. The Surgeon General is head of the U. S. Army Medical Department, MEDCOM is divided into Regional Health Commands that oversee day-to-day operations and exercise command and control over the Medical Treatment Facilities in their regions. S. U. S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Warrior Transition Command U. S. Army Dental Command MEDCOM maintains day-to-day health care for soldiers, retired soldiers, many Army medical facilities report on their own quality-of-care standards on their individual website. When Army field hospitals deploy, most clinical professional and support personnel come from MEDCOMs fixed facilities, in addition to support of combat operations, deployments can be for humanitarian assistance and other stability and support operations. Under the Professional Officer Filler System, up to 26 percent of MEDCOM physicians and 43 percent of MEDCOM nurses are sent to field units during a full deployment, to replace PROFIS losses, Reserve units and Individual Mobilization Augmentees are mobilized to work in medical treatment facilities.
The department provides trained medical specialists to the Armys combat medical units, many Army Reserve and Army National Guard units deploy in support of the Army Medical Department. The Army depends heavily on its Reserve component for medical support—about 63 percent of the Armys medical forces are in the Reserve component. As the post–Cold War Army shrank, the U. S. Army’s Health Services Command decided to change the way it did business, in 1992, HSC launched “Gateway To Care”, a businesslike approach to health-care delivery. This was to be localized managed care, with improved quality, access, in a design based more on catchment-area management than the previous “CHAMPUS Reform Initiative”, U. S. Army hospital commanders received more responsibility and managerial authority. Eleven “Gateway to Care sites opened in the spring of 1992, by that fall, all HSC facilities had submitted business plans which were favorably received. Starting in 1994, “Gateway To Care” was gradually absorbed into a new regional Defense Department tri-service managed-care plan called TRICARE, in August 1993, the U. S.
Army Chief of Staff approved a plan to reorganize the AMEDD. The merger of several medical elements resulted in a new, expanded medical major command under the Surgeon General, in October 1993, the U. S. Army Medical Command began a one-year process of replacing HSC and absorbing other AMEDD elements. Surgeon General Lt. Gen. Alcide M. LaNoue commanded the provisional MEDCOM, the next month, seven MEDCEN commanders assumed command and control over care in their regions. The new Health Service Support Areas, under the MEDCOM, had responsibility and authority than the old HSC regions. The MRDALC was soon renamed the U. S. Army Medical Research, then, in June 1994, an additional HSSA was formed to supervise medical care in Europe, replacing the 7th Medical Command, which inactivated. That summer, the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency formed the basis of the provisional Center for Health Promotion, thus, in an unprecedented process of unification, U. S. Army medicine gradually came together in a new home under the command of the Surgeon General.
Except for the medical units commanded by the combat commanders. The MEDCOM became fully operational, dropping the provisional, in October 1994, in 1996, the HSSAs were renamed Regional Medical Commands
United States Army Installation Management Command
The United States Army Installation Management Command supports the United States Army by handling the day-to-day operations of U. S. Army installations around the globe. Army garrisons are communities that provide many of the types of services expected from any small city. IMCOM is headquartered in San Antonio, TX on Fort Sam Houston, iMCOMs headquarters relocated in October,2010 from Arlington, Virginia as part of the Base Realignment and Closure Act of 2005. The former Army Environmental Center, now called the Army Environmental Command, prior to the Installation Management Command, the Armys 184 installations were managed by one of 15 Major Commands. Support services varied – some provided better services, some provided worse, in September 2001, Army Secretary Thomas E. On 1 Oct.2002, the Army formed IMA as an operating agency of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management as part of an ongoing effort to realign installations. Many of the issues with the 15 major commands holding responsibility for support was that the structure created many inequities throughout the Army.
There were no standards, consistent services or an acutely managed infrastructure. This created an environment where funding was diverted from installation support to operations. Additionally, there were too many military personnel conducting garrison support operations rather than mission duties, the creation of IMCOM was a commitment to eliminate these inequities, focus on installation management and enhance the well-being of Soldiers and Civilians. Centralizing installation management was a change in the Army, working through the transfers of personnel. Originally named The Army Family Covenant in 2007, Army leaders undertook a long-term commitment to resource and standardize critical support programs for Soldiers, their families, the covenant was focused on specific programs which commanders couldnt change. The Installation Management Command supports the Total Army Strong and provides a set of tools Soldiers and Army Families can use to locate and access the facilities and services they need
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, on 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. This organization provided a pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, the Organized Reserves were redesignated 25 March 1948 as the Organized Reserve Corps. Recognizing the importance of the Organized Reserve to the World War II effort, Congress authorized retirement, a tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions, three armored, five airborne, and 17 infantry. These divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three categories, labeled Class A, Class B, and Class C.
The troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, eventually the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946. That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the categories as men and equipment became available. Also, the War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers, by that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies. The armies replaced the nine areas of the prewar era. The First United States Army declined to support a division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, the Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Divisions area, not that of the 99th. Finally, the 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, a major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing.
While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, although the War Department requested funds for needed facilities, Congress moved slowly in response. During the summer and fall of 1951 the six army commanders in the United States, staff agencies, the army commanders urged that all divisions in the Organized Reserve Corps be infantry divisions because they believed that the reserves could not adequately support armored and airborne training. They thought thirteen, rather than twelve, reserve divisions should be maintained to provide a geographic distribution of the units
Sergeant Major of the Army
The Sergeant Major of the Army is a unique non-commissioned rank and position of office in the United States Army. The SMA is appointed to serve as a spokesman to address the issues of enlisted soldiers to all officers, from warrant officers, as such, he is the senior enlisted advisor to the Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army. The exact duties vary depending on the chief of staff, though much of the SMAs time is spent traveling throughout the Army, observing training and talking with soldiers and their families. Kenneth O. Preston held the rank from 15 January 2004, through 28 February 2011, SMA Raymond F. Chandler III was succeeded by Command Sergeant Major Daniel A. Dailey, on 30 January 2015. While the SMA is an officer, the billet is the protocol equivalent of a lieutenant general. The rank and position were based on those of the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, the Chief of Staff of the Army created the position in 1966 after asking leaders of the major commands for a personal recommendation.
He asked that it not be considered a near-retirement type assignment and he listed seven duties and functions he expected the Sergeant Major to perform, including service as a personal adviser and assistant on matters pertaining to enlisted soldiers. From 4,700 proposed candidates,21 nominees were selected, finally chosen was the only one serving in Vietnam, Sergeant Major William O. Wooldridge of the 1st Infantry Division. These six positions are referred to as senior enlisted advisors. The collar insignia of the SMA is the portion of the collar insignia of an aide-de-camp to the Army Chief of Staff, placed upon an enlisted collar disk of gold color. The insignia worn by SMA Wooldridge was hand-soldered by Colonel Jasper J. Wilson from the cannibalized insignia, the insignia was approved on 4 July 1966. Originally, the SMA would wear the device on each collar and this insignia is worn in place of a unit insignia on the SMAs beret, garrison cap, and pull-over sweater. The SMAs cap device, worn on the front of the service cap is a gold-colored rendering of the United States coat of arms.
The cap device for all other U. S. Army enlisted soldiers is a rendering of the United States coat of arms on a gold-colored disk or surrounded by a gold colored ring. The chief master sergeant of the Air Force has the same cap device as the SMA, first considered in 1992, the SMAs color has been authorized since 22 March 1999. It is based on the design of his insignia and the positional flag of the Chief of Staff. Like the SEACs collar brass, the SEACs positional color was patterned after the SMAs color
First United States Army
It now serves as a mobilization and training command. First Army was established on 10 August 1918 as an army when sufficient American military manpower had arrived in France during World War I. As an element of the American Expeditionary Forces in the stages of World War I it was the first of three field armies established under the AEF. Serving in its ranks were many figures who played important roles in World War II. First Army was inactivated in April 1919, the field armies were established to provide organizational structure for large military organizations that might be mobilized in time of national need. First Army was located in the northeast United States and was activated on 11 September 1933 at Fort Jay, Governors Island, initially activated as a paper army, it was commanded by General Dennis E. Nolan. Until 1942, First Armys commander was always the senior commander of one of its three corps areas, since First Army was only a paper organization in its early days, its staff was the existing staff of the corps areas.
The overall mission of the First Army was commanding and training army, army reserve. In the years after World War I, Conner was a mentor in the careers of Dwight Eisenhower. Passed over as a candidate for Army Chief of Staff for Douglas MacArthur, in 1938 First Army came under command of General Hugh A. Drum. Drum who along with a buildup of the Army in 1939 and it began to establish and develop its own staff and participated in the large scale Army maneuvers in Louisiana and North Carolina between 1939 and 1941. As the United States entered World War II, Drum was assigned a new command of the newly established Eastern Defense Command, responsible for coastal, Drum retired in 1943 when he reached mandatory retirement age. Headquarters, First Army was activated In January 1944 at Bristol, upon going ashore on 6 June 1944, D-Day, First Army came under 21st Army Group and commanded all American ground forces during the invasion. Three American divisions were landed by sea at the Western end of the beaches, on Utah Beach the assault troops made good time, but Omaha Beach came nearest of all of the five landing areas to disaster.
First Army captured much of the gains of the Allied forces in Normandy. Once the beachheads were joined up, its troops struck west and isolated the Cotentin Peninsula, when the American Mulberry harbour was wrecked by a storm, Cherbourg became even more vital. After the capture of Cherbourg, First Army struck south, in Operation Cobra, its forces finally managed to break through the German lines. The newly established Third Army was fed through the gap, the Army passed from the control of 21st Army Group to the newly arrived 12th Army Group
United States Army War College
The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks. It provides graduate-level instruction to senior officers and civilians to prepare them for senior leadership assignments. Each year, a number of Army colonels and lieutenant colonels are considered by a board for admission, approximately 800 students attend at any one time, half in a two-year-long distance learning program, and the other half in an on-campus, full-time resident program lasting ten months. Upon completion, the college grants its graduates a masters degree in Strategic Studies, Army applicants must have already completed the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, the required Professional Military Education for officers in the rank of major. Majors with the specialty of Function Area 59, formerly Strategic Plans and Policy, attend their qualification course, the Basic Strategic Arts Program, at the college. The Army War College is one of the three senior service colleges of the U. S.
Department of Defense, joined by the Naval War College for the U. S. Navy, the Army War College is a split-functional institution. While a great deal of emphasis is placed on research, students are instructed in leadership, strategy. Established from the learned in the Spanish–American War, the College was founded by Secretary of War, Elihu Root. Washington Barracks—now called Fort Lesley J. McNair—in Washington, D. C. was chosen as the site, theodore Roosevelt attended the Masonic laying of the cornerstone of Roosevelt Hall on 21 February 1903. The first president of the Army War College was Major General Samuel B. M. Young in July 1902, the College remained at Washington Barracks until the 1940s, when it was closed due to World War II. It reopened in 1950 at Fort Leavenworth, and moved one year to its present location, the Basic Strategic Art Program is one of the academic programs taught at the U. S. Army War College. FA59 officers have deployed to combat since the onset of the Global War on Terror in 2001, since then, graduates of this program served in key positions in Iraq, all combatant commands, and at the Pentagon.
The Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute is located at the War College, the institutes mission is to serve as the U. S. S. S. Army heraldic entitlements for the War College What Is the War College, a May 2004 article from Slate
Reorganization plan of United States Army
In 2006 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations. The plan was modified several times including an expansion of numbers in 2007. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams and expand the remaining brigades with a maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries. Up to 60% of the budget is spent on personnel. On November 22 and 23,2002, the Belfer Center for Science, the conference was held at the Belfer Center at Harvard Universitys John F. Kennedy School of Government. The United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series were co-sponsors, in some respects this could be said to have been the birthplace of Transformation as a formal paradigm. In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation to provide Modularity Coordination Cells to each transforming corps, each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit.
The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, history of ARFORGEN The Secretary of the Army approved implementing ARFORGEN, a transformational force generation model, in 2006. In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Armys stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges and these challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA17.1, held in October 2016. AWA17.1 is an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Forces and Marines, as well as by British, Canadian and Italian troops. Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013. On 25 June 2013, US Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams, while the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers.
That will be accomplished, in cases, by moving existing battalions. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June, eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below, the fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the Brigade Modernization Command to the U. S. Army Joint Modernization Command, on 16 February 2017. Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations and they are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Hood will be the same as one at Fort Stewart. Reconnaissance plays a role in the new organizational designs
United States Army Central
The United States Army Central is a military formation of the United States Army, which saw service in World War I and World War II, in the 1991 Gulf War, and in the coalition occupation of Iraq. It is best known for its campaigns in World War II under the command of General George S. Patton, Third Army is currently denoted USARCENT, headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina with a forward element at Camp Arifjan, Kuwait. On the 15th, Major General Joseph T. Dickman assumed command, the third Army consisted of three corps and seven divisions. On 15 November 1918, Major General Dickman was given the mission to move quickly and he was to disarm and disband German forces as ordered by General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces. The march into Germany for occupation duty was begun on 17 November 1918, by 15 December the Third Army Headquarters at Mayen opened at Coblenz. Two days later, on 17 December 1918, the Coblenz bridgehead, consisting of a pontoon bridge, Third Army troops had encountered no hostile act of any sort.
In the occupied area, both food and coal supplies were sufficient, the crossing of the Rhine by the front line divisions was effected in good time and without confusion. Troops, upon crossing the Rhine and reaching their assigned areas, were billeted preparatory to occupying selected positions for defense. The strength of the Third Army as of 19 December, the date the bridgehead occupation was completed, was 9,638 officers and 221,070 enlisted men, the southern boundary was as has been previously mentioned. Before the advance, the 1st Division passed to the command of the III Corps, the four bridges available for crossing the river within the Coblenz bridgehead were the pontoon bridge and railroad bridge at Coblenz, the railroad bridges at Engers and Remagen. On 13 December the advance began with the American khaki crossing the Rhine into advanced positions. On the same day the 42d Division passes to the command of the IV Corps, which, in support of the III Corps, continued its march to occupy the Kreise of Mayen, Ahrweiler and Cochem.
