History of Georgia (country)
The country of Georgia was first unified as a single kingdom in 1008 AD, arising from the ancient predecessor states of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished and reached its Golden Age during the 10th to 13th centuries under King David IV, lasting for several centuries, the kingdom fell to the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, but managed to re-assert sovereignty by the 1340s. Throughout the early period, Georgia fell into decline as it clashed against various hostile empires, including Ottoman Empire. The kingdoms geopolitical situation further worsened after the Fall of Constantinople, as a result of these processes, by the end of the 15th century Georgia turned into an isolated, Christian enclave, surrounded by hostile Turco-Iranic neighbors with which it had little in common. Renewed incursions beginning in 1386 led to the collapse of the kingdom by 1493. Georgia’s geopolitical landscape began to shift in 1783, when the struggling Eastern Georgia forged an alliance with the Russian Empire and this led to the gradual, forced annexation of Georgia by Russia starting in 1801.
Present-day Georgia has been independent since the Soviet collapse in 1991, post-communist Georgia was almost immediately beset by Russian-backed separatist rebellions in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It suffered from civil unrest and economic crisis for most of the 1990s and this lasted until the Rose Revolution of 2003, when Georgia pursued a strongly pro-Western foreign policy, introducing major economic and democratic reforms. Notwithstanding these crises and the change of political forces in the country, as a developing economy, Georgia made significant changes, moving from a near-failed state in 2003 to a relatively well-functioning market economy in 2014. In 2014, Georgia joined the European Unions Free Trade Area, evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present-day Georgia goes back to c.1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in the south-eastern part of the country. This is the oldest evidence of humans in Europe, prehistoric remains are known from numerous cave and open-air sites in Georgia.
Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the Shulaveri-Shomu type have been conducted since the 1960s, the earliest evidence of wine to date has been found in Georgia, where 8000-year old wine jars were uncovered. Early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, associated with the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, from the beginning of the 4th millennium, metals became used to larger extend in East Georgia and in the whole Transcaucasian region. These dwellings were circular or oval in plan, a feature being the central pier. These features were used and further developed in building Georgian dwellings, in the Chalcolithic period of the fourth and third millennia BC, Georgia and eastern Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni, they testify to an advanced and well-developed culture of building and architecture.
Diauehi, a union of early-Georgians, first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. Between 2100 and 750 BC, the area survived the invasions by the Hittites, Medes, at the same period, the ethnic unity of Proto-Kartvelians broke up into several branches, among them Svans, Zans/Chans and East-Kartvelians
History of Lithuania
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD. Lithuanians, one of the Baltic peoples, conquered neighboring lands, the Grand Duchy was a successful and lasting warrior state. It remained fiercely independent and was one of the last areas of Europe to adopt Christianity, a formidable power, it became the largest state in Europe in the 15th century through the conquest of large groups of East Slavs who resided in Ruthenia. In 1385, the Grand Duchy formed a union with Poland through the Union of Krewo. Later, the Union of Lublin created the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that lasted until 1795, the Lithuanians lived under the rule of the Russian Empire until the 20th century. On February 16,1918, Lithuania was re-established as a democratic state and it remained independent until the outset of World War II, when it was occupied by the Soviet Union under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
Following a brief occupation by Nazi Germany after the Nazis waged war on the Soviet Union, in 1990–91, Lithuania restored its sovereignty with the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania. Lithuania joined the NATO alliance in 2004 and the European Union as part of its enlargement in 2004, the first humans arrived on the territory of modern Lithuania in the 10th millennium BC after the glaciers receded at the end of the last glacial period. According to the historian Marija Gimbutas, these came from two directions, the Jutland Peninsula and from present-day Poland. They brought two different cultures, as evidenced by the tools they used and they were traveling hunters and did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate much warmer. The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in hunting, gathering. During the 6th–5th millennium BC, various animals were domesticated and dwellings became more sophisticated in order to shelter larger families, Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land.
Crafts and trade started to form at this time, speakers of North-Western Indo-European might have arrived with the Corded Ware culture around 3200/3100 BC. The first Lithuanian people were a branch of an ancient group known as the Balts, the main tribal divisions of the Balts were the West Baltic Old Prussians and Yotvingians, and the East Baltic Lithuanians and Latvians. The Balts spoke forms of the Indo-European languages, the only remaining Baltic nationalities are the Lithuanians and Latvians, but there were more Baltic groups or tribes in the past. Some of these merged into Lithuanians and Latvians, while no longer existed after they were conquered and assimilated by the State of the Teutonic Order. The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD
History of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years. The peninsula has evolved from a place of reverence in ancient times into one of the most densely fortified and fought-over places in Europe, as one historian has put it. Gibraltar was first inhabited over 50,000 years ago by Neanderthals, Gibraltars recorded history began around 950 BC with the Phoenicians, who lived nearby. Gibraltar became part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania following the collapse of the Roman Empire and it was permanently settled for the first time by the Moors and was renamed Jebel Tariq – the Mount of Tariq, corrupted into Gibraltar. The Christian Crown of Castile annexed it in 1309, lost it again to the Moors in 1333, Gibraltar became part of the unified Kingdom of Spain and remained under Spanish rule until 1704. It was captured during the War of the Spanish Succession by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in the name of Charles VI of Austria, at the wars end, Spain ceded the territory to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713.
Spain tried to control of Gibraltar, which Britain had declared a Crown colony, through military. Gibraltar was besieged and heavily bombarded during three wars between Britain and Spain but the attacks were repulsed on each occasion, by the end of the last siege, in the late 18th century, Gibraltar had faced fourteen sieges in 500 years. In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a base in the Peninsular War. The colony grew rapidly during the 19th and early 20th centuries and it was a key stopping point for vessels en route to India via the Suez Canal. A large British naval base was constructed there at great expense at the end of the 19th century, British control of Gibraltar enabled the Allies to control the entrance to the Mediterranean during the Second World War. It was attacked on several occasions by German and Vichy French forces, the Spanish dictator General Francisco Franco declined to join a Nazi plan to occupy Gibraltar but revived Spains claim to the territory after the war.
As the territorial dispute intensified, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar between 1969 and 1985 and communications links were severed, Spains position was supported by Latin American countries but was rejected by Britain and the Gibraltarians themselves, who vigorously asserted their right to self-determination. Discussions of Gibraltars status have continued between Britain and Spain but have not reached any conclusion, since 1985, Gibraltar has undergone major changes as a result of reductions in Britains overseas defence commitments. Most British forces have left the territory, which is no longer seen as a place of military importance. Its economy is now based on tourism, financial services, Gibraltar is largely self-governed, with its own parliament and government, though the UK maintains responsibility for defence and foreign policy. Its economic success has made it one of the wealthiest areas of the European Union, the history of Gibraltar has been driven by its strategic position near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea.
It is a peninsula at the eastern side of the Bay of Gibraltar,6 kilometres from the city of Algeciras
History of Abkhazia
This article refers to the history of Abkhazia from its pre-historic settlement by the lower-paleolithic hunter-gathers during the mesolithic and neolithic periods to the post-1992-1993 war situation. Lower Paleolithic hunting-gathering encampments formed the first known settlements on the territory of modern-day Abkhazia, the earliest examples have been unearthed at the sites of Iashkhtva, Gumista and Ochamchire. Upper Paleolithic culture settled chiefly the coastline and Neolithic periods brought larger permanent settlements, and marked the beginning of farming, animal husbandry, and the production of ceramics. A dolmen from the Eshera archaeological site is the best studied prehistoric monument of this type, the written history of Abkhazia largely begins with the coming of the Milesian Greeks to the coastal Colchis in the 6th-5th centuries BC. They founded their maritime colonies along the shore of the Black Sea. This city, said to be so named for the Dioscuri, other notable colonies were Gyenos and Pityus, arguably near the modern-day coastal towns of Ochamchire and Pitsunda, respectively.
The peoples of the region were notable for their number and variety, herodotus and Pliny appreciate the multitude of languages spoken in Dioscurias and other towns. Furthermore, some classic ethnic names were presumably collective terms and supposed considerable migrations took place around the region, various attempts have been made to identify these peoples with the ethnic terms employed by classical authors. The identity and origin of other peoples dwelling in the area are disputed, archaeology has seldom been able to make strong connections between the remains of material culture and the opaque names of peoples mentioned by classical writers. Thus, controversies still continue and a series of questions remain open, the inhabitants of the region engaged in piracy, slave trade and kidnapping people for ransom. The Roman rule here was tenuous and according to Josephus a Roman garrison of 3000 hoplites, the Greek settlements suffered from the wars and attacks of local tribes. With the downfall of the Roman Empire, the living in the region gained some independence.
In the 3rd century AD, the Lazi tribe came to dominate most of Colchis, establishing the kingdom of Lazica, according to Procopius, the Abasgi chieftains were subdued by the Lazic kings. Colchis was a scene of the rivalry between the Eastern Roman/Byzantine and Sassanid empires, culminating in the Lazic War from 542 to 562. The war resulted in the decline of Lazica, and the Abasgi in their dense forests won a degree of autonomy under the Byzantine authority, during this era the Byzantines built Sebastopolis in the region. Their land, known to the Byzantines as Abasgia, was a source of eunuchs for the empire. Byzantines constructed defensive fortifications that may have survived to this day as the Kelasuri Wall. With the Khazar help, Leo ousted the Byzantines and expanded his kingdom, although the nature of this kingdoms ruling family is still disputed, most scholars agree that the Abkhazian kings were Georgian in culture and language
History of Hungary
For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary. The oldest archaeological site in Hungary is Vértesszőlős, where palaeolithic Oldowan pebble tools, the Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun in 435 AD. Attila was regarded in past centuries as a ruler of the Hungarians. They entered what is now Hungary in the 7th century AD, the Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars to end their 250-year rule. Árpád was the leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood and he led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. Between 895 and 902 the whole area of the Carpathian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians, an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory in 895. The military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns, Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who ruled only part of the united territory, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes.
He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models, Géza established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk as his successor. This decision was contrary to the dominant tradition of the time to have the eldest surviving member of the ruling family succeed the incumbent. By ancestral right, Prince Koppány, the oldest member of the dynasty, should have claimed the throne, Koppány did not relinquish his ancestral rights without a fight. After Gézas death in 997, Koppány took up arms, the rebels claimed to represent the old political order, ancient human rights, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a victory over his uncle Koppány and had him executed. Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, Stephen was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. Stephen was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in the first day of 1000 AD in the city of Esztergom. Pope Sylvester II conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full authority over bishoprics.
By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power by eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he initiated sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianization
History of the Faroe Islands
The early details of the Faroe Islands are often unclear. It is possible that Brendan, an Irish monk, sailed past the islands during his North Atlantic voyage in the 6th century and he saw an Island of Sheep and a Paradise of Birds, which some say could be the Faroes with its dense bird population and sheep. Norsemen settled the Faroe Islands in the 9th century or 10th century, the islands were officially converted to Christianity around the year 1000, and became a part of the Kingdom of Norway in 1035. Norwegian rule on the islands continued until 1380, when the became part of the dual Denmark–Norway kingdom. Following the 1814 Treaty of Kiel that ended the dual Denmark–Norway kingdom, during World War II, after Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, the British invaded and occupied the Faroe Islands until shortly after the end of the war. Scientists from Aberdeen University have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes.
He suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia. There is a Latin account of a made by Saint Brendan. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, many other islands lie in the northerly British Ocean. One reaches them from the islands of Britain, by sailing directly for two days and two nights with a full sail in a favourable wind the whole time. Most of these islands are small, they are separated by narrow channels, Norse settlement of the Faroe Islands is recorded in the Færeyinga saga, whose original manuscript is lost. Portions of the tale were inscribed in three other sagas, such as Flateyjarbók, Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason, and AM62 fol, similar to other sagas, the historical credibility of the Færeyinga saga is highly questioned. Both the Saga of Ólafr Tryggvason and Flateyjarbók claim a man named Grímur Kamban was the first man to discover the Faroe Islands, the two sources disagree on the year in which he left and the cause of his departure.
Flateyjarbók details the emigration of Grímur Kamban as sometime during the reign of Harald Hårfagre, between 872–930 CE. The Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason indicates that Kamban was residing in the Faroes long before the rule of Harald Hårfagre, and this mass migration to the Faroe Islands shows a prior knowledge of the Viking settlements locations, furthering the claim of Grímur Kambans settlement much earlier. While Kamban is recognized as the first Viking settler of the Faroe Islands, writings from the Papar, an order of Irish monks, show that they left the Faroe Islands due to ongoing Viking raids. The name of the islands is first recorded on the Hereford map, the name has long been understood as based on Old Norse fár livestock, thus fær-øer sheep islands. The main historical source for this period is the 13th century work Færeyinga saga, Færeyinga saga only exists today as copies in other sagas, in particular the manuscripts called Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason, Flateyjarbók and one registered as AM62 fol
History of Slovenia
The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present. In the Early Bronze Age, Proto-Illyrian tribes settled an area stretching from present-day Albania to the city of Trieste, Alpine Slavs, ancestors of modern-day Slovenes, settled the area in the late 6th Century A. D. The Holy Roman Empire controlled the land for nearly 1,000 years, in 1918, Slovenes joined Yugoslavia, while the west of the country was annexed to Italy. Between 1945 and 1990, Slovenia was under SFRJ, the country gained its independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991, and is today a member of the European Union and NATO. The worlds oldest securely dated wooden wheel and axle was found near the Ljubljana Marshes in 2002, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Numerous archeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in Slovenia, with important settlements in Most na Soči, Vače, and Šentvid pri Stični.
Novo Mesto in Lower Carniola, one of the most important archaeological sites of the Hallstatt culture, has nicknamed the City of Situlas after numerous situlas found in the area. In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC, what is now western Slovenia was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria. Important Roman towns located in present-day Slovenia included Emona, other important settlements were Nauportus, Haliaetum and Stridon. During the migration period, the region suffered invasions of many barbarian armies, rome finally abandoned the region at the end of the 4th century. Most cities were destroyed, while the local population moved to the highland areas. In the 5th century, the region was part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, the Slavic ancestors of present-day Slovenes settled in the East Alpine area at the end of the 6th century. Coming from two directions, settling in the area of todays Carinthia and west Styria and South and this Slavic tribe, known as the Alpine Slavs, was submitted to Avar rule before joining the Slavic King Samos tribal union in 623 AD.
After Samos death, the Slavs of Carniola again fell to Avar rule, while the Slavs north of the Karavanke range established the independent principality of Carantania, the eastern part of Carantania was ruled again by Avars between 745 and 795. Under Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, now ruled by a mixed Bavarian-Slav nobility, shortly emerged as a regional power, the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During the 14th century, most of the Slovene Lands passed under the Habsburg rule, Slovenes inhabited most of the territory of the Imperial Free City of Trieste, although representing the minority of its population. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation spread throughout the Slovene Lands, in the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. During the Counter-Reformation in the late 16th and 17th centuries, led by the bishop of Ljubljana Thomas Chrön and Seckau Martin Brenner, they left a strong legacy in the tradition of Slovene culture, which was partially incorporated in the Catholic Counter-Reformation in the 17th century
History of Transnistria
This is the history of Transnistria. See the history of Europe, in ancient times, the area was inhabited by Thracian and Scythian tribes. Pliny the Elder names the Tyragetae, a Getae tribe living on an island of the Dniester, the Axiacae living along the Tiligul River and the Crobyzi, a Thracian tribe living beyond the Dniester. At the mouth of the river, the Ancient Greeks of Miletus founded around 600 BC a colony named Tyras and it fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and it was destroyed by the Dacians about 50 BC. In 56 AD Tyras had been restored by the Romans and henceforth formed part of the province of Lower Moesia, Romans settled colonists in Tyras and maintained some legionaries in the area until the 4th century. Historian Theodore Mommsen wrote that Moldavia and the half of Bessarabia as well as the whole of Wallachia were incorporated in the Roman Empire. All these facts confirm the creation of defensive earth dykes from the Prut river to the Tyras area, Mommsen wrote, Bessarabia is intersected by a double barrier-line which, running from the Pruth to the Dniester, ends at Tyra and appears to proceeds from the Romans.
The Walls, tree metres in height and two meters in thickness, with broad outer fosse and many remains of forts, stretch in two almost parallel lines, from the Pruth to the Dniester. In the Late Roman period, the extent of control and military occupation over territory north of the Danube in actual Bessarabia remains controversial. One Roman fort, well beyond the Danubian Limes and near actual Moldavia, would seem to have occupied in the 4th century AD. In this Roman fort, built by Constantine I, researchers have even a thermae building in the 1980s. In the 4th century the Goths conquered Tyras and Olbia on the coast, the area of Transnistria was under the rule of the Goths, who, in the 4th century, were divided into the Tervingi and Greuthungi tribes, the border between them being on the Dniester river. Transnistria was a crossroads of people and cultures, including the South Slavs. Some East Slavic tribes may have lived in it, but they were pushed north by Turkic nomads such as Pechenegs. In the 10th century, the Volohove are mentioned in the area in the Primary Chronicle and it became a formal part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century.
