Template talk:Peruvian Primera División seasons
|WikiProject Football||(Rated Template-class)|
|WikiProject Peru||(Rated Template-class)|
|WikiProject Football||(Rated Template-class)|
|WikiProject Peru||(Rated Template-class)|
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the coastal part of the country. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms an urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima is the most populous area of Peru. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18,1535 and it became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru, around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World, the National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12,1551 during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013 Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games and it hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015 Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group, according to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century and this oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted, the chronicles show Límac replacing Ychma as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word Lima originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq, linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of lime, the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the name of choice, on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru.
The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people assume that this is because its original Inca name is Talking River. However, the inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua, later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river, historically, the Flag of Lima has been known as the «Banner of Perus Kings City»
A wiki is a website that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a markup language. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine, there are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary, some permit control over different functions, for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control, other rules may be imposed to organize content. Wikipedia is not a wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis. There are at least tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites. The English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles, as of September 2016, ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as the simplest online database that could possibly work.
Wiki is a Hawaiian word meaning quick, Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not. A wiki is not a carefully crafted site created by experts and professional writers, instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of editors and contributors to write documents collaboratively, all that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser and a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a website is referred to as a wiki page, while the entire collection of pages. A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, a wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated, there is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online, this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them, maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. Unfit sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered fit, while such openness may invite vandalism and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a quality wiki page
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
The National University of San Marcos is the most important and respected higher-education institution in Peru. It consistently ranks among the top two universities in the country and its main campus, the University City, is located in Lima. San Marcos has 60 academic-professional schools, organized into 20 faculties, all the faculties offer undergraduate and graduate degrees. The student body consists of over 30,000 undergraduate and 4,000 graduate students from all the country, the university has a number of public institutions under its government such as the San Marcos Cultural Center and the Museum of Natural History of Lima. San Marcos prestige in Latin America mainly arises from its renowned faculty and it is the only university in Peru with a Nobel Prize laureate among its alumni, Mario Vargas Llosa. San Marcos is recognized for the quality of its contents, its very competitive admission process. San Marcos was officially established by a decree on May 12,1551. Hence, it is known as the Dean of America, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was chartered the same year as San Marcos as the Royal University of Mexico, making it the second oldest in the Americas.
The Peruvian institution states that the document in question was discredited by Pope Paul III, the university was originally headed by members of the clergy. During the Enlightenment, Bourbon reforms transformed it into a secular institution, the university is governed by, The University Council The University Assembly. The Rector Two Vice-Rectors, Academic Vice-Rector Vice-Rector of investigation, the original faculties at San Marcos were Theology and Law, and Medicine were added in the colonial period. The Faculty of Natural Sciences and the Faculty of Economics and Commerce were created in the mid-19th century, the Faculty of Science was subdivided by specialities in the 20th century. The Faculty of Theology was closed in 1935, in the mid-1990s San Marcos departments were grouped into four academic blocks. Nowadays, San Marcos faculties are grouped into 6 academic areas, as shown below, laura Esther Rodriguez Dulanto, the first female physician in Peru. Santiago Antúnez de Mayolo and scientist, josé María Arguedas and anthropologist.
Luis Bedoya Reyes, congressman, Mayor of Lima and founder of the Christian Peoples Party G. E. Berrios, daniel Alcides Carrión, medical student and pioneer in medical research. Ramiro Castro de la Mata Caamaño, scientist, víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, revolutionary thinker, founder of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Cayetano Heredia, physician. Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias and logician, bernardo OHiggins, military officer and first President of Chile
The Chachapoyas, called the Warriors of the Clouds, was a culture of Andes living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru. The Inca Empire conquered their civilization shortly before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, since the Incas and conquistadors were the principal sources of information on the Chachapoyas, there is little first-hand or contrasting knowledge of the Chachapoyas. Writings by the chroniclers of the time, such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, were based on fragmentary second-hand accounts. Much of what we do know about the Chachapoyas culture is based on evidence from ruins, tombs. Spanish chronicler Pedro Cieza de León noted that, after their annexation to the Inca Empire, by the 18th century, the Chachapoyas had been devastated, they remain a distinct strain within the indigenous peoples of modern Peru. The name Chachapoya was given to this culture by the Inca, the Chachapoyas territory was located in the northern regions of the Andes in present-day Peru.
