1.
Series (mathematics)
–
In mathematics, a series is, informally speaking, the sum of the terms of an infinite sequence. The sum of a sequence has defined first and last terms. To emphasize that there are a number of terms, a series is often called an infinite series. In order to make the notion of an infinite sum mathematically rigorous, given an infinite sequence, the associated series is the expression obtained by adding all those terms together, a 1 + a 2 + a 3 + ⋯. These can be written compactly as ∑ i =1 ∞ a i, by using the summation symbol ∑. The sequence can be composed of any kind of object for which addition is defined. A series is evaluated by examining the finite sums of the first n terms of a sequence, called the nth partial sum of the sequence, and taking the limit as n approaches infinity. If this limit does not exist, the infinite sum cannot be assigned a value, and, in this case, the series is said to be divergent. On the other hand, if the partial sums tend to a limit when the number of terms increases indefinitely, then the series is said to be convergent, and the limit is called the sum of the series. An example is the series from Zenos dichotomy and its mathematical representation, ∑ n =1 ∞12 n =12 +14 +18 + ⋯. The study of series is a part of mathematical analysis. Series are used in most areas of mathematics, even for studying finite structures, in addition to their ubiquity in mathematics, infinite series are also widely used in other quantitative disciplines such as physics, computer science, statistics and finance. For any sequence of numbers, real numbers, complex numbers, functions thereof. By definition the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to a limit L if and this definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k. When the index set is the natural numbers I = N, a series indexed on the natural numbers is an ordered formal sum and so we rewrite ∑ n ∈ N as ∑ n =0 ∞ in order to emphasize the ordering induced by the natural numbers. Thus, we obtain the common notation for a series indexed by the natural numbers ∑ n =0 ∞ a n = a 0 + a 1 + a 2 + ⋯. When the semigroup G is also a space, then the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to an element L ∈ G if. This definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k, a series ∑an is said to converge or to be convergent when the sequence SN of partial sums has a finite limit

2.
Sequence
–
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members, the number of elements is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the numbers or the set of the first n natural numbers. The position of an element in a sequence is its rank or index and it depends on the context or of a specific convention, if the first element has index 0 or 1. For example, is a sequence of letters with the letter M first, also, the sequence, which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be finite, as in these examples, or infinite, the empty sequence is included in most notions of sequence, but may be excluded depending on the context. A sequence can be thought of as a list of elements with a particular order, Sequences are useful in a number of mathematical disciplines for studying functions, spaces, and other mathematical structures using the convergence properties of sequences. In particular, sequences are the basis for series, which are important in differential equations, Sequences are also of interest in their own right and can be studied as patterns or puzzles, such as in the study of prime numbers. There are a number of ways to denote a sequence, some of which are useful for specific types of sequences. One way to specify a sequence is to list the elements, for example, the first four odd numbers form the sequence. This notation can be used for sequences as well. For instance, the sequence of positive odd integers can be written. Listing is most useful for sequences with a pattern that can be easily discerned from the first few elements. Other ways to denote a sequence are discussed after the examples, the prime numbers are the natural numbers bigger than 1, that have no divisors but 1 and themselves. Taking these in their natural order gives the sequence, the prime numbers are widely used in mathematics and specifically in number theory. The Fibonacci numbers are the integer sequence whose elements are the sum of the two elements. The first two elements are either 0 and 1 or 1 and 1 so that the sequence is, for a large list of examples of integer sequences, see On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences

3.
Geometric series
–
In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms. For example, the series 12 +14 +18 +116 + ⋯ is geometric, Geometric series are among the simplest examples of infinite series with finite sums, although not all of them have this property. Historically, geometric series played an important role in the development of calculus. Geometric series are used throughout mathematics, and they have important applications in physics, engineering, biology, economics, computer science, queueing theory, the terms of a geometric series form a geometric progression, meaning that the ratio of successive terms in the series is constant. This relationship allows for the representation of a series using only two terms, r and a. The term r is the ratio, and a is the first term of the series. In the case above, where r is one half, the series has the sum one, if r is greater than one or less than minus one the terms of the series become larger and larger in magnitude. The sum of the terms also gets larger and larger, if r is equal to one, all of the terms of the series are the same. If r is one the terms take two values alternately. The sum of the oscillates between two values. This is a different type of divergence and again the series has no sum, see for example Grandis series,1 −1 +1 −1 + ···. The sum can be computed using the self-similarity of the series, consider the sum of the following geometric series, s =1 +23 +49 +827 + ⋯. This series has common ratio 2/3, if we multiply through by this common ratio, then the initial 1 becomes a 2/3, the 2/3 becomes a 4/9, and so on,23 s =23 +49 +827 +1681 + ⋯. This new series is the same as the original, except that the first term is missing, subtracting the new series s from the original series s cancels every term in the original but the first, s −23 s =1, so s =3. A similar technique can be used to evaluate any self-similar expression, as n goes to infinity, the absolute value of r must be less than one for the series to converge. When a =1, this can be simplified to 1 + r + r 2 + r 3 + ⋯ =11 − r, the formula also holds for complex r, with the corresponding restriction, the modulus of r is strictly less than one. Since = 1−rn+1 and rn+1 →0 for | r | <1, convergence of geometric series can also be demonstrated by rewriting the series as an equivalent telescoping series. Consider the function, g = r K1 − r

