The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible, the car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California. It is noted in being the least expensive model in the Ferrari range, the California was launched at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. The California represents a new, fourth model range for the company, the engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres, and used gasoline direct injection. It delivers 338 kW at 7,750 rpm, its maximum torque produced is 485 N·m at 5,000 rpm, the body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The original 2010 California had a top speed of 310 km/h, although that model was 180 kilograms heavier and 30 PS less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission. Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics.
With the top up, the California has a coefficient of Cd=0.32. The California is built in a new production line adjacent to the factory at Maranello. The existing production line produces 27 cars per day, or 6,000 per year, throughout the Californias production, only 3 cars had been built with manual transmission, including one order from the UK. On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced an upgrade of the 2009 model which is lighter, the car was released at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show as a 2012 model in Europe and as a 2013 model year for the US. To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS package was developed as part of the update in 2012 and it can be recognized by a silver coloured grille and ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells. In May 2012, Ferrari recalled the California because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash, the F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics.
The Ferrari California T is an update of the earlier California featuring new sheetmetal, new interior, a revised chassis, first unveiled on the web on February 12,2014, subsequently the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. The T in the stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on a roadcar on the F40. The car utilizes a new 3, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 315 km/h. The car features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear, another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina
The Ferrari P4/5 is a one-off sports car made by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari but redesigned by Pininfarina for film director and stock exchange magnate James Glickenhaus. The car was initially an Enzo Ferrari but the owner James Glickenhaus preferred the styling of Ferraris 1960s race cars, the project cost Glickenhaus US$4 million and was officially presented to the public in August 2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours dElégance. Several websites were allowed to publish images of the model in July 2006. In March 2005 Glickenhaus, stock exchange magnate and car collector, was approached by Pininfarina who asked if he was interested in commissioning a one-off car, andrea Pininfarina, grandson of the company’s founder said The Ferrari 612 Kappa and this P4/5 are the first. But we want to grow this business, indicating that Pininfarina is interested in producing other unique cars. Its design began in September 2005 with sketches by Jason Castriota moving through computer aided sculpture, more than 200 components were designed especially for the car.
Most components, including the engine, are modified from the original Enzo Ferrari, the Vehicle Identification Number is unchanged from the Enzo from which it was derived. The P4/5 was publicly revealed on August 18,2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours dElégance, ted West wrote an article in Car and Driver about how this came to be The Beast of Turin. On September 2009, Glickenhaus announced his intention to race a new version of the P4/5 in the 201024 Hours Nürburgring. The car, called the P4/5 Competizione, would not be a conversion of his car but instead an entirely new car with a Ferrari chassis, VIN. On May 2010 however, it was revealed that the Competizione would in fact be raced in 2011 and it would be built to FIA GT2 standards and raced by Scuderia Cameron Glickenhaus in an Experimental Class under the direction of Paolo Garella, former Head of Special Projects at Pininfarina. Ferrari completely distanced themselves from the P4/5 Competizione project in 2011, the car finished 39th in the 201124 Hours Nürburgring and in 2012 won its class and finished 12th overall.
The Ferrari P4/5 can accelerate from 0-100 kilometres per hour in 3.0 seconds and it has a top speed of 233 mph. The car has an area of 1.906 square metres. The P4/5 sports improved air conditioning over the Enzo and a high-strength alloy roll bar redesigned because the original was too thick and obstructed Glickenhaus view. The seats are built and his sons bodies were scanned so Pininfarina could mould the seats for their comfort, accessibility. With a frame of carbon composite, the seats are covered with a black mesh. Pininfarina rearranged the wiring of the car so as to make the car easier to service and 595 lb lighter than the Enzo, the butterfly doors are designed such that even at 160 mph there is no wind noise