It encompassed the region formed by the confluence of the Marañón River. This territory included land to the south up to the Chuntayaku River, but the center of the Chachapoyas culture was the basin of the Utcubamba river. The contemporary Peruvian city of Chachapoyas, Peru derives its name from the word for this ancient culture as does the defined architectural style. The area of the Chachapoyas is sometimes referred to as the Amazonian Andes due to it being part of a mountain covered by dense tropical forest. The Amazonian Andes constitute the eastern flank of the Andes, which were covered by dense Amazon vegetation. The region extended from the cordillera spurs up to altitudes where primary forests still stand, the cultural realm of the Amazonian Andes occupied land situated between 2, 000–3,000 metres. The finds at Manachaqui’s late Pre-ceramic Period levels yield radiocarbon dates averaging 2700 BCE, around 1400 BCE, the Initial Period Manachaqui phase witnessed the adoption of ceramic technology and the appearance of a “Chachapoya ceramic tradition”.
Ceramics found at the central Chachapoyas site of Huepón were given a date, despite the archaeological evidence that people began settling as early as 200 CE or before, the Chachapoyas culture is thought to have developed around 750-800 CE. Referred to as the Machu Picchu of the north, Kuélap receives few visitors due to its remote location, other archaeological sites in the region include the settlement of Gran Saposoa, the Atumpucro complex, and the burial sites at Revash and Laguna de las Momias, among others. It is estimated that only 5% of sites of the Chachapoyas have been excavated according to a BBC documentary from January 2013. The conquest of the Chachapoyas by the Inca Empire took place, according to Garcilaso and he recounts that the warlike actions began in Pias, a community on a mountain on the edge of Chachapoyas territory likely to the southwest of Gran Pajatén. According to de la Vega, the Chachapoyas anticipated an Inca incursion, the chronicle of Pedro Cieza de León documents Chachapoya resistance
The Peru national football team has represented Peru in international football since 1927. Organised by the Peruvian Football Federation, it is one of the 10 members of FIFAs South American Football Confederation, the Peruvian teams performance has been inconsistent, it enjoyed its most successful periods in the 1930s and the 1970s. The team plays most of its matches at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. Peru has won the Copa América twice and qualified for FIFA World Cup finals four times and it has longstanding rivalries with Chile and Ecuador. The team is known for its white shirts adorned with a diagonal red stripe. This basic design has been used continuously since 1936, and gives rise to the teams common Spanish nickname and this team qualified for three World Cups and won the Copa América in 1975. Peru last reached the World Cup finals in 1982, Perus most successful managers, Jack Greenwell and Marcos Calderón, led the national team to its major tournament victories. Football was introduced to Peru in the 19th century by British immigrants, in 1859, members of the capital Limas British community founded the Lima Cricket Club, Perus first organization dedicated to the practice of cricket and football.
These new sports became popular among the local upper-class over the following decades, after the war, Perus coastal society embraced football as a modern innovation. The sport became a daily activity in Lima barrios, encouraged by bosses who wanted it to inspire solidarity. In the adjacent port of Callao and other areas, British civilian workers and sailors played the sport among themselves. Sports rivalries between locals and foreigners arose in Callao, and between elites and workers in Lima, over time, as foreigners departed, this evolved into a rivalry between Callao and Lima. The Peruvian Football League was formed in 1912 and held each year until it broke up in 1921 amid disputes between the member clubs, the Peruvian Football Federation was created the following year and, in 1926, it reorganised the annual league competition. The FPF joined the South American Football Confederation in 1925, the team debuted in the 1927 South American Championship, which the FPF hosted at the Estadio Nacional in Lima.
Perus first match was a 0–4 loss against Uruguay, their second was a 3–2 victory over Bolivia, Peru next took part in the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930, but was eliminated in the first stage. The 1930s have been called Peruvian footballs first golden era, during this decade, Peruvians traveled abroad in search of competition that would further develop their football. Starting with Ciclista Lima in 1926, Peruvian clubs toured Latin America, sports historian Richard Witzig described these three as a soccer triumvirate unsurpassed in the world at that time, citing their combined innovation and effectiveness at both ends of the field. Peru and the Rodillo Negro awed crowds at the 1936 Summer Olympics, won the inaugural Bolivarian Games in 1938, subsequent years proved less successful for the team, according to historian David Goldblatt, despite all the apparent preconditions for footballing growth and success, Peruvian football disappeared