On the coast the Byzantines built a fortress in the area of the destroyed Tyras, in the 14th century the city was controlled and renovated by the Republic of Genoa, that established there a call and a counter trade until the Ottoman conquest. A small part of the population of this city escaped the Turkish invasion founding up north a small village that become the city of Tyraspol. The northern part remained under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the border between the two states was set on a brook known in Moldavian chronicles as Iahurlîc and in Polish source as Jahorlik or Jahorłyk
History of Poland
The history of Poland originates in the migrations of Slavs who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages. The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged by the 10th century AD, Duke Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state and is widely recognized for the widespread adoption of Western Christianity that followed his baptism in 966. The duchy of Poland that Mieszko ruled was formally reconstituted as a kingdom in 1025 by his son Bolesław I Chrobry. In its early phases, the Commonwealth was able to sustain the levels of prosperity achieved during the Jagiellonian period through its development of a sophisticated noble democracy. From the mid-17th century, the state entered a period of decline caused by devastating wars. From 1795 until 1918, no truly independent Polish state existed, the opportunity to regain independence only materialized after World War I, when the three partitioning imperial powers were fatally weakened in the wake of war and revolution.
Millions of Polish citizens perished in the course of the Nazi occupation of Poland between 1939 and 1945 as Germany classified ethnic Poles and other Slavs and Romani as subhuman. This process resulted in the creation of the modern Polish state, members of the Homo genus have lived in north Central Europe for thousands of years since the last periods of prehistoric glaciation. The Neolithic period ushered in the Linear Pottery culture, whose founders migrated from the Danube River area beginning about 5,500 BC and this culture was distinguished by the establishment of the first settled agricultural communities in modern Polish territory. Later, between about 4,400 and 2,000 BC, the native post-Mesolithic populations would adopt, Polands Early Bronze Age began around 2300–2400 BC, whereas its Iron Age commenced c. One of the cultures that have been uncovered, the Lusatian culture, spanned the Bronze and Iron Ages. Around 400 BC, Poland was settled by Celts of the La Tène culture and they were soon followed by emerging cultures with a strong Germanic component, influenced first by the Celts and by the Roman Empire.
The Germanic peoples migrated out of the area by about 500 AD during the great Migration Period of the European Dark Ages, wooded regions to the north and east were settled by Balts. According to mainstream archaeological research, Slavs have resided in modern Polish territories for over 1500 years, in the 9th and 10th centuries, these tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the coast of the Baltic Sea and in Greater Poland. This latest tribal undertaking resulted in the formation of a political structure in the 10th century that became the state of Poland. Poland was established as a state under the Piast dynasty. Historical records of an official Polish state begin with Duke Mieszko I in the half of the 10th century. This event has become known as the baptism of Poland, Mieszko completed a unification of the West Slavic tribal lands that was fundamental to the new countrys existence
History of Switzerland
The early history of the region is tied to that of Alpine culture. Switzerland was inhabited by Gauls and Raetians, and it came under Roman rule in the 1st century BC, gallo-Roman culture was amalgamated with Germanic influence during Late Antiquity, with the eastern part of Switzerland becoming Alemannic territory. The area of Switzerland was incorporated into the Frankish Empire in the 6th century, in the high medieval period, the eastern part became part of the Duchy of Swabia within the Holy Roman Empire while the western part was part of Burgundy. The Swiss Reformation divided the Confederacy and resulted in a history of internal strife between the Thirteen Cantons in the Early Modern period. In the wake of the French Revolution, Switzerland fell to a French invasion in 1798 and was reformed into the Helvetic Republic, the history of Switzerland since 1848 has been largely one of success and prosperity. Archeological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were already settled in the north of the Alps in the Middle Paleolithic period 150,000 years ago.
By the Neolithic period, the area was densely populated. Remains of Bronze Age pile dwellings from as early as 3800 BC have been found in the areas of many lakes. Around 1500 BC, Celtic tribes settled in the area, the Raetians lived in the eastern regions, while the west was occupied by the Helvetii. In 58 BC, the Helvetii tried to evade migratory pressure from Germanic tribes by moving into Gaul, the alpine region became integrated into the Roman Empire and was extensively romanized in the course of the following centuries. The center of Roman administration was at Aventicum, in 259, Alamanni tribes overran the Limes, putting the settlements on Swiss territory on the frontier of the Roman Empire. The first Christian bishoprics were founded in the fourth century, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic tribes entered the area. Burgundians settled in the west, while in the north, Alamanni settlers slowly forced the earlier Celto-Roman population to retreat into the mountains, Burgundy became a part of the kingdom of the Franks in 534, two years later, the dukedom of the Alamans followed suit.
