The Rideau Canal, known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Canada, on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario, on Lake Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length, the name Rideau, French for curtain, is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau Rivers twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes, the Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada. The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States and it remains in use today primarily for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the open for navigation in mid-May and close in mid-October. It is the oldest continuously operated system in North America. Lawrence River, which would have severed the lifeline between Montreal and Kingston, the British built a number of other canals as well as a number of forts to impede and deter any future American invasions of Canadian territory.
The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply, westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown, southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario. The objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence bordering New York, the canal served a commercial purpose. The Rideau Canal was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River because of the series of rapids between Montreal and Kingston, as a result, the Rideau Canal became a busy commercial artery from Montreal to the Great Lakes. However, by 1849, the rapids of the St. Lawrence had been tamed by a series of locks, the construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers. Colonel John By decided to create a canal system instead of constructing new channels. This was an approach as it required fewer workers, was more cost effective. The canal work started in the fall of 1826, and it was completed by the spring of 1832, the final cost of the canals construction was £822,804 by the time all the costs, including land acquisitions costs, were accounted for.
Given the unexpected cost overruns, John By was recalled to London and was retired with no accolades or recognition for the tremendous accomplishment hed achieved, once the canal was constructed, no further military engagements took place between Canada and the United States. Although the Rideau Canal never had to be used as a supply route. Tens of thousands of immigrants from the British Isles travelled the Rideau in this period, hundreds of barge loads of goods were shipped each year along the Rideau, allowing Montreal to compete commercially in the 1830s and 40s with New York as a major North American port. In 1841, for instance, there were 19 steamboats,3 self-propelled barges and 157 unpowered or tow barges using the Rideau Canal, as many as one thousand of the workers died from malaria, other diseases and accidents
Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is the union of the Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada and the Glacier National Park in the United States. Both parks are declared Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO and their union as a World Heritage Site, the union of the parks was achieved through the efforts of Rotary International members from Alberta and Montana, on June 18,1932. The dedication address was given by Sir Charles Arthur Mander, 2nd Baronet, the two parks are administered separately and have separate entrance fees. Waterton Lakes National Park Glacier National Park Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park World Heritage Site. Media related to Waterton Glacier International Peace Park at Wikimedia Commons UNESCO World Heritage Site Entry
Nahanni National Park Reserve
Nahanni National Park Reserve in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories, approximately 500 km west of Yellowknife, protects a portion of the Mackenzie Mountains Natural Region. The centrepiece of the park is the South Nahanni River, four noteworthy canyons reaching 1,000 m in depth, called First, Second and Fourth Canyon, line this spectacular whitewater river. There are several different landforms in the park that have millions of years to form. Sediment left by an ancient inland sea 500-200 million years ago had since become pressed into layers of rock and these layers were stacked about 6 kilometres deep and are peppered with fossils, remnants of these ancient sea beds. As the continents shifted, the North American and Pacific Plates collided, ridges of rock bent and broke, leaving behind the ranges seen today. This same action caused volcanic activity, sending molten lava into, while there are no volcanoes in the park, towers of heated rock called igneous batholiths were sent upwards, pushing the sediment further up.
The top layer of rock was eventually eroded away, resulting in granite towers that form the Ragged Range. Over the last 2 million years, glaciers have covered most of North America, while previous ice ages affected the park area, the most recent, the Wisconsin Ice Age touched only the most western and eastern parts of the park. This has left many geological features in the much more time to develop than most of North America had. The central feature of the park is the South Nahanni River which runs the length of the park, beginning near Moose Ponds, the South Nahanni is a rare example of an antecedent river. The mountains rose slowly enough, and the river was powerful enough that the maintained its course over its history. As the river was meandering, the canyons it carved meander, most visitors only visit the portions from Virginia Falls down. There are four main canyons that line the South Nahanni River, named by prospectors, Third canyon runs through Funeral Range, around 40 km long. Because its walls are composed of a stratum of shale and limestone this canyon has long slopes instead of steep, big Bend, a point where the river does a 45 degree turn, marks the end of Third and the beginning of Second Canyon.
