Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
La Fortaleza is the current official residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico. It was built between 1533 and 1540 to defend the harbor of San Juan, the structure is known as Palacio de Santa Catalina. It is the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the New World and it was listed by UNESCO in 1983 as part of the World Heritage Site La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site. The construction was authorized by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as a defense against attacks from Island Caribs, the structure consisted of four walls enclosing an interior patio with a circular tower known as the Homage Tower. From the top of the tower, the governor, following tradition, would take oaths of fidelity at critical moments to the King. Later, a tower named the Austral Tower was constructed. At present, the complex consists of a few attached buildings with formal living quarters in the second floor and it overlooks the high city walls that front the bay, and within the north perimeter of the house are sheltered gardens and a swimming pool.
Since the 16th century, La Fortaleza has acted as the residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico, on November 27,1822, its traditional status as the executive mansion was made official. The fortress underwent a reconstruction in 1846 to change its military appearance into a palatial facade. King Juan Carlos of Spain and Queen Juliana of the Netherlands are among several heads of state who have stayed in La Fortaleza, in June 2011, U. S. King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia of Spain visited La Fortaleza in 2016. La Fortaleza has been captured twice by invaders,1598, George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland,1625, General Boudewijn Hendrick of the Netherlands invaded the city and established himself at La Fortaleza. During the Dutch retreat, the fortress and the city were set ablaze, on October 30,1950, there was an attempt by a few nationalists to enter La Fortaleza in what is known as the San Juan Nationalist revolt, intending to attack then-governor Luis Muñoz Marín. The 5-minute shootout resulted in four Nationalists dead, Domingo Hiraldo Resto, Carlos Hiraldo Resto, Manuel Torres Medina, three of the guards of the building, among them Lorenzo Ramos, were seriously injured.
On October 9,1960, La Fortaleza was designated a United States National Historic Landmark, in 1983, La Fortaleza, along with the San Juan National Historic Site, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. On May 26,2004, a man armed with a knife entered the mansions mailroom located just outside the palace gates, the 2½ hour stand-off ended after Governor Sila María Calderón entered the building and listened as the hostage-taker read a letter. In 2011, Puerto Rican author Giannina Braschi wrote the dramatic novel United States of Banana, report of 7th Session, Florence 1983. Paris, UNESCOs Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, pR-54, La Fortaleza, Calle Fortaleza, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR
Northeastern United States
The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics. The Census Bureau-defined region has an area of 181,324 sq mi with 162,257 square miles of that being land mass. Though lacking a unified identity, the Northeastern region is the nations most economically developed, densely populated. Of the nations four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its residing in urban areas. The region is subdivided into New England and the Mid-Atlantic States and this definition has been essentially unchanged since 1880 and is widely used as a standard for data tabulation. C. Similarly, the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland, the narrowest definitions include only the states of New England. Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, States beyond the Census Bureau definition that other entities include in the Northeast United States are, Delaware and Washington, D. C.
Delaware, Washington, D. C. and West Virginia Delaware, Washington, most did not settle in North America until the 17th century. Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those made up the Iroquois nations. In the United States of the 21st century,18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast, the two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories. The first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, the Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years later, a group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1636, colonists established Connecticut Colony and Providence Plantations, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, who was banished by Massachusetts for his beliefs in freedom of religion, and it was the first colony to guarantee all citizens freedom of worship. Anne Hutchinson, who was banished by Massachusetts, formed the town of Portsmouth.
Providence and two towns consolidated to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Although the first settlers of New England were motivated by religion, in recent history. In a 2009 Gallup survey, less than half of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts reported religion as an important part of their daily life. In a 2010 Gallup survey, less than 30% of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, New England played a prominent role in early American education
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is a national park spanning portions of Tuolumne and Madera counties in Northern California. The park, which is managed by the National Park Service, on average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, and most spend the majority of their time in the seven square miles of Yosemite Valley. The park set a record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Almost 95% of the park is designated wilderness, Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. First, Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development, Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals. The park has a range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones, chaparral/oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone. Of Californias 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada, there is suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants in the park, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy.
The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic rocks, about 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its relatively gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes. The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in formation of deep, about one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode, the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name Yosemite originally referred to the name of a tribe which was driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion. Before the area was called Ahwahnee by indigenous people, as revealed by archeological finds, the Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, though humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago.
The indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahneechee, meaning dwellers in Ahwahnee and they are related to the Northern Paiute and Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, a major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today, acorns were a staple to their diet, as well as seeds and plants, salmon. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance and he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley, attached to Savages unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya, Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya was the founder of the Pai-Ute Colony of Ah-wah-nee
Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park is a U. S. National Park in Florida that protects the southern 20 percent of the original Everglades. In the United States, it is the largest tropical wilderness, the largest wilderness of any kind east of the Mississippi River and it is the third-largest national park in the lower 48 states after Death Valley and Yellowstone. It has been declared an International Biosphere Reserve, a World Heritage Site, although most U. S. national parks preserve unique geographic features, Everglades National Park was the first created to protect a fragile ecosystem. The Everglades are a network of wetlands and forests fed by a river flowing.25 miles per day out of Lake Okeechobee, the Park is the most significant breeding ground for tropical wading birds in North America and contains the largest mangrove ecosystem in the western hemisphere. The majority of South Floridas fresh water, which is stored in the Biscayne Aquifer, is recharged in the park. Humans have lived for thousands of years in or around the Everglades until plans arose in 1882, to drain the wetlands, as the 20th century progressed, water flow from Lake Okeechobee was increasingly controlled and diverted to enable explosive growth of the South Florida metropolitan area.
The park was established in 1934, to protect the quickly vanishing Everglades, the ecosystems in Everglades National Park have suffered significantly from human activity, and restoration of the Everglades is a politically charged issue in South Florida. Everglades National Park covers 1,509,000 acres, throughout Dade, the elevation typically ranges from 0 to 8 feet above sea level, but a Calusa-built shell mound on the Gulf Coast rises 20 feet above sea level. The terrain of South Florida is relatively and consistently flat, although rock formations are not a central draw to Everglades National Park, the limestone that underlies the Everglades is integral to the formation of the diverse ecosystems within the park. Florida was once part of the African portion of the supercontinent Gondwana, after it separated, conditions allowed a shallow marine environment to deposit calcium carbonate in sand and coral to be converted into limestone. Tiny bits of shell and bryozoans compressed over multiple layers forming unique structures in the limestone called ooids, the Florida peninsula appeared above sea level between 100,000 and 150,000 years ago.
As sea levels at the end of the Wisconsin ice age rose, Lake Okeechobee began to flood and convection thunderstorms were created. Vast peat deposits south of Lake Okeechobee indicate that regular flooding had occurred about 5,000 years ago, plants began to migrate, subtropical ones from the northern part of Florida, and tropicals carried as seeds by birds from islands in the Caribbean. Although the limestone shelf appears to be flat, there are slight rises—called pinnacles—and depressions caused by the erosion of limestone by the properties of the water. Portions of the Everglades that remain flooded for more than nine out of the year are usually covered by peat. Areas that are flooded six months or less are covered by marl, plant communities are determined by the type of soil and amount of water present. While they are common in the portion of Florida, no underground springs feed water into the Everglades system. An underground reservoir called the Floridan Aquifer lies about 1,000 feet below the surface of South Florida, the Everglades has an immense capacity for water storage, owing to the sponge-like permeable limestone beneath the exposed land
Western United States
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U. S. expanded westward after its founding, prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier moved westward and eventually lands west of the Mississippi River came to be referred to as the West. The West contains several major biomes, the Western U. S. is the largest region of the country, covering more than half the land area of the United States. Given this expansive and diverse geography it is no wonder the region is difficult to specifically define, a majority of the historian respondents placed the eastern boundary of the West east of the Census definition out on the eastern edge of the Great Plains or on the Mississippi River. The survey respondents as a whole showed just how little agreement there was on the boundaries of the West, within a region as large and diverse as the Western United States, smaller areas with more closely shared demographics and geography have developed as subregions.
Meanwhile, the states of Idaho, Montana and Washington can be considered part of the Northwest or Pacific Northwest, West Texas in the Chihuahuan Desert may be considered as part of the Western U. S. Fort Worth has long laid claim to be Where the West Begins, the West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with 49.5 inhabitants per square mile. Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi, Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi. The entire Western region has strongly influenced by European, Hispanic or Latino and Native Americans. African and European Americans, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the rates of citizenship and voting among Asians. The West contains much of the Native American population in the U. S. particularly in the reservations in the Mountain. The Western United States has a sex ratio than any other region in the United States.
Because the tide of development had not yet reached most of the West when conservation became an issue, agencies of the federal government own. National parks are reserved for activities such as fishing, camping and boating, but other government lands allow commercial activities like ranching, logging. The largest city in the region is Los Angeles, located on the West Coast, Other West Coast cities include San Diego, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Seattle and Portland. Prominent cities in the Mountain States include Denver, Colorado Springs, Tucson, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Boise, El Paso, and Cheyenne. Along the Pacific Ocean coast lie the Coast Ranges and they collect a large part of the airborne moisture moving in from the ocean
Taos Pueblo is an ancient pueblo belonging to a Tiwa-speaking Native American tribe of Puebloan people. It lies about 1 mile north of the city of Taos, New Mexico. The pueblos are considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States and this has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Taos Pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, whose people speak two variants of the Tanoan language, the Taos community is known for being one of the most private and conservative pueblos. A reservation of 95,000 acres is attached to the pueblo, the pueblo was constructed in a setting backed by the Taos Mountains of the Sangre de Cristo Range. The settlement was built on side of Rio Pueblo de Taos, called Rio Pueblo and Red Willow Creek. Its headwaters come from the nearby mountains, Taos Pueblos most prominent architectural feature is a multi-storied residential complex of reddish-brown adobe, built on either side of the Rio Pueblo. The Pueblos website states it was built between 1000 and 1450.
The pueblo was designated a National Historic Landmark on October 9,1960, in 1992 it was designated as a UNESCO Heritage Site. As of 2006, about 150 people live in the historic complex full-time, in the Tanoan language of Taos, the pueblo is referred to as the village in either tə̂otho in the village or tə̂obo to/toward the village. The proper name of the pueblo is ȉałopháymųp’ȍhə́othə̀olbo at red willow canyon mouth and this name is more commonly used in ceremonial contexts and is less common in everyday speech. The name Taos in English was borrowed from Spanish Taos, Spanish Taos is probably a borrowing of Taos tə̂o- village which was heard as tao to which the plural -s was added although in the modern language Taos is no longer a plural noun. The idea that the Spanish Taos is from tao, cross of the order of San Juan de los Caballeros, is unlikely, Taos is a derivative of spanish slang for a tiwa word meaning place down by the red willows. Most archeologists believe that the Taos Indians, along with other Pueblo Indians, the dwellings of that region were inhabited by the Ancestral Puebloans.
A long drought in the area in the late 13th century may have caused them to move to the Rio Grande, throughout its early years, Taos Pueblo was a central point of trade between the native populations along the Rio Grande and their Plains Tribes neighbors to the northeast. Taos Pueblo hosted a fair each fall after the agricultural harvest. Around 1620, Spanish Jesuits oversaw construction of the first Catholic Church in the pueblo, reports from the period indicate that the native people of Taos resisted the building of the church and imposition of the Catholic religion. Throughout the 1600s, cultural tensions grew between the populations of the Southwest and the increasing Spanish colonial presence
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia, frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Founded in 1819 by Declaration of Independence author Thomas Jefferson, UVA is known for its foundations, student-run honor code. UNESCO designated UVA as Americas first and only collegiate World Heritage Site in 1987, the university was established in 1819, and its original governing Board of Visitors included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation, former Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVAs first two rectors and the Academical Village and Jefferson conceived and designed the original courses of study. The universitys research endeavors are highly recognized, in 2015, Science honored UVA faculty for discovering two of its top 10 annual scientific breakthroughs, from the fields of Medicine and Psychology. UVA is one of 62 institutions in the Association of American Universities and it is the only AAU member university in Virginia.
UVA is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, the university was the first non-founding member, and the first university of the American South, to attain AAU membership in 1904. UVAs academic strength is broad, with 121 majors across the eight undergraduate, students compete in 26 collegiate sports and UVA leads the Atlantic Coast Conference in mens NCAA team national championships with 17. UVA is second in womens NCAA titles with 7, UVA was awarded the Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall mens athletics programs in the nation. Students come to attend the university in Charlottesville from all 50 states and 147 countries, the historic 1, 682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and considered one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, the university manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, and until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia.
In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap, after some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College, the school laid its first buildings cornerstone late in that same year, and the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25,1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jeffersons dream to establish the university and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. The universitys first classes met on March 7,1825, another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution, Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death.
Thus, he eschewed mention of his accomplishments, such as the Louisiana Purchase. This was a source of frustration for Jefferson, who assembled the students during the schools first year, on October 3,1825, to such behavior
Midwestern United States
It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Columbus, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States.
A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation.
The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave states
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
The border between Tennessee and North Carolina runs northeast to southwest through the centerline of the park. It is the most visited park in the United States with over 11.3 million recreational visitors in 2016. On its route from Maine to Georgia, the Appalachian Trail passes through the center of the park, the park was chartered by the United States Congress in 1934 and officially dedicated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1940. It encompasses 522,419 acres, making it one of the largest protected areas in the eastern United States, the main park entrances are located along U. S. Highway 441 at the towns of Gatlinburg and Cherokee, North Carolina. It was the first national park land and other costs were paid for in part with federal funds. Due to the 2016 Great Smoky Mountains wildfires, the Park was under orders, along with some towns. Before the arrival of European settlers, the region was part of the homeland of the Cherokees, frontiers people began settling the land in the 18th and early 19th century.
Many of the Cherokee left, but some, led by renegade warrior Tsali, some of their descendants now live in the Qualla Boundary to the south of the park. Cut-and-run-style clearcutting was destroying the beauty of the area, so visitors. The U. S. National Park Service wanted a park in the eastern United States, though Congress had authorized the park in 1926, there was no nucleus of federally owned land around which to build a park. Slowly, mountain homesteaders and loggers were evicted from the land and timbering operations were abolished to establish the protected areas of the park. Travel writer Horace Kephart, for whom Mount Kephart was named, former Governor Ben W. Hooper of Tennessee was the principal land purchasing agent for the park, which was officially established on June 15,1934. It was a site for filming of parts of Disneys hit 1950s TV series, Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier. This park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in 1976, was certified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, a 75th anniversary re-dedication ceremony was held on September 2,2009.
Among those in attendance were all four US Senators, the three US Representatives whose districts include the park, the governors of states, and Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. Tennessee native and actress Dolly Parton attended and performed, the majority of rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are Late Precambrian rocks that are part of the Ocoee Supergroup. This group consists of metamorphosed sandstones, schists, early Precambrian rocks are not only the oldest rocks in the park but the dominant rock type in sites such as the Raven Fork Valley and upper Tuckasegee River between Cherokee and Bryson City. They primarily consist of gneiss and schist
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is a United States national park located in the state of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four regions, the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest. Within the park there are three distinct ecosystems which are sub-alpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest, and the rugged Pacific Shore and these three different ecosystems are in pristine condition and have outstanding scenery. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt originally created Mount Olympus National Monument on 2 March 1909 and it was designated a national park by President Franklin Roosevelt on June 29,1938. In 1976, Olympic National Park was designated by UNESCO as an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1988, Congress designated 95 percent of the park as the Olympic Wilderness. The coastal portion of the park is a rugged, sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest and it is 60 miles long but just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers.
The Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute, the beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles. While some beaches are sand, others are covered with heavy rock. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel, the coastal strip is more readily accessible than the interior of the Olympics, due to the difficult terrain, very few backpackers venture beyond casual day-hiking distances. The most popular piece of the strip is the 9-mile Ozette Loop. The Park Service runs a registration and reservation program to control levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile leg of the trail is a path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides and this area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk which has enhanced the loops popularity, there are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach.
The mostly unaltered Hoh River, toward the end of the park, discharges large amounts of naturally eroded timber and other drift. The removal of driftwood – logs, dead-heads and root-wads from streams, even today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material often comes from a distance, the Columbia River formerly contributed huge amounts to the Northwest Pacific coasts. The smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land