1.
Number
–
Numbers that answer the question How many. Are 0,1,2,3 and so on, when used to indicate position in a sequence they are ordinal numbers. To the Pythagoreans and Greek mathematician Euclid, the numbers were 2,3,4,5, Euclid did not consider 1 to be a number. Numbers like 3 +17 =227, expressible as fractions in which the numerator and denominator are whole numbers, are rational numbers and these make it possible to measure such quantities as two and a quarter gallons and six and a half miles. What we today would consider a proof that a number is irrational Euclid called a proof that two lengths arising in geometry have no common measure, or are incommensurable, Euclid included proofs of incommensurability of lengths arising in geometry in his Elements. In the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, a pair of walking forward marked addition. They were the first known civilization to use negative numbers, negative numbers came into widespread use as a result of their utility in accounting. They were used by late medieval Italian bankers, by 1740 BC, the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. In Maya civilization zero was a numeral with a shape as a symbol. The ancient Egyptians represented all fractions in terms of sums of fractions with numerator 1, for example, 2/5 = 1/3 + 1/15. Such representations are known as Egyptian Fractions or Unit Fractions. The earliest written approximations of π are found in Egypt and Babylon, in Babylon, a clay tablet dated 1900–1600 BC has a geometrical statement that, by implication, treats π as 25/8 =3.1250. In Egypt, the Rhind Papyrus, dated around 1650 BC, astronomical calculations in the Shatapatha Brahmana use a fractional approximation of 339/108 ≈3.139. Other Indian sources by about 150 BC treat π as √10 ≈3.1622 The first references to the constant e were published in 1618 in the table of an appendix of a work on logarithms by John Napier. However, this did not contain the constant itself, but simply a list of logarithms calculated from the constant and it is assumed that the table was written by William Oughtred. The discovery of the constant itself is credited to Jacob Bernoulli, the first known use of the constant, represented by the letter b, was in correspondence from Gottfried Leibniz to Christiaan Huygens in 1690 and 1691. Leonhard Euler introduced the letter e as the base for natural logarithms, Euler started to use the letter e for the constant in 1727 or 1728, in an unpublished paper on explosive forces in cannons, and the first appearance of e in a publication was Eulers Mechanica. While in the subsequent years some researchers used the letter c, e was more common, the first numeral system known is Babylonian numeric system, that has a 60 base, it was introduced in 3100 B. C. and is the first Positional numeral system known