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1. Victory ship – The Victory ship was a class of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. A total of 531 Victory ships were built, one of the first acts of the United States War Shipping Administration upon its formation in February 1942 was to commission the design of what came to be known as the Victory class. The design was an enhancement of the Liberty ship, which had successfully produced in extraordinary numbers. Victory ships were larger than Liberty ships,14 feet longer at 455 feet,6 feet wider at 62 ft. Displacement was up just under 1,000 tons, to 15,200, with a raised forecastle and a more sophisticated hull shape to help achieve the higher speed, they had a quite different appearance from Liberty ships. To make them vulnerable to U-boat attacks, Victory ships made 15 to 17 knots,4 to 6 knots faster than the Libertys. The extra speed was achieved through more modern, efficient engines, most used steam turbines, which had been in short supply earlier in the war and reserved for warships. All were oil-fired, but for a handful of Canadian vessels completed with both coal bunkers and oil tanks, another improvement was electrically powered auxiliary equipment, rather than steam-driven machinery. To prevent the hull fractures that a few Liberty ships developed and these were manned by United States Navy Armed Guard personnel. The VC2-S-AP5 Haskell-class attack transports were armed with the 5-inch stern gun, one quad 40 mm Bofors cannon, four dual 40 mm Bofors cannon, the Haskells were operated and crewed exclusively by U. S. Navy personnel. The Victory ship was noted for good proportion of cubic between holds for a ship of its day. A Victory ships cargo hold one, two and five hatches are a single rigged with a capacity of 70,400,76,700, and 69,500 bale cubic feet respectively. Victory ships hold three and four hatches are double rigged with a capacity of 136,100 and 100,300 bale cubic feet respectively. Victory ship have built in mast, booms and derrick cranes, the first vessel was SS United Victory launched at Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation on 12 January 1944 and completed on 28 February 1944, making her maiden voyage a month later. American vessels frequently had a name incorporating the word Victory, the British and Canadians used Fort and Park respectively. Although initial deliveries were slow—only 15 had been delivered by May 1944—by the end of the war 531 had been constructed, because the Atlantic battle had been won by the time that the first of the Victory ships appeared none were sunk by U-boats. Three were sunk by Japanese kamikaze attack in April of 1945, many Victory ships were converted to troopship to bring US soldiers home at the end of World War II as part of Operation Magic Carpet. A total of 97 Victory ships were converted to carry up to 1,600 soldiersVictory ship – SS Red Oak Victory, now a museum ship.
2. List of Victory ships – This is a list of Victory ships. Victory ships were a type of ship which were mass-produced in the United States during World War II. In the following list, Keel refers to the date of the keel laying, Launch to the launch date, the MC Hull No. is a unique number assigned by the United States Maritime Commission. Gaps in the numbers correspond to ships whose contracts were cancelledList of Victory ships – Victory ships under construction at California Shipbuilding, c. April 1944, are seen in this press photo released by the War Shipping Administration in May 1945.
3. Haskell-class attack transport – Haskell-class attack transports were amphibious assault ships of the United States Navy created in 1944. They were designed to transport 1,500 troops and their combat equipment, the Haskells were very active in the World War II Pacific Theater of Operations, landing Marines and Army troops and transporting casualties at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Ships of the class were among the first Allied ships to enter Tokyo Bay at the end of World War II, after the end of World War II, most participated in Operation Magic Carpet, the massive sealift of US personnel back to the United States. A few of the Haskell class were reactivated for the Korean War, the Haskell class, Maritime Commission standard type VC2-S-AP5, is a sub‑type of the World War II Victory ship design. 117 were launched in 1944 and 1945, with 14 more being finished as another VC2 type or canceled, the VC2-S-AP5 design was intended for the transport and assault landing of over 1,500 troops and their heavy combat equipment. During Operation Magic Carpet, up to 1,900 personnel per ship were carried homeward, the Haskells carried 25 landing craft to deliver the troops and equipment right onto the beach. The 23 main boats were the 36 feet long, LCVP, the LCVP was designed to carry 36 equipped troops. The other 2 landing craft were the 50 foot long LCM, capable of carrying 60 troops or 30 tons of cargo, the Haskell-class ships were armed with one 5/38 caliber gun, twelve Bofors 40 mm guns, and ten Oerlikon 20 mm guns. See List of Haskell-class attack transports, Haskell-class attack transports included APA-117, USS Haskell, the lead ship, through APA-247, the never completed USS Mecklenburg. The hulls for APA-181 through APA-186 were repurposed to be hospital ships before they were named, ultimately those hospital ships were built on larger C4 plan and the six VC2 hulls were built in a merchant configuration. APA-240 through APA-247 were named, but cancelled in 1945 when the war ended, with the special exception of the USS Marvin H. McIntyre, the Haskell-class ships were all named after counties of the United States. Most of the Haskell-class ships were mothballed in 1946, with only a few remaining in service, many of the Haskell class were scrapped in 1973-75. A few were converted into Missile Range Instrumentation Ships, the USS Gage, the last remaining ship in the Haskell configuration, was scrapped in 2009 at ESCO Marine, in Brownsville, Tx. The USS Sherburne, which was converted and renamed USS Range Sentinel, lasted until she was scrapped in 2012Haskell-class attack transport – USS Noble, a ship of the Haskell class, in 1956
4. USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164) – USNS Kingsport was built as SS Kingsport Victory, a United States Maritime Commission VC2-S-AP3 type cargo ship. During the closing days of World War II the ship was operated by the American Hawaiian Steamship Company under an agreement with the War Shipping Administration, after a period of layup the ship was operated as USAT Kingsport Victory by the Army under bareboat charter effective 8 July 1948. When Army transports were transferred to the Navys Military Sea Transportation Service the ship continued as USNS Kingsport Victory, on 14 November 1961, after conversion into the first satellite communication ship, the ship was renamed Kingsport, reclassified as a general auxiliary, and operated as USNS Kingsport. Basic dimensions, not counting modifications for satellite communications, were length 436 feet 6 inches,62 feet beam and 7,653 GRT, Kingsport Victory was immediately placed under operation by the American Hawaiian Steamship Company under War Shipping Administration general agency agreement. Kingsport Victory serviced a cargo ship to supply troop in the Pacific War, Kingsport Victory made trips between the California to Pearl Harbor. She streamed from California on 17 October 1944 arriving at Milne Bay and she moved cargo for the war to US troops and ships at Eniwetok, Iwo Jima, Guam, Ulithi atoll and Okinawa. After the war on December 1945 streamed from Okinawa to Hong Kong, through the Suez Canal she arrived at New York City on 27 February 1946. During 1946 she moved cargo from the US East and West Coasts, Kingsport Victory was active in delivering support for the Battle of Iwo Jima from 19 February to 26 March 1945. In each battle she had to use her guns to defend against air attacks. Kingsport Victory received one Battle stars for her World War II service, after the war, on 29 September 1947, she was taken out of service and placed in the reserve fleet at Lee Hall, Virginia. On 8 April 1948 the ship was out of reserve. During this time the ship was involved in a case, Johansen, v. United States. On 1 March 1950 she was removed from US Army Transport, Kingsport Victory was among large Army ships transferred to the Navys Military Sea Transportation Service with Kingsport Victory being transferred effective 1 March 1950. The ship carried cargo for the next eleven years as USNS Kingsport Victory. Kingsport Victory is seen in an Air Force documentary film on the construction of the Dew Line loading supplies at Norfolk, Virginia and unloading at Halifax, a demonstration of transmission of oceanographic data was made between a research vessel off Africa via the ship and satellite to Washington. The first air to ship satellite communication took place when Navy aircraft off Virginia established voice communication with Kingsport which was off Morocco, further satellite communications work took place in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Kingsport then supported Project Gemini into March 1966, after conversion from satellite configuration, particularly removal of the large and very visible dome, Kingsport was engaged in acoustic work for the Navy supporting undersea surveillance programs. On 24 September 1961, she was delivered to the Portland, on 14 November 1961 she was renamed Kingsport and reclassified AG-164USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164) – USNS Kingsport (T-AG 164) under way, 29 January 1963. The photo shows the 53-foot white plastic dome that protects the 30-foot stabilized parabolic antenna.
5. USS Sherburne (APA-205) – USS Sherburne was a US Navy Haskell-class attack transport, built and used during World War II. She was of the VC2-S-AP5 Victory ship design type, Sherburne was named for Sherburne County, Minnesota. She was later converted and renamed USS Range Sentinel, a range instrumentation ship. Sherburne was laid down under Maritime Commission contract, MC hull 553, on 18 May 1944, by the Permanente Metals Corporation, Yard No. 2, Richmond, California, launched on 10 July 1944, sponsored by Mrs. Mary Sernach, following commissioning, Sherburne proceeded to the Naval Supply Depot at Oakland, California. She remained in the San Francisco area until getting under way for San Pedro, the ship then returned to San Francisco to become a training vessel for APA and AP crews being assembled at the Precommissioning Training Center at Treasure Island. They were given training in handling, emergency drills, and in surface. Upon completion of repairs at the Bethlehem Steel Co. in San Francisco. From 14 to 29 January, the ship underwent strenuous training in all phases of amphibious operations, on 15 February, Sherburne departed San Francisco for Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on the morning of 21 February. On 20 March, the ship embarked her first contingent of troops and she arrived at Eniwetok on 28 March, and, after discharging cargo, proceeded to Kwajalein, arriving there on 31 March, and then to Ulithi which she reached on 6 April. She discharged cargo and troops at both ports, at Ulithi, she embarked a group of marines, and, on 15 April, the ship headed for Guam, arriving at Apra Harbor the following day. After embarking another group of Marines on 20 April, the continued on to Saipan. On 23 April, she embarked a group of Army troops, and, four days later, Sherburne arrived off Okinawa late in the afternoon of 1 May, and immediately began debarking troops and cargo. Operations were delayed by bad weather and air attacks, but, on the morning of 4 May, sailing the next day, she moored at San Francisco on 24 May. There she embarked troops, and, on 2 June, again sailed for the forward area and she refueled at Eniwetok and Ulithi, and arrived at Manila on the morning of 23 May. On 4 July, she loaded Army troops for Cebu and delivered them two days later. She then proceeded via Leyte to Biak, where she arrived on 11 July, there she loaded Army troops and sailed for Zamboanga, where she disembarked some of her troops on 17 July. Arriving at Manila two days later, she put the rest of her troops and cargo ashore and shifted to Subic Bay on 25 July for minor repairs, on 4 August 1945, Sherburne sailed for Lucena in Tayabas Bay, Luzon, for amphibious training of Army troopsUSS Sherburne (APA-205) – USNS Range Sentinel (T-AGM-22) underway in 1985