At 15 km long, it runs through the Headless Range, the final canyon is considered the most beautiful. Beginning after Deadmen Valley, First Canyon boasts the highest, most vertical walls and it ends near Kraus Hotsprings, making it about 30 km long. Following this, the river slows and braids into different channels, passing through the park boundary, soon after the town, the South Nahanni River joins the Liard River. Notable mountains in the park include Mount Nirvana, officially an unnamed peak, slightly further north lies Mount Sir James MacBrien, the territories second highest peak at 2,759 m, and Lotus Flower Tower both of which form part of the Cirque of the Unclimbables
Herschel Island is an island in the Beaufort Sea, which lies 5 km off the coast of Yukon in Canada, of which it is administratively a part. The earliest evidence of human occupation unearthed so far by archaeological investigations is that of the Thule culture and these people are the ancestors of the present-day Inuvialuit. The Inuvialuktun word for Herschel Island is Qikiqtaruk, which means island. The first European to sight the island was explorer Sir John Franklin and it is not clear after whom the island was named. At the time of Franklins explorations there were three Inuvialuit settlements on Herschel Island, estimates of the number of people living on the island at that time ranged from 200 to 2000. The island was used as a base for hunting and whaling, in the late 19th century, whalers discovered that the Beaufort Sea was one of the last refuges of the depleted bowhead whale, which was prized for its baleen and oil. Commercial bowhead hunting in the began in 1889. In order for the short Arctic whaling season to be profitable, Herschel Island was found to have a good harbour for large whaling ships.
In 1890 a Euro-American settlement was established at Pauline Cove, at the height of the Beaufort Sea whaling period the number of residents on the island was estimated at 1,500, making it the largest Yukon community at that time. Though several frame buildings had been constructed, most residents continued to live on whaling ships, in 1893, the Pacific Steam Whaling Company constructed a building called the Community House at Pauline Cove. With a recreation room, an office for the manager and storekeeper, and storage facilities, in 1896 the company offered the house to the Anglican church, who used the building until 1906. In 1903, Francis Joseph Fitzgerald was the first North-West Mounted Police officer assigned to the area, in 1911, the Royal North-West Mounted Police purchased all Herschel Island assets of the PSW Co. for $1,500. The Community House still stands, and is believed to be the oldest frame building in Yukon and it remains in excellent condition, and is now used as a park office and visitor centre.
The first court held in the Canadian Arctic took place at Pauline Cove in 1924 in a building known as the Bonehouse. Court officials traveled from Edmonton for the trial of two Inuvialuit men charged with murder, jury members were chosen in Fort McPherson, Arctic Red River and Herschel Island. The men were guilty, and were hanged from a tie beam in the Bonehouse. The tie beam was removed by the RCMP when they left the island in 1963, Anglican missionary Isaac Stringer first visited Herschel Island in 1893. He returned with his wife in 1896, and ministered to the people there until his departure in 1901, Stringer and other missionaries attempted to build a church on the island, but were not successful
Quttinirpaaq National Park
Quttinirpaaq National Park is a Canadian national park. In Inuktitut, Quttinirpaaq means top of the world and it was established as Ellesmere Island National Park Reserve in 1988, and the name was changed to Quttinirpaaq in 1999, when Nunavut was created, and became a national park in 2000. The reserve covers 37,775 square kilometres, making it the second largest park in Canada, the land is dominated by rock and ice. It is a desert with very little annual precipitation. Much of the highlands of the park are covered in ice caps and these ice caps, and the glaciers that descend from them, date back at least to the last episode of glaciation. The park includes Barbeau Peak, which at 2,616 m is the highest mountain in Nunavut, some wildlife, notably Arctic hares, lemmings and Arctic wolves reside in this national park, but sparse vegetation and low temperatures support only small populations. There is a very small Peary caribou population as well, other animal inhabitants include ringed seals, bearded seals, polar bears, and narwhals.
During summer months, birds nest in the park including semipalmated plovers, red knots, common plants include dwarf willow and Arctic cotton, in addition to grasses and lichens. Plant and animal life is concentrated in the Lake Hazen region. Due to its latitude and limited wildlife, there has never been any significant human presence within this part of Ellesmere Island. The pass from Tanquary Fiord through to Lake Hazen shows evidence of being used by Arctic people since about 5000 years ago, tent rings and food caches show that the area was visited by pre-Dorset and Thule people, the ancestors of modern Inuit. The east and north end of the island was used as a point for various polar explorations. Fort Conger was an early Arctic exploration research base, and is now maintained as a Federal Heritage Building, Parks Canada maintains warden stations and gravel air strips at Tanquary Fiord Airport, Lake Hazen and Ward Island. Tanquary Fiord and Lake Hazen are the main points for tourists. Beyond these warden stations, there are no facilities within the park itself, two backpacking routes are the route between Lake Hazen and Tanquary Fiord, and a loop around the Ad Astra and Viking ice caps, both approximately 100 kilometres.
In 2004, the park was one of nine sites added to Canadas tentative list of potential World Heritage Sites, List of National Parks of Canada List of protected areas of Nunavut Arctic Cordillera NASA Earth Observatory page Parks Canada
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, the Far North may refer to the Canadian Arctic, the portion of Canada north of the Arctic Circle and lies east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canadas total land area, for some purposes, Northern Canada may include Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called northernness that other Arctic territories share. Canada is the northernmost country in the Americas and roughly 80% of its 35 million inhabitants are concentrated along its border with the United States. Combined with the fact that all of the country experiences severely cold winters along with short and relatively cool summers. Due to the concentration of its population along the border. Southern Canada is therefore considered to be a region only when it is contrasted against or viewed from the North, as a social rather than political region, the Canadian north is often subdivided into two distinct regions based on climate, the near north and the far north.
The different climates of these two regions result in different vegetation, and therefore very different economies, settlement patterns. The near north or subarctic is mostly synonymous with the Canadian boreal forest and this area has traditionally been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, that is the First Nations, who were hunters of moose, freshwater fishers and trappers. This region was involved in the North American fur trade during its peak importance. The area was part of Ruperts Land or the North-Western Territory under the nominal control of the Hudsons Bay Company from 1670–1869. The HBCs claim was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and this opened the region to non-Native settlement, as well as to forestry and oil and gas drilling. Today several million people live in the north, around 15% of the Canadian total. The far north is synonymous with the north of the tree line. This area is home to the various sub-groups of the Inuit and these are people who have traditionally relied mostly on hunting marine mammals and caribou, mainly barren-ground caribou, as well as fish and migratory birds.
This area was somewhat involved in the fur trade, but was influenced by the whaling industry. Very few non-Aboriginal people have settled in areas, and the residents of the far north represent less than 1% of Canadas total population
Gros Morne National Park
Gros Morne National Park is a world heritage site located on the west coast of Newfoundland. At 1,805 km2, it is the second largest national park in Atlantic Canada, it is surpassed by Torngat Mountains National Park, the park takes its name from Newfoundlands second-highest mountain peak located within the park. Its French meaning is large mountain standing alone, or more literally great sombre, Gros Morne is a member of the Long Range Mountains, an outlying range of the Appalachian Mountains, stretching the length of the islands west coast. It is the remnants of a mountain range formed 1.2 billion years ago. The park provides an example of the process of continental drift, where deep ocean crust. The Gros Morne National Park Reserve was established in 1973, and was made a park on October 1,2005. The park was the subject of a film in 2011s National Parks Project, directed by Sturla Gunnarsson and scored by Melissa Auf der Maur, Sam Shalabi. The park is located in the Great Northern Peninsula of Western Newfoundland and this peninsula is referred to as the Humber Zone, a Miogeocline, the Highlands of which contain the largest external basement massif of the Grenville Orogeny in the Appalachian Orogen.
This Precambrian basement is known as the Long Range Inlier, Long Range Complex or Basement Gneiss Complex, big Level lie within this Inlier. Finally, a Pleistocene ice cap flowed radially across the island, the Tablelands, found between the towns of Trout River and Woody Point in south west of Gros Morne National Park, look more like a barren desert than traditional Newfoundland. This is due to the ultramafic rock – peridotite – which makes up the Tablelands and it is thought to originate in the Earths mantle and was forced up from the depths during a plate collision several hundred million years ago. Peridotite lacks the usual nutrients required to sustain most plant life, the rock is very low in calcium, very high in magnesium, and has toxic amounts of heavy metals. Peridotite is high in iron, which accounts for its brownish colour, underneath this weathered zone, the rock is really a dark green colour. The many soil associations mapped in the park reflect the variety of bedrock. The Silver Mountain soil association, dominant in the area, is a very stony sandy loam developed on glacial till overlying granite, granitic gneiss.