4.
Convergent series
–
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function or sequence approaches as the input or index approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and are used to define continuity, derivatives, the concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit is usually written as lim n → c f = L and is read as the limit of f of n as n approaches c equals L. Here lim indicates limit, and the fact that function f approaches the limit L as n approaches c is represented by the right arrow, suppose f is a real-valued function and c is a real number. Intuitively speaking, the lim x → c f = L means that f can be made to be as close to L as desired by making x sufficiently close to c. The first inequality means that the distance x and c is greater than 0 and that x ≠ c, while the second indicates that x is within distance δ of c. Note that the definition of a limit is true even if f ≠ L. Indeed. Now since x +1 is continuous in x at 1, we can now plug in 1 for x, in addition to limits at finite values, functions can also have limits at infinity. In this case, the limit of f as x approaches infinity is 2, in mathematical notation, lim x → ∞2 x −1 x =2. Consider the following sequence,1.79,1.799,1.7999 and it can be observed that the numbers are approaching 1.8, the limit of the sequence. Formally, suppose a1, a2. is a sequence of real numbers, intuitively, this means that eventually all elements of the sequence get arbitrarily close to the limit, since the absolute value | an − L | is the distance between an and L. Not every sequence has a limit, if it does, it is called convergent, one can show that a convergent sequence has only one limit. The limit of a sequence and the limit of a function are closely related, on one hand, the limit as n goes to infinity of a sequence a is simply the limit at infinity of a function defined on the natural numbers n. On the other hand, a limit L of a function f as x goes to infinity, if it exists, is the same as the limit of any sequence a that approaches L. Note that one such sequence would be L + 1/n, in non-standard analysis, the limit of a sequence can be expressed as the standard part of the value a H of the natural extension of the sequence at an infinite hypernatural index n=H. Thus, lim n → ∞ a n = st , here the standard part function st rounds off each finite hyperreal number to the nearest real number. This formalizes the intuition that for very large values of the index. Conversely, the part of a hyperreal a = represented in the ultrapower construction by a Cauchy sequence, is simply the limit of that sequence

5.
Geometric progression
–
For example, the sequence 2,6,18,54. is a geometric progression with common ratio 3. Similarly 10,5,2.5,1.25. is a sequence with common ratio 1/2. Examples of a sequence are powers rk of a fixed number r, such as 2k. The general form of a sequence is a, a r, a r 2, a r 3, a r 4, … where r ≠0 is the common ratio. The n-th term of a sequence with initial value a. Such a geometric sequence also follows the relation a n = r a n −1 for every integer n ≥1. Generally, to whether a given sequence is geometric, one simply checks whether successive entries in the sequence all have the same ratio. The common ratio of a sequence may be negative, resulting in an alternating sequence, with numbers switching from positive to negative. For instance 1, −3,9, −27,81, the behaviour of a geometric sequence depends on the value of the common ratio. If the common ratio is, Positive, the terms will all be the sign as the initial term. Negative, the terms will alternate between positive and negative, greater than 1, there will be exponential growth towards positive or negative infinity. 1, the progression is a constant sequence, between −1 and 1 but not zero, there will be exponential decay towards zero. −1, the progression is an alternating sequence Less than −1, for the absolute values there is exponential growth towards infinity, due to the alternating sign. Geometric sequences show exponential growth or exponential decay, as opposed to the growth of an arithmetic progression such as 4,15,26,37,48. This result was taken by T. R. Malthus as the foundation of his Principle of Population. A geometric series is the sum of the numbers in a geometric progression, for example,2 +10 +50 +250 =2 +2 ×5 +2 ×52 +2 ×53. The formula works for any real numbers a and r. For example, −2 π +4 π2 −8 π3 = −2 π +2 +3 = −2 π1 − = −2 π1 +2 π ≈ −214.855

6.
Radius of convergence
–
In mathematics, the radius of convergence of a power series is the radius of the largest disk in which the series converges. It is either a real number or ∞. The radius of r is a nonnegative real number or ∞ such that the series converges if | z − a | < r. The radius of convergence is infinite if the series converges for all complex numbers z, the first case is theoretical, when you know all the coefficients c n then you take certain limits and find the precise radius of convergence. In this second case, extrapolating a plot estimates the radius of convergence, the radius of convergence can be found by applying the root test to the terms of the series. The root test uses the number C = lim sup n → ∞ | c n n | n = lim sup n → ∞ | c n | n | z − a | lim sup denotes the limit superior. The root test states that the series converges if C <1, note that r = 1/0 is interpreted as an infinite radius, meaning that ƒ is an entire function. The limit involved in the ratio test is easier to compute. R = lim n → ∞ | c n c n +1 |, the ratio test says the series converges if lim n → ∞ | c n +1 n +1 | | c n n | <1. That is equivalent to | z − a | <1 lim n → ∞ | c n +1 | | c n | = lim n → ∞ | c n c n +1 |. Usually, in applications, only a finite number of coefficients c n are known. Typically, as n increases, these coefficients settle into a regular behavior determined by the nearest radius-limiting singularity. In this case, two techniques have been developed, based on the fact that the coefficients of a Taylor series are roughly exponential with ratio 1 / r where r is the radius of convergence. The basic case is when the coefficients ultimately share a sign or alternate in sign. Domb and Sykes noted that 1 / r = lim n → ∞ c n / c n −1, negative r means the convergence-limiting singularity is on the negative axis. Estimate this limit, by plotting the c n / c n −1 versus 1 / n, the intercept with 1 / n =0 estimates the reciprocal of the radius of convergence,1 / r. This plot is called a Domb–Sykes plot, the more complicated case is when the signs of the coefficients have a more complex pattern. Mercer and Roberts proposed the following procedure, define the associated sequence b n 2 = c n +1 c n −1 − c n 2 c n c n −2 − c n −12 n =3,4,5, …