The VII Corps occupied under the order that portion of the Regierungsbezirk of Trier within army limits. On 15 December, Third Army Headquarters at Mayen opened at Coblenz, III Corps Headquarters at Polch opened at Neuwied and IV Corps Headquarters remained at Cochem, with the VII Corps at Grevenmacher. In crossing the Rhine on the shortened front—from Rolandseck to Rhens on the west bank—the Third Army encountered no hostile act of any sort, in the occupied area both food and coal supplies were sufficient. By the night of 14 December, Third Army troops had occupied their positions on the perimeter of the Coblenz bridgehead, during January 1919, the Third Army was engaged in training and preparing the troops under its command for any contingency. A letter of instruction was circulated to lower commanders prescribing a plan of action in case hostilities were resumed, installations were set up throughout the Army area to facilitate command. On 4 February, the control of the Stadtkreis of Trier was transferred from GHQ to the Third Army
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
The Chief of Staff of the Army is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the military advisor. The CSA is typically the officer on active-duty in the U. S. Army unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers. The Chief of Staff of the Army is a position based in the Pentagon. While the CSA does not have command authority over Army forces proper. The current Chief of Staff of the Army is General Mark A. Milley, the CSA directs the Inspector General of the Army to perform inspections and investigations as required. In addition, the CSA presides over the Army Staff and represents army capabilities, policy, under delegation of authority made by the Secretary of the Army, the CSA designates army personnel and army resources to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands. Like the other counterparts, the CSA has no operational command authority over army forces.
The CSA is served by a number of Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Army, such as G-1, Personnel. The CSA base pay is $21,147.30 per month plus Personal Money Allowance of $333.33, basic allowance for subsistence of $253.38, the Chief of Staff of the Army is nominated by the President and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the CSA is appointed as a four-star general, the Chief of Staff of the Army has an official residence, Quarters 1 at Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall, Virginia. The Chief of Staff holds an annual future study program called Unified Quest, prior to 1903, the senior military officer in the army was the Commanding General, who reported to the Secretary of War. The first chief of staff moved his headquarters to Fort Myer in 1908, the rank listed is the rank when serving in the office. Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army Army Staff Senior Warrant Officer Sergeant Major of the Army Bell, appendix B, Chronological List of Senior Officers of the United States Army. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005, Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Armys Senior Officer, United States Army Center of Military History.
Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005, Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Armys Senior Officer, United States Army Center of Military History. Chief of Staff, Prewar Plans and Preparations, United States Army in World War II. United States Army Center of Military History, - full text The short film Big Picture, Top Soldier is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Ninth United States Army
The Ninth Army is a field army of the United States Army, garrisoned at Caserma Ederle, Italy. It is the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Africa Command and it was one of the main U. S. Army combat commands used during the campaign in Northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945. It was commanded at its inception by Lieutenant General William Simpson and it had been designated Eighth Army, but on arrival in the United Kingdom it was renamed to avoid confusion with the famous British formation of the same designation. All American field armies in the European Theatre of Operation were designated with odd numbers, the first responsibility for Ninth Army, upon its arrival on 5 September was to take part in the final reduction of the German forces holding out in the French port of Brest. After the surrender of the fifteen days later, Ninth Army was sent east to take its place in the line. It came into the line between Third Army and First Army, in November, Ninth Army was shifted to the very northern flank of 12th Army Group.
It undertook operations to close the front up to the Roer River,16 December saw the opening of the last great German offensive of the war, the Battle of the Bulge. Simpson reoriented his command quickly to help in the reduction of the salient that the Germans had created, many of Ninth Armys units passed to the command of First Army, which was doing the main work of reducing the German salient from the north. In the meantime, the remainder of Ninth Army continued to hold the line along the Roer, by 10 March, the Rhine had been reached in all sectors of Ninth Armys front. It was not until after 20 March that Ninth Army units first crossed the Rhine itself, after doing so, the Army quickly struck east around the north of the Ruhr. An enormous pocket soon formed containing the German Army Group B under Model, by 4 April, Ninth Army had reached the Weser and was switched back to 12th Army Group. The end was now clearly in sight, and as part of Ninth Army, along with the newly arrived Fifteenth Army, reduced the enormous Ruhr Pocket, other elements reached the Elbe on 12 April.
On 2 May 1945, the whole of Ninth Armys front reached the agreed demarcation point with the Russians, in 2012, US Army Africa was re-designated as US Army Africa under the Army modularization program. Operation Queen Operation Plunder The Struggle for Europe, Chester Wilmot Interviews with William Hood Simpson. 30 June 1976,7 July 1976, University of Texas at San Antonio, Institute of Texan Cultures, Oral History Collection, UA15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections