Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States.
The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA.
Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or Chicagoans
Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools, officially classified as City of Chicago School District #299 for funding and districting reasons, in Chicago, Illinois, is the fourth largest school district in the U. S. The district serves over 396,000 students, Students attend a particular school based on their area of residence, except for charter schools and selective enrollment schools. The school system reported a rate of 65.4 percent for the 2012–2013 school year. CPS reported an average of 20 pupils per teacher in schools and 24.6 pupils per teacher in high school. Approximately 85% of CPS students are Latino or African-American, the student body includes 87% from low-income homes, and 12. 2% of students are reported to have limited English proficiency. Average salaries for 2008-2009 were $56,915 for teachers and $120,659 for administrators, for the 2013-2014 school year, CPS reported 41,579 staff positions including 22,519 teachers and 545 principals. In 2012 CPS reported a budget of $5.11 billion with $2.273 billion from local sources, $1.619 billion from the State of Illinois, per student spending was reported at $13,078 in 2010.
As Chicago was started as a trading outpost in the early 1800s, it several years for a citywide school system with adequate funding. As early as 1848, during the first term of the 10th Mayor of Chicago, James Hutchinson Woodworth, from 2001 to 2008, CPS, under Arne Duncans leadership, closed dozens of elementary and high schools due to classrooms being at low capacity or underperforming. These closures were fueled by corporate principles of competition and supported by billionaires, policy advocates, and local, during this programs time, it has closed over 80 schools and plans to open 100 charter schools. This include five military schools, three of which have Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps programs, on May 22,2013, the school board voted to close 50 public schools. However, the majority of the schools have been in poor neighborhoods with a black population. These areas are not only sites of demolished public housing, for every four schools that have been closed, three have been in these neighborhoods.
Over 88% of the affected by these closings have been African American. The teachers union first strike occurred in May 1969, which lasted two days, the second strike occurred in January 1971, lasting four days from January 12 through January 15. The strike resulted in an 8% teachers salary increase and a 7% increase for school staff workers. Another strike by the union occurred in January 1973, the union was requesting that their salaries be increased and their class sizes be smaller. On September 3,1975, The union went on strike for eleven days as a result to restore the loss of teaching and clerical jobs, overcrowding of classrooms. In February 1980, The union striked again for a total of ten days, asking for paydays worked during financial crisis, changes to school board’s spending cuts, in 1983, CPS teachers went on a fifteen-day strike from October 3 to October 18 demanding a 10% salary increase
Institute of Food Technologists
It has more than 17,000 members from more than 95 countries. Literature such as Upton Sinclairs The Jungle in 1906 about slaughterhouse operations would be a factor in the establishment of the U. S. Food, by 1935, two MIT professors, Samuel C. Prescott and Bernard E. Proctor decided that it was time to hold a conference regarding this. Prescott replied with fifty or sixty people,500 people actually attended the event. This meeting proved so successful that in early 1938 that a conference would be held in 1939. The second conference was held at MIT June 29 to July 1,1939 with Proctor as conference chair, at the final session, the chairman of the session Fred C. Blanck of the United States Department of Agriculture, proposed that an organization be established as the Institute of Food Technologists and its first officers were Prescott as President, Roy C. Newton of Swift & Company in Chicago, Illinois as Vice President, and Hucker as Secretary-Treasurer. By 1949, IFT had 3,000 members, regional sections were established in IFT as early as 1940 in northern California.
The first IFT Award, the Nicholas Appert Award was established in 1942 by IFTs Chicago section with additional awards being established since then, for the first ten years, IFT officers were President, Vice-President and Treasurer. In 1949, IFT moved into offices in Chicago and created a permanent position of Executive Secretary to run daily organizational operations. Retired U. S. Army Colonel Charles S. Lawrence was named the first Executive Secretary, during Willeys term as Executive Director, IFT would grow from 6,000 members in 1961 to 23,000 members in 1987. Additionally, IFT Divisions were established in 1971 with the Refrigerated, the IFT Student Division was established in 1975, and was reorganized in 1984 to be the IFT Student Association with the chairperson serving as a member of the IFT Board of Directors. IFT communicates with the media, using sixty scientists to discuss the scientific perspective on food issues. IFT is active in the level by its membership in the International Union of Food Science and Technology, headquartered in Oakville, Ontario.
Education has always been a focus of IFT, going as far back as 1941, education standards for undergraduate students were approved by IFT in 1966 for food science and technology. These standards were revised and updated in 1977,1992,2001, today, IFT sits on the advisory council for the International Food Protection Training Institute. IFT largest in-person gathering is IFT’s Annual Meeting & Food Expo, IFT offers the Certified Food Scientist designation. The CFS is the only globally-recognized certification for food scientists, and has more than 1600 certificants in 55 countries, the CFS program is officially endorsed by the Australian Institute of Food Science Technology as well as the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage