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Is there a reason why scopolamine is listed as a quaternary ammonium compound in this template? The structure of scopolamine has a quartenary ammonium group no more than atropine and hyoscyamine, that are listed as tertiary amines, have. Some derivatives of scopolamine such as butylscopolamine and methylscopolamine are of course quaternary ammonium compounds. --MiPe (talk) 18:12, 14 November 2012 (UTC)
More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals, the two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The former studies the effects of the drug on biological systems, Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for practice, and the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering, Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs, early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus, neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning. This is similar to the closely related ethnopharmacology, psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials, study of drugs which affect behavior. Ethopharmacology is a term which has been in use since the 1960s and derives from the Greek word ethos meaning character and pharmacology the study of drug actions, cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs, pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people, systems pharmacology is the application of systems biology principles to the field of pharmacology. Toxicology is the study of the effects, molecular targets. Theoretical pharmacologists aim at rationalizing the relation between the activity of a drug, as observed experimentally, and its structural features as derived from computer experiments. They aim to find structure—activity relations, more ambitiously, it aims to predict entirely new classes of drugs, tailor-made for specific purposes. Posology is the study of how medicines are dosed and this depends upon various factors including age, climate, weight, sex, elimination rate of drug, genetic polymorphism and time of administration. It is derived from the Greek words posos meaning how much, environmental pharmacology is a new discipline
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