6. SS American Victory – SS American Victory is a Victory ship which saw brief service in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the waning months of World War II, Korean War from 1951-1954, and Vietnam War from 1967-1969. Built in June 1945, she carried ammunition and other cargo from U. S, west Coast ports to Southeast Asia, then ferried cargo, equipment and troops back to the U. S. after the war ended. She survived two typhoons, and one hurricane and she sailed across the world twice. American Victory spent half of the period between 1946 and 1966 chartered to commercial carriers and the half in two stints in U. S. reserve fleets. From 1966 to 1969 she delivered cargo to Southeast Asia in the Vietnam War, in April 1999, she was turned over to a preservation organization to serve as a museum ship. Today she is the feature of the American Victory Ship & Museum, also known as the American Victory Mariners Memorial & Museum Ship in Tampa. Named after American University in Washington, D. C. the ship was built at the California Shipbuilding Yard in Los Angeles, SS American Victory was at first assigned to the U. S. Army at Fort Mason, California. She was a United States Merchant Marine ship operated by the American Export-Isbrandtsen Lines and she loaded up cargo at a few west coast ports and streamed to Manila in the Philippines. Manila had been liberated on March 3,1945 and was in need of supplies and she took her remaining cargo to Shanghai, China. In November of 1945, she sailed to Calcutta and Port Said, Egypt and she arrived in New York in January of 1946 and unloaded her cargo, having completed her around the world trip. At the end of the war she ferried cargo, equipment. Some of her Ports of call were, Trieste in Italy, Constanza in Romania, Piraeus in Greece and she was then laid up in the Hudson River Reserve Fleet until she was again chartered by commercial shipping lines, U. S. Navigation Company, during the Korean War from 1951 until January 1954 and this scheme was cancelled in February 1966 after only three conversions had been carried out. Had American Victory been converted, she would have been renamed USNS Carthage, American Victory was removed from the reserve fleet in 1966 and chartered to the Hudson Waterways Corporation, which used her to ferry military equipment to American forces in South Vietnam. She was deactivated again in October 1969 and placed in the James River Reserve Fleet in Virginia where she remained until 1985, American Victory was then renovated as part of a program to determine the efforts needed to reactivate mothballed Victory ships. In June, after $2.5 million USD had been spent to bring her up to operational condition. One of several World War II Victory ships due to be scrapped in the late 1990s and she arrived at Tampa, Florida under tow to begin her new life as a museum ship and memorial on 16 September 1999. Several rooms, such as the quarters and galley cold storage, have been restored and are decorated in original period memorabiliaSS American Victory – SS American Victory
7. SS Lane Victory – SS Lane Victory is an American Victory-class cargo ship used in World War II, the Korean War and Vietnam War. The ship was preserved in 1989 to serve as a ship in the San Pedro area of Los Angeles. As a rare surviving Victory ship, she was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark, the school grew into a prominent liberal arts college. Lane Victory was built in Los Angeles by the California Shipbuilding Corporation, on her first voyage, June 27,1945, Lane Victory carried war supplies in the Pacific. The War Shipping Administration gave the operations of the ship to the American President Lines, United States Merchant Mariners operated the ship. The United States Navy Armed Guard, who manned the ships guns and she made two Pacific cruises, beginning July 10,1945 to Manus Island, and the second starting August 30,1945 to Guam, Saipan and Hawaii. The trip to Guam was to bring food to the island, on the way Lane Victory sailed through a typhoon and was tossed around for 14 days. On February 27,1946 her second voyage ended, with the end of World War II, she started shipping aid. In March 1946 she started delivering goods to Europe under the Marshall Plan, with the end of the aid plan, on May 11,1948 Lane Victory was laid up at Suisun Bay, California. In 1950 Lane Victory was taken out of storage and by October 1950 was back in service and she was then deployed to evacuate Korean civilians and United Nations personnel at Wonsan, North Korea. During December 1950 she evacuated over 3,800 U. S. troops and 1,100 vehicles from Hungnam while under attack during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. Lane Victory offloaded troops, vehicles and cargo as the cruiser USS Saint Paul, after unloading she evacuated 7,010 men, women and children, taking them south to safety. When the ship arrived 7,011 passengers disembarked, as a baby had been born during the voyage, on October 10,1953 she was laid up in Suisun Bay, California storage. An annual Korean War tribute day is held aboard SS Lane Victory in honor of those saved, in 1966 the ship was restored to duty again for the Vietnam War. She also saw duty during the conflict moving ammunition and supplies to, on April 29,1970 Lane Victory was laid up again at Suisun Bay for storage in the National Defense Reserve Fleet. During her three-war career, she traveled through the Far East Pacific, made a few transatlantic crossings, because of the ships excellent condition in storage at Suisun Bay, the Maritime Administration decided to set aside Lane Victory for preservation. President Ronald Reagan signed into law H. R.2032 on October 18,1988, joe Vernick, John Smith and a group of Merchant Marine veterans had worked for years for the ship to be released from the Reserve Fleet. Many upgrades were performed in order to bring Lane Victory up to Coast Guard standards and she was drydocked in 1992, and her hull was proved soundSS Lane Victory – SS Lane Victory at its previous berth by the Vincent Thomas Bridge.
8. SS Red Oak Victory (AK-235) – SS Red Oak Victory is a U. S. military Victory ship of the Boulder Victory-class cargo ship used in the Second World War. She was preserved to serve as a ship in Richmond, California. She was one of 534 Victories built during World War II and she was named after Red Oak, Iowa, which suffered a disproportionate number of casualties in early World War II battles. The ship was active during World War II, the Korean War, Red Oak Victory was built by the Permanente Metals Corporations Richmond Number 1 Yard in Richmond, California and launched on 9 November 1944. Victory ships were not intended to be lasting, but the welds of the Red Oak Victory are still intact after 60 years. The ship is 455 feet in length, and armed with one five-inch/38 caliber gun, one three-inch/50 caliber gun, the ship was acquired by the United States Navy on 5 December 1944 and commissioned the same day as USS Red Oak Victory. Following a fitting-out period, Red Oak Victory was loaded with cargo, Red Oak Victory departed Hawaii on 10 February loaded with munitions needed in the Marshall and Caroline islands. Sent onward from Enewetak, she arrived in Ulithi on 28 February, operating out of the Philippines, she issued cargo and ammunition to various ships in the fleet through the end of the war in August 1945. During a hazardous tour of duty in the Pacific, Red Oak Victory handled many tons of ammunition, Red Oak Victory was decommissioned in 1946 and returned to the U. S. Maritime Commission. Red Oak Victory was used by the Luckenbach Steamship Company from 1947 through the 1950s, during which time the vessel went to Japan, Korea, Cuba, Pakistan, India, Singapore and Japan again. From 1968 until 1998, she was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay, doomed to be scrapped, Red Oak Victory came to the attention of the Richmond Museum Association in 1993. In 1996 Congress passed legislation authorizing the conveyance of the ship to the Museum Association, Red Oak Victory was turned over to the Richmond Museum of History and returned to a new home in Richmond on 20 September 1998. She is being restored and operated by the Richmond Museum of History, National Register of Historic Places listings in Contra Costa County, California This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form / S. S. SS Red Oak Victory website Red Oak Victory Historic Naval Ships Association Historic American Engineering Record No, cA-326-F, Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, SS RED OAK VICTORY, Moored at end of Dornan Drive, Pt. Richmond, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CASS Red Oak Victory (AK-235) – SS Red Oak Victory
9. Port Chicago disaster – The Port Chicago disaster was a deadly munitions explosion that occurred on July 17,1944, at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, United States. Munitions detonated while being loaded onto a cargo bound for the Pacific Theater of Operations, killing 320 sailors and civilians. Most of the dead and injured were enlisted African-American sailors, a month later, unsafe conditions inspired hundreds of servicemen to refuse to load munitions, an act known as the Port Chicago Mutiny. Fifty men—called the Port Chicago 50—were convicted of mutiny and sentenced to 15 years of prison and hard labor, forty-seven of the 50 were released in January 1946, the remaining three served additional months in prison. During and after the trial, questions were raised about the fairness, due to public pressure, the United States Navy reconvened the courts-martial board in 1945, the court affirmed the guilt of the convicted men. In 1994, the Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Memorial was dedicated to the lives lost in the disaster, the town of Port Chicago was located on Suisun Bay in the estuary of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Suisun Bay is connected to the Pacific Ocean by San Francisco Bay, the original magazine was planned in 1941 with construction beginning shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The first ship to dock at Port Chicago was loaded on December 8,1942, munitions transported through the magazine included bombs, shells, naval mines, torpedoes and small arms ammunition. From the beginning, all the men employed as loaders at Port Chicago were African American. Each of the men had been specifically trained for one of the naval ratings during his stay at Naval Station Great Lakes. None of the new recruits had been instructed in ammunition loading, at NSGL, the enlisted African Americans who tested in the top 30 to 40 percent were selected for non-labor battalion assignments. Port Chicago was manned by workers drawn from those remaining, the Navys General Classification Test results for the enlisted men at Port Chicago averaged 31, putting them in the lowest twelfth of the Navy. Officers at Port Chicago considered the enlisted men unreliable, emotional, Black laborers at Port Chicago were led by black petty officers who were regarded by some workers as incompetent and ineffective in voicing their mens concerns to higher authority. Petty officers were seen as having aims fundamentally different from those of their men—they were described later as slave drivers and they and their men sometimes struck an antagonistic relationship. Prior to his being sent to command Port Chicago, Kinne had no training in the loading of munitions, most loading officers considered this goal too high. On a prominent chalkboard, Kinne tallied each crews average tonnage per hour, the junior officers placed bets with each other in support of their own 100-man crews—called divisions at Port Chicago—and coaxed their crews to load more than the others. The enlisted men were aware of the nature of the bets. There was no system at Port Chicago for making sure officers, Two formal lectures and several informal lectures were given to the enlisted men by commanding officers, but follow-up confirmation of retained knowledge did not take placePort Chicago disaster – Damage at the Port Chicago Pier after the explosion of July 17, 1944
10. SS Park Victory – The wreck is at about 59. 780947°N21. 368122°E /59.780947,21.368122 The SS Park Victory was a Victory-class cargo ship built during World War II under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. The ships military service is uncertain as it was launched on April 21,1945, the ship was named in honor of Park College, one of 150 educational institutions that had Victory ships named after them. Park College was selected as a center for the V-12 Navy College Training Program from 1943 to 1945. This partnership between the Navy and Park College may have led to the naming of a ship in the colleges honor, in reciprocation, Park College donated $300 to buy 120 books for the library aboard the Park Victory. The launching ceremony on April 21,1945 was attended by several Park alumni, in 1946 the SS Park Victory was converted to livestock carrier, manned by sea cowboys. The Park Victory load up with 485 horses and 322 heifers and she arrived in Trieste, Italy and unload the livestock. The livestock were transported by train and trucks to Yugoslavia. From 1945 to 1947 the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and these seagoing cowboys made about 360 trips on 73 different ships. The Heifers for Relief project was started by the Church of the Brethren started in 1942, the SS SS Carroll Victory was also one of these ships, known as a cowboy ship, as she move livestock across the Atlantic Ocean. The SS Park Victory moved horses, heifers, and mules also a few chicks, rabbits, and goats. SS Park Victory sank in the Gulf of Finland near Utö on Christmas Night, about 02.15 AM local time, the rock opened a hole in the engine room and a boiler explosion followed. The ship sank just off of the Utö Lighthouse, the Master of the ship, Allen Zepp, initially lost his license when a Coast Guard examiner said that Zepp failed to maintain an adequate anchor watch. The decision was overturned on appeal, the 38 crew members of total of 48 survived the ordeal. The 38 survivors along with 2 bodies left Utö island on December 26, after the crew returned home, the helpful islanders were sent coffee and sugar to thank the people who brought them to the shore and took them to shelter in their homes. The villagers sold the gift sugar and coffee, which was scarce just after the war, on the candle holder are engraved the names of crew members who perished in the accident. Every Christmas Eve, the candles are lit in the Utö church chapel in memory of the accident, list of Victory ships Liberty ship Type C1 ship Type C2 ship Type C3 ship Sawyer, L. A. and W. H. Mitchell. Victory ships and tankers, The history of the ‘Victory’ type cargo ships and of the built in the United States of America during World War II, Cornell Maritime Press,1974. United States Maritime Commission, Victory Cargo ShipsSS Park Victory – Park Victory commemorative candle holder in Utö Chapel
11. SS Quinault Victory – Quinault Victory was the 31st Victory ship to be launched by Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation in Portland, Oregon on June 17,1944. She was sponsored by Mrs. Carroll McQueen with Mrs. A. T, eaton and Mrs. Walter A. Sovey as matrons of honor and a flower girl Ruth Burgwald. Upon delivery to the War Shipping Administration Quinault Victory was leased to the United States Lines Company under the United States Merchant Marine act for the War Shipping Administration. Some of the oil taken aboard was of a type that released light hydrocarbon gas on agitation, heating and this could have resulted in formation of an explosive mixture in the confined air space above the oil in the tanks. Prior to being sent to Martinez for an inspection was made by the Port Directors officers and the Captain of the Ports office. Upon leaving Martinez she sailed up Suisun Bay to Port Chicago Naval Magazine, some difficulty was experienced in mooring her due to winds and tides. She was moored on the side headed east at the outboard berth across from the SS E. A. The number 5 cargo hold was not being rigged, as it was not to be loaded that night, as a new ship, this was the first time the Quinault Victory had been rigged for loading. Trouble was experienced with shackles and preventer guys as they were non-standard, winding on some of the winches were on backwards and had to be corrected. Loading normally have started at midnight, dunnage ammunition and loaded railcars were parked on the pier for loading to the ships. The railcars slated for Quinault Victory contained 253 tons of bombs and 5 inch projectiles for 5/25 caliber guns. Across the pier the E. A. Bryan was already loaded with 6,064 tons of ammunition and had an additional 176 tons on the pier, including 60 tons of incendiary clusters, to be loaded before departing. On July 17,1944, at 10,18 PM local time, the detonation of 4,600 tons of munitions being loaded onto the Quinault Victory and E. A. Bryan, registered at a magnitude of 3.4 on the seismograph at the University of California, Berkeley, the force of the explosions lifted the Quinault Victory out of the water, she landed 500 feet away upside-down, facing the opposite direction. The E. A. Bryan was vaporized, as there were no remains of her following the explosions. 320 sailors and dockworkers were killed and 390 were injured, making it the worst U. S. home front disaster of World War II, seamen – Ordinary, Floyd F. Crist, Lloyd K. McDaniel, Isadore E. Narinsky, Lester S. Skance. Engineering Department, Donald H. Cheney, Ellis Hendricks, Eugene W. Garrett, Walter Frederick Kanneberg, Earl L. Mallery, liberty ship = Previous cargo ship. List of Victory ships Type C1 ship Type C2 ship Type C3 shipSS Quinault Victory – SS Quinalut Victory 18 July 1944
12. SS Escanaba Victory – USS Regulus was a Denebola-class stores ship acquired by the United States Navy. Her task was to carry stores, refrigerated items, and equipment to ships in the fleet, the second vessel to be named Regulus by the Navy, Regulus was built under United States Maritime Commission contract under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. She was laid down as SS Escanaba Victory by the Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation, Portland, Oregon,29 April 1944 and she sponsored by Mrs. Aubrey D. Day, and delivered to the Maritime Commission 29 June 1944. SS Escanaba Victory serviced as a cargo ship for World War II. She was operated by the American South African Line under the US Maritime Commission and she served in the Pacific War and participating in the landings on Leyte. Escanaba Victory supported troops in the Leyte landings from 18 Oct.19944 to 29 Nov.1944 and she earned battle stars for use of her deck guns in defending herself and other US ships. In 1948 she was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Wilmington, in 1950 she was removed from the Reserve Fleet and repaired. She was operated by the North American Shipping Company for the Maritime Commission to deliver supplies to Korea for the Korean War, the SS Escanaba Victory transported goods, mail, food and other supplies. About 90 percent of the cargo was moved by merchant marine naval to the war zone, SS Escanaba Victory made trips to Korea between 1950 to 1952, helping American forces engaged against Communist aggression in South Korea. She was Commanded by John D. Lautaret, completing initial training and outfitting on the west coast, Regulus, homeported at Alameda, California, loaded at San Francisco, California, and on 8 May 1954 got underway for the Far East. Returning to San Francisco 2 December, she was deployed again 26 February–26 August 1955, from 1955 to 1970 she continued to rotate regularly to the western Pacific Ocean, transporting in 1957 art treasures from Korea to the United States for exhibition. While riding out typhoon Rose at Hong Kong, Regulus grounded on Kau I Chau Island on 17 August 1971, after three weeks of attempting to refloat Regulus, it was finally decided that the damage she had incurred was too severe to warrant salvage. The ship was cut up and removed in pieces, Regulus was decommissioned 10 September 1971 and subsequently struck from the Navy List. NavSource Online, Service Ship Photo Archive - AF-57 RegulusSS Escanaba Victory – Regulus replenishing USS America, in 1970
13. SS Boulder Victory – USS Boulder Victory was a Boulder Victory-class cargo ship acquired by the US Navy during World War II. She carried ammunition into the Pacific Ocean war zone and, on 20 December 1944 at Manus, New Guinea, she struck a naval mine, Boulder Victory was laid down on 18 June 1944, at Richmond, California, by Permanente Metals Corporation, Yard No. On 17 October, the newly commissioned cargo ship sailed to San Francisco, California and her holds were filled by 2 November, and Boulder Victory got underway for the western Pacific. Boulder Victory received orders to transfer ammunition between these bases as needed and she made port at Eniwetok on 17 November to refuel, entered the lagoon at Ulithi on 30 November, and reached Kossol Passage on 8 December. Floating mines from that island were a constant danger, on 20 December, as Boulder Victory set out for Manus, she struck one of those mines on her port side. The explosion tore a hole in her No.3 hold that measured 18 by 32 ft, the hold contained 5-inch projectiles, but the fires started by the explosion were extinguished by the rapid rush of seawater into the space. As a consequence, only two shells exploded, leaving two 16-inch holes in the skin of the ship, Boulder Victory remained afloat, although low in the water, and, after emergency repairs to the engines, managed to get into Palau again on her own power. Her crew suffered no casualties, but the damage to the ship was so severe that her wartime operations ended, the cargo ship remained anchored at Kossol Passage unloading ammunition and cleaning debris from the hold until 8 February 1945. She then slowly steamed to Manus to unload the remainder of her cargo, finally, on 13 June, Boulder Victorys temporary repairs made her seaworthy again, and she set course via Pearl Harbor for San Francisco. On 30 June, the ship began an overhaul by United Engineering Company at Alameda, California. Boulder Victory was still in overhaul when the Japanese capitulated in August, but, on 1 September and she got underway on 10 October, to carry supplies to the occupation troops in Japan. After a refueling stop at Eniwetok, Boulder Victory continued on to Okinawa where she arrived on 30 October and she unloaded her cargo and embarked returning veterans. On 10 November, she set sail for the United States, after discharging her passengers, the ship sailed for San Francisco, where she commenced demilitarization on 5 December and was returned to the War Shipping Administration on 4 January 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 21 January 1946, during 1946 and 1947, Boulder Victory was operated by Parry Navigation Company, Inc. She was then inactivated and laid up at Wilmington, North Carolina, until 1951, on 29 October 1953, she was transferred to the National Defense Reserve Fleet, at Suisun Bay, California. On 20 May 1957, American President Lines removed Boulder Victory so that the University of California could conduct thermal stress tests on her and she was returned 3 September 1957. She was removed 1 December 1983, for scrapping by C. J. W and she was scrapped in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, between 1983 and 1984SS Boulder Victory – USS Boulder Victory (AK-227) at Ulithi, 9 June 1945, after being drydocked there in USS ABSD-2 to repair mine damage.
14. Liberty ship – The Liberty ship was a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II. Though British in conception, the design was adapted by the United States for its simple, mass-produced on an unprecedented scale, the now iconic Liberty ship came to symbolize U. S. wartime industrial output. The class was developed to meet British orders for transports to replace those torpedoed by German U-boats, the vessels were purchased both for the U. S. fleet and lend-lease deliveries of war materiel to Britain and the Soviet Union. Eighteen American shipyards built 2,710 Liberty ships between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships produced to a single design and their production mirrored on a much larger scale the manufacture of the Hog Islander and similar standardized ship types during World War I. Only three Liberty Ships are preserved, two as operational museum ships. S, the number was doubled in 1939 and again in 1940 to 200 ships a year. Ship types included two tankers and three types of merchant vessel, all to be powered by steam turbines, limited industrial capacity, especially for reduction gears, meant that relatively few of these ships were built. In 1940 the British government ordered 60 Ocean-class freighters from American yards to replace war losses and these were simple but fairly large with a single 2,500 horsepower compound steam engine of obsolete but reliable design. Britain specified coal-fired plants, because it then had extensive coal mines, the order specified an 18-inch increase in draft to boost displacement by 800 long tons to 10,100 long tons. The accommodation, bridge, and main engine were located amidships, the first Ocean-class ship, SS Ocean Vanguard, was launched on 16 August 1941. The design was modified by the United States Maritime Commission, in part to increase conformity to American construction practices, but more importantly to make it even quicker and cheaper to build. The US version was designated EC2-S-C1, EC for Emergency Cargo,2 for a ship between 400 and 450 feet long, S for steam engines, and C1 for design C1. The new design replaced much riveting, which accounted for one-third of the costs, with welding. It was adopted as a Merchant Marine Act design, and production awarded to a conglomerate of West Coast engineering and construction companies headed by Henry J. Kaiser known as the Six Companies. Liberty ships were designed to carry 10,000 long tons of cargo, usually one type per ship, but, during wartime, generally carried loads far exceeding this. On 27 March 1941, the number of ships was increased to 200 by the Defense Aid Supplemental Appropriations Act and increased again in April to 306. By 1941, the turbine was the preferred marine steam engine because of its greater efficiency compared to earlier reciprocating compound steam engines. Eighteen different companies built the engine. It had the advantage of ruggedness and simplicityLiberty ship – SS John W. Brown, one of two surviving operational Liberty ships, photographed in 2000
15. Empire ship – An Empire ship was one a group of merchant ships prefixed with the name Empire in the service of the British Government during and after the Second World War. Most were used by the Ministry of War Transport, which owned them, the ships came from two main sources, new construction, and capture and seizure. Others were captured or seized from enemy powers, New Empire ship construction represented an enormous undertaking that included classes of freighters, tankers, aircraft carriers, fast cargo liners, tank landing ships, and at least seven others. Total production numbered in the hundreds, Empire ships were supplements to Britains normal peacetime merchant fleet, swelling its wartime numbers to 12,000, then the largest merchant ship fleet in the world. Approximately 4,000 ships on the British register were lost between 1939 and 1945, a number being sunk during the Battle of the Atlantic. Significantly before Britain entered the Second World War on 3 September 1939, all shipbuilders had specified the capability of their yards to produce cargo ships, cargo liners, tramps, tankers, colliers, coasters and naval ships. The Ministry of Shipping, formed in October 1939 quickly adopted a standard naming system, with some exceptions, the prefix was also extended to purchased or requisitions ships and to those acquired as prizes. From 1 February 1940, the Admiralty took control of all shipbuilding and repairs, tramp ships were built to a standardised prefabricated design. The ships were 425 feet in length with a beam of 56 feet, with a deadweight of around 10,000 tons, the first standard to be used was the PF of about 7,050 GRT. These incorporated one 30-ton, two 10-ton and eight 5-ton derricks for cargo handling, the PF design was introduced in 1942 to handle heavier military equipment, and was equipped with one 50-ton, one 30-ton, five 10-ton and five 5-ton derricks. PF were around 7,320 gross tons, the later PF was similar to PF, at 7,370 tons, but could be distinguished by a full-height poop. Some had 250,000 cubic feet of refrigerated space, Empire F was a series of small coasters of 142 feet in length with a gross tonnage of 410 GT. with one single diesel engine, two holds and two 1.5 tons derricks. The hull was the same as the coastal tanker series. Accommodation was good because the five berth cabin for the D. E. M. S, gunners was available and several vessels were modified after the war to make better use of all the spaces. From the two tankers at the other smaller tankers then shipped the water to depot ships and warships they also replenished the LBW’s. This method of replenishment was in operation until D-Day plus forty when it became possible to use the channel ports. Chant 69, this time carrying water performed a similar evolution a short while later and it was then decided to bring all the class into the confines of the gooseberry shelters until a Royal Navy Constructor could carry out stability tests. Others carried out sterling service, Chant 23 lying off Sword Beach had been hit by a shell in her engine room and disabledEmpire ship – RFA Wave Victor, ex Empire Bounty
16. Fort ship – The Fort ships were a class of 198 cargo ships built in Canada during World War II for use by the United Kingdom under the Lend-Lease scheme. They all had names prefixed with Fort when built, the ships were in service between 1942 and 1985, with two still listed on shipping registers until 1992. A total of 53 were lost during the war due to accidents or enemy action, one of these, Fort Stikine, was destroyed in 1944 by the detonation of 1,400 tons of explosive on board her. This event, known as the Bombay Explosion, killed over 800 people, the Fort ships were 424 feet 6 inches long with a beam of 57 feet 0 inches. They were assessed at 7,130 GRT, the ships were of three types, the North Sands type, which were of riveted construction, and the Canadian and Victory types, which were of welded construction. They were built by eighteen different Canadian shipyards and their triple expansion steam engines were built by seven different manufacturers. The ships were built between 1941 and 1945 by ten different builders, the first to be built was Fort St. James, which was laid down on 23 April 1941 and launched on 15 October. The eight ships built by Burrard Dry Dock cost $1,856,500 each, during World War II,28 were lost to enemy action, and four were lost due to accidents. Many of the surviving 166 ships passed to the United States Maritime Commission, the last recorded scrapping was in 1985, and two ships, the former Fort St. James and Fort St. Paul, were listed on Lloyds Register until 1992. Twenty-eight ships were lost due to action and a further 25 due to accidents. On 17 May 1942, Fort QuAppelle was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-135, on 17 August 1942, Fort La Reine was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-658. On 6 March 1943, Fort Battle River was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-410, on 17 March 1943, Fort Cedar Lake was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-338 and U-665. On 20 March 1943, Fort Mumford was torpedoed and sunk in the Indian Ocean by I-27, on 30 March 1943, Fort A La Corne was torpedoed and sunk in the Mediterranean Sea by U-596. On 17 April 1943, Fort Rampart was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-226, on 11 May 1943, Fort Concord was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-456. On 11 June 1943, Fort Good Hope was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-159, on 16 July 1943, Fort Franklin was torpedoed and sunk in the Indian Ocean by U-181. On 20 July 1943, Fort Pelly was bombed and sunk at Augusta, on 24 July 1943, Fort Chilcotin was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-172. On 6 August 1943, Fort Halkett was torpedoed, shelled, on 13 September 1943, Fort Babine was bombed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by Luftwaffe aircraft. On 19 September 1953, Fort Longueuil was torpedoed and sunk in the Pacific Ocean by U-532, on 23 September 1943, Fort Jemseg was torpedoed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by U-238Fort ship – Fort Stikine
17. Park ship – Park Ships were merchant steamships constructed for Canada’s Merchant Navy during the Second World War. Park ships and Fort ships were the Canadian equivalent of the American Liberty Ships, all three shared a similar design by J. L. Thompson and Sons of Sunderland, England. The Jasper Park was first Park ship sank to enemy attack, the Allied merchant fleet suffered significant losses in the early years of the Battle of the Atlantic as a result of U-boat attacks. This was part of a coordinated Allied effort that saw the construction of British, over the next three years, the company ordered approximately 160 bulk cargo ships and 20 tankers that would all fly the Canadian flag. Ships at 10,000 tons deadweight were known as Park class, smaller vessels, at a nominal 4,700 tons, were at first designated Grey class but were later called Park ships as well and were commonly known as the 4700 tonner Park ships. All the Park ships were powered by coal driven steam engines, all but two vessels launched were named for federal, provincial or municipal parks in Canada. Some were armed with bow guns and anti-torpedo nets, two of the Park ships were lost to natural hazards and four were lost due to enemy action. One, Avondale Park, built at the Pictou Shipyard in Pictou, at the same time, Canada produced 90 additional vessels for the American government which were turned over to the British Merchant Navy under a lend-lease agreement. Built to the design but designed to burn oil instead of coal, these vessels were known as Fort ships. Notable ships of this type included Fort Cataraqui, Fort Rosalie, like many of the Fort ships, Fort Charlotte was launched as a Park. The shipbuilding program was not easy to implement as Canada had only four operational shipyards with nine berths in 1940, by 1943, there were six additional shipyards and a total of 38 berths. Only the yards at Montreal, Saint John, Victoria and Collingwood had existed before the war, by 1945, there were 57,000 men and women employed in building or repairing merchant ships in Canada and several thousand more were employed building ships for the Royal Canadian Navy. The table shows the name of the shipyard and city, eventually thousands of Canadians would serve aboard these Canadian Merchant Navy ships. Jasper Park was the first Park ship lost to enemy action, the Point Pleasant Park was torpedoed near Cape Town, South Africa on February 23,1945 with nine crew lost. The Tabor Park sank in the North Sea on March 13,1945 after U-boat attack, the Avondale Park sank with her British crew on May 7,1945. Allied technological cooperation during World War II Empire ships List of Liberty ships Syd CPark ship – Launch of SS Ashby Park at the Pictou Shipyard in 1944
18. Ocean ship – Eighteen were lost to enemy action and eight to accidents, survivors were sold postwar into merchant service. To expedite production, the type was based on an existing design, yards constructed to build the Oceans went immediately into production of Liberty hulls. Before and during construction the ships are mentioned as British Victory or victory ships as distinct from the United States variant known as the Liberty ship. On 19 December 1940 John D, each yard was estimated to need 5,000 or more workers. On 14 January 1941 groundbreaking took place for the new yard on a 48-acre site at Richmond, the sunken basins in the Maine yard were the first in the world used to mass-produce ships. The design was based on the British Sunderland Tramp, which originated in 1879 and was last built half a decade before becoming the basis for the Ocean class of freighter, the 1940 contract for the Ocean type called for them to be built in United States yards. They were all nominally 7,174 GRT with a length of 416 ft, electrical power was to be provided by single-cylinder, vertical steam engines powering two 25 kW generators. Emergency shipbuilding programs in Canada and the United States required over 700 standardized triple-expansion steam engines to be built in seventeen plants by a number of companies, a design of the North Eastern Marine Engineering Co. Ltd. General Machinery delivered its first engine to Todd California Shipbuilding Corporation for installation in Ocean Vanguard, one of the early classifications of the ship type had been as a Liberty V design, a term not apparently later used in a professional journals references. Thirty of the Oceans were built at Richmond, Californias Yard #1 by Todd-California Shipbuilding, all Oceans with name beginning with the letter V were built by means of electric welding at Richmond, California. The first Ocean type vessel launched was Ocean Vanguard on 16 August 1941, the first vessel from this yard was Ocean Liberty launched 20 December 1941. The ships, launched by flooding the construction basins and towing them to the fitting out docks, were all launched within fifteen minutes, five Ocean ships were transferred to foreign governments during the war. Eighteen ships were lost to enemy action during the war, although two were later salvaged and returned to service, eight ships were lost in accidents postwar. The Oceans served until the mid-1980s, with Ocean Athlete being scrapped in 1985, Ocean Merchant was on Chinese shipping registers as Zhan Dou 26 until 1992. 1, Richmond CA New England Shipbuilding, South Portland MEOcean ship – Ocean Traveller launch, August, 1942
19. Victory ships – The Victory ship was a class of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. A total of 531 Victory ships were built, one of the first acts of the United States War Shipping Administration upon its formation in February 1942 was to commission the design of what came to be known as the Victory class. The design was an enhancement of the Liberty ship, which had successfully produced in extraordinary numbers. Victory ships were larger than Liberty ships,14 feet longer at 455 feet,6 feet wider at 62 ft. Displacement was up just under 1,000 tons, to 15,200, with a raised forecastle and a more sophisticated hull shape to help achieve the higher speed, they had a quite different appearance from Liberty ships. To make them vulnerable to U-boat attacks, Victory ships made 15 to 17 knots,4 to 6 knots faster than the Libertys. The extra speed was achieved through more modern, efficient engines, most used steam turbines, which had been in short supply earlier in the war and reserved for warships. All were oil-fired, but for a handful of Canadian vessels completed with both coal bunkers and oil tanks, another improvement was electrically powered auxiliary equipment, rather than steam-driven machinery. To prevent the hull fractures that a few Liberty ships developed and these were manned by United States Navy Armed Guard personnel. The VC2-S-AP5 Haskell-class attack transports were armed with the 5-inch stern gun, one quad 40 mm Bofors cannon, four dual 40 mm Bofors cannon, the Haskells were operated and crewed exclusively by U. S. Navy personnel. The Victory ship was noted for good proportion of cubic between holds for a ship of its day. A Victory ships cargo hold one, two and five hatches are a single rigged with a capacity of 70,400,76,700, and 69,500 bale cubic feet respectively. Victory ships hold three and four hatches are double rigged with a capacity of 136,100 and 100,300 bale cubic feet respectively. Victory ship have built in mast, booms and derrick cranes, the first vessel was SS United Victory launched at Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation on 12 January 1944 and completed on 28 February 1944, making her maiden voyage a month later. American vessels frequently had a name incorporating the word Victory, the British and Canadians used Fort and Park respectively. Although initial deliveries were slow—only 15 had been delivered by May 1944—by the end of the war 531 had been constructed, because the Atlantic battle had been won by the time that the first of the Victory ships appeared none were sunk by U-boats. Three were sunk by Japanese kamikaze attack in April of 1945, many Victory ships were converted to troopship to bring US soldiers home at the end of World War II as part of Operation Magic Carpet. A total of 97 Victory ships were converted to carry up to 1,600 soldiersVictory ships – SS Red Oak Victory, now a museum ship.