Similar rocks underlie the St. Pauls Inlet association farther west, sedimentary rocks in the southeastern sector support the North Lake association of stony sandy loam. An association of mostly-shallow loam, the Coxs Cove, occupies a band over shale, slate. The coastal strip north of Bonne Bay is mostly underlain by the peaty Gulls Marsh association, the stony infertile soils of the ultramafic tablelands south of Bonne Bay belong to the Serpentine Range association
Old Québec is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City, Canada. Comprising the Upper Town and Lower Town, the area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Old Quebec is part of the Vieux-Québec–Cap-Blanc–colline Parlementaire district in the borough of La Cité-Limoilou. The area is referred to as the Latin Quarter, but this title refers more to area around the Séminaire de Québec. During 1608, Samuel de Champlain chose Upper Town as the site of the Fort Saint-Louis, ever since it was founded, it has remained the military and administrative part of the city which was determined by the strategic heights of the Cap Diamant promontory. After the British conquest, Upper Town was mostly populated by British government officials and Catholic clergy while French and English merchants, the strong military presence in this area has long limited its expansion. By the end of the 19th century, some wanted the city’s fortifications to be demolished as they were deemed unnecessary, lord Dufferin would successfully persuade officials to conserve the city’s fortified appearance by adapting it to meet the needs of a modern-day city.
The area was subjected to deterioration during the 1950s but new building began during the 1970s. With its ramparts, century-old houses, historic sites and landmarks, Québec’s Upper Town has a heritage of several generations with beautiful. Most of the date back to the 19th century with the construction of some dating as far back as the 17th and 18th centuries. The area has several commercial roads like Saint-Jean, Sainte-Anne and De Buade streets and it has a vast choice of accommodations including the famous Château Frontenac since Old Québec is among the most popular tourist destinations. The area has many well-maintained parks, among some are the Esplanade, Des Gouverneurs and Montmorency parks along with the gardens of l’Hotel-de-Ville. People can take advantage of the view of the St. Lawrence River from place DYouville. Lower Town is a district located at the bottom of Cap Diamant. During 1608, Samuel de Champlain built a habitation where its remains can be found with Place Royale as its centre and it was restored with the goal of reconstructing the French flair from its origins.
Construction of the Church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires started during 1687 at this location and was completed during 1723, places such as the Louise Basin, Brown Basin, La –Pointe-à-Carcy, the Gare du Palais and the Marche du Vieux-Port can be seen from the Port of Québec. A funicular car allows for transportation up Cap Diamant connecting to Upper Town from the narrow Petit-Champlain road at the foot of the Cape to the top with a marvellous view of the city. Côte de la Montagne is another option for hikers, the Old Québec heritage site is located in Québec City although it is administratively recognized as a part of the borough La Cité-Limoilou. It has gained recognition as a part of Quebec’s cultural heritage and is among UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites, the district was established by the National Assembly of Quebec on July 10,1963 after an amendment to the Historic Sites and Monuments Act
Joggins is a Canadian rural community located in western Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. On July 7,2008 a 15 km length of the coast constituting the Joggins Fossil Cliffs was officially inscribed on the World Heritage List. The area was known to the Mikmaq as Chegoggins meaning place of the fish weir. Situated on the Cumberland Basin, a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy and its coal seams which are exposed along the shore of the Cumberland Basin were exploited as early as 1686 by local Acadian settlers and by the British garrison at Annapolis Royal in 1715. The first commercial mine was set up by Major Henry Cope in 1731, but was destroyed by the Mikmaq in November 1732. Samuel McCully opened a mine in 1819 with much of his production being shipped by sea to Saint John, New Brunswick and other markets, large-scale industrialization came to Cumberland County under the General Mining Association, which held the rights to the areas coal fields. Old coal mine working are eroding out of the sea-cliffs at Joggins, recently dendrochronology had been employed to date the timber pit props. A late nineteenth century age has been inferred, with most props dating from the 1860s and 1870s, the coal mines attracted a diverse number of workers, some as young as 12 years.
French-speaking Acadians returned from New Brunswick, and were joined by Irish and Scottish immigrants, Joggins Mines expanded rapidly to include three churches, two cemeteries, a hotel, a roller ring, movie theater, fire department, general store, post office, railway station and school. Rail service was abandoned to the community in the early 1960s, the Joggins area was well known in the 19th and early 20th century for the quarrying of limestone grinding wheels, lumber and dairy production. The Bay of Fundy boosts a rich tradition of shipbuilding, in the 1800s, wooden coastal schooners were built on the shore to carry coal and mill stones to the United States. Several of the homes in the Joggins area display the sturdy, practical. Many of the beaches along the Bay of Fundy are still littered with stone ballast from the hulls of old ships, today in addition to tourism, the area is known for the commercial cultivation of wild blueberries and agricultural food processing. The roads and bridges to Joggins were improved in the 1980s and 1990s and area has become popular for tourism, summer homes and retirees.
Joggins is a destination on the Nova Scotia Economic and Rural Development and Tourism Glooscap Trail, Mikmaq legend tells of the a mythical transformer, who created Nova Scotia and controlled the great tides with his magical powers. The Bay of Fundy has the highest tides in the world, visitors can walk on the ocean floor at low tide, or go rafting on the tidal bore. The high tides have shaped the landscape into one of beauty, pristine beaches, dramatic rock outcrops, sea cliffs, waterfalls. The Joggins area is diverse and rich in wildlife
Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador
Red Bay is a fishing village and former site of several Basque whaling stations on the southern coast of Labrador in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Between 1530 and the early 17th century, Red Bay was a major Basque whaling area, the site is home to three Basque whaling galleons and four small chalupas used in the capture of whales. The discovery of these vessels makes Red Bay one of the most precious underwater archaeological sites in the Americas, since June 2013 it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Red Bay is a natural harbour residing in the bay that gives it its name, because of the sheltered harbour it was used during World War II as a mooring site for naval vessels. In the bay are Penney Island and Saddle Island, which were used by the Basques for their whaling operations, the location of the sunken vessel San Juan is near Saddle Island. Between 1550 and the early 17th century, Red Bay, known as Balea Baya, was a centre for Basque whaling operations, in 1565, a ship—believed to be San Juan—sank in the waters off Red Bay during a storm.
Other, smaller vessels, such as chalupas, have recovered from the waters. Another galleon was found 25–35 feet below water in 2004 and it was the fourth trans-oceanic ship to have been found in the area. A cemetery on nearby Saddle Island holds the remains of 140 whalers, many of the people buried there are thought to have died from drowning and exposure. Historians believe that a decline in whale stocks eventually led to the abandonment of the stations in Red Bay. Today, a centre in Red Bay explains the history to visitors. An attempt was made to find the treasure by residents of Carrol Cove by draining the pond, Red Bay has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada, and since 2013 it is one of seventeen Canadian sites added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Source, Statistics Canada 2001 Census Basque whaling station on Saddle Island, the location of the sunken vessel San Juan is near the wreck of the Bernier, which grounded in 1966. The story goes that a man got into a fight at a bar and was knocked unconscious.
The man drowned, and it is said that his ghost wanders at night, leaving bloody clothing for travelers who venture into the woods to show them how he died- bloody, and a fool. Reports have been made of marks made on the sand, as if something had dragged something, or someone, a hiker said that he found a bloody shirt sleeve tied to his hiking pack one night. Locals argue on the matter, and most are suspicious that the haunting is merely pranksters taking advantage of tourists. List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador Discovery in Labrador, A 16th-Century Basque Whaling Port, Basque whaling historical page Red Bay - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol
Miguasha National Park
Miguasha National Park is a protected area near Carleton-sur-Mer on the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec in Canada. Other names for this site are the Miguasha Fossil Site, the Bay of Escuminac Fossil Site, the Upper Devonian Escuminac Formation, and it is sometimes referred to on fossil specimens as Scaumenac Bay or Scaumenac Bay P. Q. The parks museum features exhibits about the fossils and paleontology of the park, the museums collection includes over 9000 specimens of fossil fish and plants. The coastal cliffs are Upper Devonian strata of sedimentary rock. They are composed of alternating layers of sandstone and shale, which are 350–375 million years old, the area today supports mainly birch and fir forests. Some of the fish and spore fossils found at Miguasha are rare, for example, Spermasposita is thought to be one of the oldest flowering plant genera on Earth. Miguasha National Park is considered to be the worlds greatest palaeontological record of fossils from the Devonian Period, five of the six main fossil fish groups from this period can be found here. A great quantity of some of the fossil specimens of lobe-finned fish.
The fossil site was first discovered in 1842, by Abraham Gesner, a geologist and medical doctor, Gesner found a vast array of important fossils, which were handed over to the British Museum and the Royal Scottish Museum, these discoveries caused great excitement throughout the world. There was a rumour in the 1970s that some Americans were seeking to purchase the land containing the fossil deposits, in 1985 the Québec government blocked this possible privatization by purchasing a large tract of the land and declaring it a provincial park. The peripheral area is owned by people who limit development. To date, over 5000 fossils from one site have been identified and categorized. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999, List of fossil sites Parcs Québec, Parc National de Miguasha UNEP-WCMC profile World Heritage List, Miguasha National Park