In the Alaman-controlled region, only isolated Christian communities continued to exist, under the Carolingian kings, the feudal system proliferated, and monasteries and bishoprics were important bases for maintaining the rule. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 assigned Upper Burgundy to Lotharingia, in the 10th century, as the rule of the Carolingians waned, Magyars destroyed Basel in 917 and St. Gallen in 926. Only after the victory of King Otto I over the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of Lechfeld, were the Swiss territories reintegrated into the empire. In the 12th century, the dukes of Zähringen were given authority over part of the Burgundy territories which covered the part of modern Switzerland. They founded many cities, including Fribourg in 1157, and Bern in 1191, under the Hohenstaufen rule, the alpine passes in Raetia and the St Gotthard Pass gained importance
History of Belarus
This article describes the history of Belarus. The Belarusian ethnos is traced at least as far in time as other East Slavs, Belarus became an independent country in 1991 after declaring itself free from the Soviet Union. The history of Belarus, or more precisely of the Belarusian ethnicity and these East Slavs, a pagan, agrarian people, had an economy which included trade in agricultural produce, furs, honey and amber. The modern Belarusian ethnos was probably formed on the basis of the three Slavic tribes — Kryvians, Radzimians as well as several Baltic tribes, during the 9th and 10th centuries, Scandinavian Vikings established trade posts on the way from Scandinavia to the Byzantine Empire. The network of lakes and rivers crossing East Slav territory provided a trade route between the two civilizations. In the course of trade, they gradually took sovereignty over the tribes of East Slavs, the Rus rulers invaded the Byzantine Empire on few occasions, but eventually they allied against the Bulgars.
The condition underlying this alliance was to open the country for Christianization and acculturation from the Byzantine Empire. Between the 9th and 12th centuries, the Principality of Polotsk emerged as the dominant center of power on Belarusian territory, with a lesser role played by the Principality of Turaŭ in the south. In the 13th century, the unity of Kievan Rus disintegrated due to nomadic incursions from Asia. The East Slavs splintered into a number of independent and competing principalities, due to military conquest and dynastic marriages the West Ruthenian principalities were acquired by the expanding Lithuania, beginning with the rule of Lithuanian King Mindaugas. Since the 14th century, Vilnius had been the official capital of the state. The Lithuanians smaller numbers in this medieval state gave the Ruthenians an important role in the cultural life of the state. Owing to the prevalence of East Slavs and the Eastern Orthodox faith among the population in eastern and southern regions of the state, construction of Orthodox churches in some parts of present-day Belarus had been initially prohibited, as was the case of Vitebsk in 1480.
On the other hand, further unification of the, mostly Orthodox, Grand Duchy with mostly Catholic Poland led to liberalization, in 1511, King and Grand Duke Sigismund I the Old granted the Orthodox clergy an autonomy enjoyed previously only by Catholic clergy. The privilege extended the jurisdiction of the Orthodox hierarchy over all Orthodox people, in such circumstances, a vibrant Ruthenian culture flourished, mostly in major present-day Belarusian cities. Soon afterwards he founded a printing press in Polatsk and started an extensive undertaking of publishing the Bible. Apart from the Bible itself, before his death in 1551 he published 22 other books, the Lublin Union of 1569 constituted the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an influential player in European politics and the largest multinational state in Europe. While Ukraine and Podlaskie became subject to the Polish Crown, present-day Belarus territory was regarded as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Northern Cyprus, officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a self-declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the northeast to Morphou Bay, Cape Kormakitis and its westernmost point and its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the islands largest city and capital of both sides. A coup détat in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic and military support. Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful, the Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. Northern Cyprus is a semi-presidential, democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various influences, the official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken.
The vast majority of the consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are varied and mostly moderate. Northern Cyprus is an observer of the OIC and ECO, and has status in the PACE under the title Turkish Cypriot Community. A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, the agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs, in particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments, Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus. On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided that Makarios 13 amendments were illegal, on 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios stance.
On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC, after the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist. The Supreme Court of Cyprus was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, on 30 November, Makarios legalized the 13 proposals. In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government, the plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected they should be violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene. Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia, seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı