A valley is a low area between hills, often with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide, the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of two main types or a mixture of them, with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. A valley through which a river runs may be referred to as a vale, a small and often wooded valley is known as a dell or in Scotland as a glen. A wide, flat valley through which a river runs is known in Scotland as a strath, a mountain cove is a small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. A small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges is sometimes known as a hollow, a deep, narrow valley is known as a cwm. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, chines, a valley formed by erosion is called an erosional valley, a valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands is called a structural valley. A valley formed by flowing water, or river valley, is usually V-shaped, the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it.
Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce steep walls, shallower slopes may produce broader and gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment, in prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a river valley, usually with a particularly wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales commonly occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift, are formed by the expansion of the Earths crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earths surface, there are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is normally U-shaped, the valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier that forms it.
When the ice recedes or thaws, the remains, often littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice. Floor gradient does not affect the shape, it is the glaciers size that does
Outer Continental Shelf
The Outer Continental Shelf is a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States. The OCS is the part of the internationally recognized continental shelf of the United States which does not fall under the jurisdictions of the individual U. S. States. Formally, the OCS is governed by Title 43, Chapter 29 Submerged Lands, Subchapter III Outer Continental Shelf Lands, louisiana is extended 3 nautical miles seaward of the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. All other States seaward limits are extended 3 international nautical miles seaward of the baseline from which the breadth of the sea is measured. Federal jurisdiction is defined under accepted principles of international law.01. Thus the landward boundary of the continental shelf is a legal construct rather than a physical construct. For legislation concerning the OCS, the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation has jurisdiction within the United States Senate. In the House of Representatives, the Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy, under the OCSLA, the Secretary of the Interior is responsible for the administration of mineral exploration and development of the OCS.
The OCSLA has been amended several times, most recently as a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on October 1,2011, BOEMRE was divided into two bureaus, the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. BSEE is the charged to provide regulatory oversight of deepwater oil drilling
Demographics of Africa
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries. The population doubled in the period 1982–2009 and quadrupled from 1955–2009, as of 2013, the total population of Africa is estimated at 1.1 billion, representing approximately 15% of the worlds population. According to UN estimates, the population of Africa may reach nearly 2.5 billion by 2050 and nearly 4.4 billion by 2100. More than 40% of the population is below 15 years old in most sub-Saharan countries, as well as the Sudan but with the exception of South Africa, thirty-four out of fifty-three African countries are counted among the worlds Least Developed Countries. HIV/AIDS is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, with some 11% of adult population infected, Africas population has rapidly increased over the last 40 years, and consequently, it is relatively young. In some African states, half or more of the population is under 25 years of age, the total number of people in Africa grew from 221 million in 1950 to 1.1 billion in 2013.
Speakers of Bantu languages predominate in southern and southeast Africa, the Bantu farmers from West Africas inland savanna progressively expanded over most of Sub-Saharan Africa. Bantu-speaking Africans predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon, in the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the San have long been present. Together with the Khoikhoi, they form the Khoisan, the San are the pre-Bantu indigenous people of southern Africa, while Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of Central Africa. The Niger–Congo-speaking Yoruba, Fulani and Wolof ethnic groups are the largest and most influential, in the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. The peoples of North Africa comprise three main groups, Berbers in the northwest and Libyans in northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. The Arabs who arrived in the 7th century introduced the Arabic language and Islam to the region, the Semitic Phoenicians and Hyksos, the Indo-Iranian Alans, the Indo-European Greeks and Vandals settled in North Africa as well.
Berber-speaking populations still make significant communities within Morocco and Algeria and are present in smaller numbers in Tunisia. The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. In Mauritania, There is a small Berber community and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the South, small communities of Afro-Asiatic-speaking Beja nomads can be found in Egypt and Sudan. In the Horn of Africa, Afro-Asiatic-speaking groups predominate, in southern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Nilotic peoples related to those in South Sudan are found, while Bantu and Khoisan ethnic minorities inhabit parts of southern Somalia. Prior to the movements of the post-World War II era. By the end of 1977, more than one million Portuguese were thought to have returned from Africa, White Africans remain an important minority in many African states, particularly South Africa, Namibia and Réunion
Demographics of Asia
The continent of Asia covers 29. 4% of the Earths land area and has a population of over 4 billion, accounting for about 56% of the world population. The combined population of both China and India are estimated to be over 2.6 billion people. Economically, most of Asia is traditionally considered part of the Second World, with the significant exception of the industrialized First World countries of Israel, Japan and South Korea. Asian countries in the G-20 major economies include China, South Korea, Russia, Turkey, of these, Japan is in the G8, and additionally China and India in the G8+5. Russia is a part of G8 from 1997 until 2014, the Human Development Index of Asian countries range from Low to Very High category. The table below shows the 10 highest and lowest countries according to their Human Development Index scores based on the 2015 report
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Tied islands, or land-tied islands as they are often known, are landforms consisting of an island that is connected to land only by a tombolo, a spit of beach materials connected to land at both ends. St Ninians Isle, in the Shetland Islands off the north coast of Scotland, is an example of this, Islands portal Glossary of geology and related sciences. Jesse V. Howell, American Geological Institute, media related to Tied islands at Wikimedia Commons
Oceania, known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term is used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, the word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός, ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans, as an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, in geopolitical terms, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands, puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean and it comprised four regions, Micronesia and Melanesia.
The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. The islands at the extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States. There is a geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate. Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone or the Pacific ecozone, Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled.
The term is used to denote a continent comprising Australia. New Zealand forms the corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the cultures of Polynesia. It is also, considered part of Australasia, the history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Melanesia, Polynesia
History of geography
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become an academic discipline. Geography derives from the Greek γεωγραφία – geographia, a translation of which would be to describe or write about the Earth. The first person to use the word geography was Eratosthenes, there is evidence for recognizable practices of geography, such as cartography prior to the use of the term geography. The known world of Ancient Egypt saw the Nile as the centre, various oases were known to the east and west, and were considered locations of various gods 12. To the South lay the Kushitic region, known as far as the 4th cataract, punt was a region south along the shores of the Red Sea. Various Asiatic peoples were known as Retenu, Que, Harranu, at various times especially in the Late Bronze Age Egyptians had diplomatic and trade relationships with Babylonia and Elam. The Mediterranean was called the Great Green and was believed to be part of a world encircling ocean, Europe was unknown although may have become part of the Egyptian world view in Phoenician times.
The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC, the best known Babylonian world map, however, is the Imago Mundi of 600 BC. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean, the descriptions of five of them have survived. The ancient Greeks saw the poet Homer as the founder of geography and his works the Iliad and the Odyssey are works of literature, but both contain a great deal of geographical information. Homer describes a circular world ringed by a massive ocean. The works show that the Greeks by the 8th century BC had considerable knowledge of the geography of the eastern Mediterranean. The poems contain a number of place names and descriptions. Thales of Miletus is one of the first known philosophers known to have wondered about the shape of the world and he proposed that the world was based on water, and that all things grew out of it. He laid down many of the astronomical and mathematical rules that would allow geography to be studied scientifically and his successor Anaximander is the first person known to have attempted to create a scale map of the known world and to have introduced the gnomon to Ancient Greece.
From these accounts he wrote a prose account of what was known of the world. A similar work, and one that survives today, is Herodotus Histories
These regions are further subdivided into a variety of ecoregions. Many ecosystems, and the animal and plant communities that depend on them, are found across continents in large portions of this realm. The continuity of these results from the shared glacial history of the realm. The floristic Boreal Kingdom corresponds to the Holarctic realm, within the Holarctic realm, there are a variety of ecosystems. The type of ecosystem found in an area depends on the latitude, in the far north, a band of arctic tundra circles the shore of the Arctic Ocean. The ground beneath this land is permafrost, frozen year-round, in these difficult growing conditions, few plants can survive. South of the tundra, the boreal forest stretches across North America and this land is characterized by coniferous trees. South of here, the ecosystems become more diverse, some areas are covered in temperate grassland, while others are covered in temperate forest, dominated by deciduous trees. The southern extent of the Holarctic typically reaches into the desert, a variety of animal species are distributed across continents, throughout much of the Holarctic realm.
Some of these included the brown bear, grey wolf, red fox, moose, golden eagle, the brown bear is found in mountainous and semi-open areas distributed throughout the Holarctic. It once occupied much larger areas, but has driven out by human development. Today it is found in remaining wilderness areas. The grey wolf is found in a variety of habitats from tundra to desert. The red fox is an adaptable predator. It has the widest distribution of any terrestrial carnivore, and is adapted to a range of habitats. Like the wolf, it is distributed throughout the majority of the Holarctic, the wolverine is a large member of the weasel family found primarily in the arctic and in boreal forests, ranging south in mountainous regions. It is distributed in areas throughout Eurasia and North America. The moose is the largest member of the deer family and it is found throughout most of the boreal forest through continental Eurasia into Scandinavia, eastern North America, and boreal and montane regions of western North America
Outline of South America
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to South America. South America is the continent of the two Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. It lies between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continent is culturally and racially diverse, home to indigenous peoples and to descendants of settlers from Europe and Asia. Due to its history of colonialism most South Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, Music Information about South American Music
Urbanism is the study of the characteristic ways of interaction of inhabitants of towns and cities with the built environment. It is a component of disciplines such as urban planning. However, in some contexts internationally Urbanism is synonymous with Urban Planning, many architects and sociologists investigate the way people live in densely populated urban areas. There is a variety of approaches within urbanism. Manuel Castells suggested that within a society, premium infrastructure networks selectively connect together the most favored users and places. Part of the philosophy of William James, one of the fathers of pragmatism, was to encourage people to actively reach out to the points where they can critically engage with others. The theme of democracy was central to John Deweys version of pragmatism and he believed that in a democratic society, every sovereign citizen is capable of achieving personality. He argued that the concept of place should be open to experimentation for the hope of realising a better world, according to Richard J.
Bernstein, these themes are basic applications of urbanism. Under pragmatism, place is defined throughout continuous interactions with its dwellers and this approach can be seen in the theory of placemaking that emerged in the 1960s, epitomised by Jan Gehls quote First life, buildings – the other way around never works. Anti-foundationalism and fallibilism are related to pragmatism, in the context of those, pragmatists argue that the idea of space needs to be able to cope with unpredictability and change. The notion of a community as inquirers emphasises that the idea of place will be sustained only as long as there is a community to support it, douglas Kelbaugh identifies three paradigms within urbanism, New Urbanism, Everyday Urbanism, and Post-Urbanism. Paul L. Knox refers to one of many trends in contemporary urbanism as the aestheticization of everyday life, alex Krieger states that urban design is less a technical discipline than a mind-set based on a commitment to cities
Outline of geography
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography, Geography – study of earth and its people. An academic discipline – a body of knowledge given to − or received by − a disciple, a branch or sphere of knowledge, or field of study, Geography has been called the world discipline. A field of science – widely recognized category of specialized expertise within science, such a field will usually be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published. There are many geography-related scientific journals, a natural science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of natural environment. A social science – field of scholarship that explores aspects of human society. An interdisciplinary field – a field that crosses boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Many of the branches of physical geography are branches of Earth science, etymology of geography, from Greek γεωγραφία - geographia, lit.
Earth describe-write geo- – a prefix taken from the Greek word γη or γαια meaning earth, geo- is a prefix for many words dealing in some way with the earth. Words that include this suffix usually are about a work, an art, Physical geography – examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil and landforms are produced and interact. Geomorphology – study of landforms and the processes that them, and more broadly, hydrology – study of the movement and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. Glaciology – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice, biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally. Over areal ecological changes, it is tied to the concepts of species and their past, or present living refugium, their survival locales. It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance, climatology – study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes. Pedology – study of soils in their environment that deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology. Palaeogeography – study of what the geography was in times past, most often concerning the physical landscape, coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography and the human geography of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weather, Quaternary science – focuses on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years, including the last ice age and the Holocene period. Landscape ecology – the relationship between spatial patterns of development and ecological processes on a multitude of landscape scales and organizational levels