Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, known by various titles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin, the miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Marys life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her life her body was assumed directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion and she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries.
The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, there is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references. Mary has a position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Marys name in the manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ. The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament, in Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husbands involvement. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions.
For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelos Pietà, the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. However, this phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God, some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, the scriptural basis for the term Queen can be seen in Luke 1,32 and the Isaiah 9,6. Queen Mother can be found in 1 Kings 2, 19-20 and Jeremiah 13, other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary
Lesnes Abbey /ˈlɛsnᵻs/ is a former abbey, now ruined, in Abbey Wood, in the London Borough of Bexley, southeast London, England. It is an ancient monument and the adjacent Lesnes Abbey Woods are a Local Nature Reserve. Part of the wood is the Abbey Wood SSSI, a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest which is an important site for early Tertiary fossils, the year 1178 saw the foundation of the Abbey of St Mary and St Thomas the Martyr at Lesnes. Lesnes Abbey, as it is known, was founded by Richard de Luci, Chief Justiciar of England and it is speculated, this may have been in penance for the murder of Thomas Becket, in which he was involved. In 1179, de Luci resigned his office and retired to the Abbey and he was buried in the chapter house. In 1381 Abel Ker of Erith led a local uprising linked to the famous Peasants Revolt and it actually began in Essex but a mob from Erith burst into nearby Lesnes Abbey and forced the abbot to swear an oath to support them. After this they marched to Maidstone to join the body of men led by Wat Tyler.
The Abbott of Lesnes Abbey was an important local landlord, however and the cost of maintaining river embankments was one of the reasons given for the Abbeys chronic financial difficulties. It never became a community, and was closed by Cardinal Wolsey in 1525. It was one of the first monasteries to be closed after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1534, henry Cooke acquired the site in 1541 and it eventually passed to Sir John Hippersley who salvaged building materials, before selling the property to Thomas Hawes of London in 1632. It was bequeathed to Christs Hospital in 1633, some of the stone is said to have been used in the construction of Hall Place in nearby Bexley. The abbey was effectively lost and the area became farmland with the house forming part of a farmhouse. It has been restored to some of the walls and the entire outline of the abbey is visible giving a good idea of the size. It is on the Green Chain Walk and surrounded by parkland, there is a cafe and a small exhibition of the abbey and toilet facilities for visitors.
There is a large externally propped mulberry tree at the side of the abbey. The site was excavated by Woolwich & District Antiquarian Society in 1909-1910 approx, the Missale de Lesnes is in the library of the Victoria & Albert Museum in Exhibition Road, London. The former London County Council purchased the site of the ruins in 1930, since 1986, the site has been the property of the London Borough of Bexley. A branch of the Green Chain Walk passes the ruins on its way from Oxleas Wood to Thamesmead riverside, today Lesnes Abbey gives its name to one of the 21 electoral wards that the London Borough of Bexley is divided into
Sanbenito was a penitential garment that was used especially during the Spanish Inquisition. It was similar to a scapular, either yellow with red St. Andrews crosses for penitent heretics or black and decorated with friars, san Benito is the Spanish name of Saint Benedict. An alternative etymology by Covarrubias and former editions of the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española has it from saco bendito, américo Castro proved that it does not come from saco bendito. González Obregon describes the three types of tunics used to distinguish those being punished by the Inquisition. These were the Samarra, Fuego revolto, and the Sambenito, the Fuego revolto was used for those who had repented. The flames would be painted downwards, thus indicating that they had escaped death through fire, finally there was the Sambenito used commonly by those in penitence and which featured the saltires, eventually became known to designate all three types. The third type of penitential garment was for those who repented before they were sentenced.
The heretics, found guilty by the inquisitors, had to walk in the procession wearing the sambenito, the coroza, the rope around the neck, other garments worn by the prisoners included pointed hats and green or yellow candles. Originally the penitential garments were hung up in the churches as mementos of disgrace to their wearers, the lists of the punished were called sambenitos. Such were the penitential robes in 1514, when Cardinal Francisco Ximénez de Cisneros replaced the common crosses with those of Saint Andrew, the inquisitors afterwards designated a different tunic for each class of penitents. In the 1945 edition of México Viejo, Luis González Obregón shows images from Felipe A. Limborchs Historia Inquisitionis, dated 1692, which were images of Sanbenitos used in the Inquisition. In the television series Millennium, created by Chris Carter, a serial killer uses a sanbenito on a Catholic priest he burns at the stake outside his church, Sanbenitos are worn by numerous individuals during an auto-da-fe in chapter 6 of Voltaires Candide.
Inquisition Inquisitorial system List of Grand Inquisitors of Spain Histoire de lInquisition en France Vatican Secret Archives González Obregon, Època Colonial, México Viejo, Noticias Históricas, Leyendas y Costumbres, Editorial Patria, S. A.1945, 107-108
Lesnes Abbey Woods
Lesnes Abbey Woods, sometimes known as Abbey Wood, is an area of ancient woodland in southeast London, England. It is located near to, and named after, the ruined Lesnes Abbey in the London Borough of Bexley, the woods are adjacent to Bostall Woods. The woods have several features dating back to the Bronze Age, the abbey kept fishponds which were fed by a small stream running down through the woods, and these are still visible today though the water level is often low. Local community group Lesnes Abbey Conservation Volunteers run practical conservation events to help manage the woodland and they are a registered environmental conservation charity run by local people. Lesnes Abbey Conservation Volunteers objectives include, To conserve and maintain for the public benefit Lesnes Abbey Wood, to advance public education in the principles and practices of nature conservation, and the archaeological and geological interest of Lesnes Abbey Wood and its environments. LACV is a community group which is open to all ages and abilities, the groups conservation tasks include hedge laying, fence repair, pond restoration, glade creation, tree planting and heath land restoration.
The group does various wildlife surveys in order to monitor the native wildlife. Lesnes Abbey Woods is a Local Nature Reserve and includes the Abbey Wood geological Site of Special Scientific Interest, members of the public can dig for fossils in a small area called the Fossil Bank with the permission of the Lesnes Abbey ranger
Many of these laundries were effectively operated as penitentiary work-houses. Controversially the men in society were never victimised for committing the crime, of having an illegitimate child. Laundries such as this operated throughout Europe and North America for much of the nineteenth and well into the twentieth century, the institutions were named after the Biblical figure Mary Magdalene, in earlier centuries characterised as a reformed prostitute. The first Magdalene institution was founded in late 1758 in Whitechapel, England, in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Magdalene asylums were common in several countries. By 1900, there were more than 300 asylums in England, according to James Franklin, the girls came from a variety of very disturbed and deprived backgrounds and were individually hard to deal with in many cases. Laundry work was regarded as suitable as it did not require much training nor substantial capital expense, memories of conditions in the convent laundries by former inmates are consistently negative, detailing verbal abuse and very hard work.
In accordance with the traditions of the nuns, much of the day proceeded in silence, like orphanages, they received almost no government funds. As in any underfunded institution, the food was described as bland, the nuns shared the conditions of the inmates, such as the bad food, hard work, the confinement and the long periods of silence. Education for residents was either of poor quality or lacking altogether, there was no physical contact on the part of the sisters, and no emotional contact in the sense of listening to the girls’ own concerns. Dangers included diseases and workplace accidents, in 1889 one of the sisters of Abbotsford lost her hand in an accident involving a laundry machinery. Conditions of manual work were harsh everywhere, the state-run Parramatta Girls Home, which had a laundry, had similar harsh conditions but a worse record for assaults. The asylums were established as refuges, with the residents free to leave. In the early 1900s, they began to accept court referrals. They took in girls whom no-one else wanted and who were forcibly confined, the Congregation of the Sisters of Misericorde was founded in 1848 by Marie-Rosalie Cadron-Jetté, a widow skilled as a midwife.
Their network of asylums developed from their care of unmarried expectant mothers, the Misericordia Sisters endeavored to carry out their ministry discreetly, for the public was neither supportive of their cause nor charitable. The sisters were accused of “encouraging vice”, the order was particularly sensitive to the social stigma attached to a woman who had borne an illegitimate child. The sisters perceived that, by precluding other employment, this tended to force a woman into prostitution. According to Sulpician Father Éric Sylvestre, “When food was scarce and she was fond of saying that ‘Single mothers are the treasure of the house. ’” In receiving patients no discrimination is made in regard to religion, colour, or nationality
European continental conservative clerics thought they detected signs of modernism or classical liberalism of the sort the Pope had condemned in the Syllabus of Errors in 1864. They feared that these doctrines were held by and taught by members of the Catholic hierarchy in the United States in the 1890s. Catholic leaders in the U. S. however, denied that they held these views, Pope Leo XIII wrote against these ideas in his encyclical Testem benevolentiae nostrae to Cardinal James Gibbons. During the French Third Republic, which began in 1870, the power, the French government passed laws bearing more and more stringently on the Church, and the majority of French citizens did not object. Indeed, they began to look toward legislators and not to the clergy for guidance, the progressive priests believed that the Church did too little to cultivate individual character, and put too much emphasis on the routine side of religious observance. They noted that Catholicism was not making use of modern means of propaganda, such as social movements.
In short, the Church had not adapted to needs. They began a domestic apostolate which had for one of its rallying cries and they agitated for social and philanthropic projects, for a closer relationship between priests and parishioners, and for general cultivation of personal initiative, both in clergy and in laity. Not unnaturally, they looked for inspiration to America, there they saw a vigorous Church among a free people, with priests publicly respected, and with a note of aggressive zeal in every project of Catholic enterprise. His biography, written in English by the Paulist Father Elliott in 1891, was translated into French six years later, Father Hecker, commonly known as The Yellow Dart, had been dead for years at this point and had never been viewed by the Pope with disfavor. However, this translation of Heckers biography and Abbé Kleins introduction to the book made him appear to have much more of a radical than he in fact was. Hecker had sought to reach out to Protestant Americans by stressing certain points of Catholic teaching, Hecker had used terms such as natural virtue, which to the pope suggested the Pelagian heresy.
Because members of the Paulists took promises but not the vows of religious orders, the French liberals particularly admired Father Hecker for his love of modern times and modern liberty and his devotion to liberal Catholicism. Indeed, they took him as a kind of patron saint, Catholics who saw striking differences between the Churchs treatment by adherents of classical liberalism took alarm at what they considered to be symptoms of pernicious modernism. In France the conservatives were, almost to a man, anti-republicans who distrusted and disliked the democratic abbés and they complained to the Pope, and in 1898, Abbé Charles Maignen wrote an ardent polemic against the new movement called Le Père Hecker, est-il un saint. The European conservatives were reinforced by German American Catholic bishops in the Midwest, who were distrustful of the Irish, arthur Preuss the foremost German Catholic theologian in the United States, was an outspoken enemy, filling his scholarly journal Fortnightly Review with attacks.
Many powerful Vatican authorities opposed the Americanist tendency, but Pope Leo XIII was reluctant to chastise the American Catholics, whom he had often praised for their loyalty and faith. In 1899 he wrote Cardinal Gibbons, It is clear. that those opinions that, taken as a whole, Leo warned the American church hierarchy not to support this unique system of separation of church and state
The Angelus is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation. The Angelus exemplifies a species of prayers called the prayer of the devotee, the devotion was traditionally recited in Roman Catholic churches and monasteries three times daily,6,00 am, and 6,00 pm. The devotion is used by some Anglican and Lutheran churches, the Angelus is usually accompanied by the ringing of the Angelus bell, which is a call to prayer and to spread good-will to everyone. The angel referred to in the prayer is Gabriel, a messenger of God who revealed to Mary that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God and this is an old devotion that was already well established 700 years ago. The Angelus originated with the 11th-century monastic custom of reciting three Hail Marys during the evening, or Compline, the first written documentation stems from Italian Franciscan monk Sinigardi di Arezzo. Franciscan monasteries in Italy document the use in 1263 and 1295, the current form of the Angelus prayer is included in a Venetian Catechism from 1560.
The older usages seem to have commemorated the resurrection of Christ in the morning, his suffering at noon, in 1269, St Bonaventure urged the faithful to adopt the custom of the Franciscans of saying three Hail Marys as the Compline bell was rung. The Angelus is not identical to the Noon Bell ordered by Pope Calixtus III in 1456 and he again asks the faithful throughout the World, to pray for the persecuted Church in the East during the mid-day Angelus. The custom of reciting it in the morning apparently grew from the custom of saying three Hail Marys while a bell rang at Prime. The noon time custom apparently arose from the noon time commemoration of the Passion on Fridays, the institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope Urban II, by some to Pope John XXII for the year 1317. The triple recitation is ascribed to Louis XI of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be recited three times daily, the form of the prayer was standardized by the 17th century. The manner of ringing the Angelus—the triple stroke repeated three times, with a pause between each set of three, sometimes followed by a peal as at curfew—seems to have been long established.
The 15th-century constitutions of Syon monastery dictate that the lay brother shall toll the Ave bell nine strokes at three times, keeping the space of one Pater and Ave between each three tollings. The pattern of ringing on Irish radio and television consists of three groups of three peals, each separated by a pause, followed by a group of nine peals. It is common practice that during the recital of the Angelus prayer, for the lines And the Word was made flesh/And dwelt among us, either of these actions draws attention to the moment of the Incarnation of Christ into human flesh. During Paschaltide, the Marian antiphon Regina Cœli with versicle and prayer, in most Franciscan and contemplative monasteries, the Angelus continues to be prayed three times a day. In Germany, particular dioceses and their radio stations ring the Angelus, in addition, Roman Catholic churches ring the Angelus bell thrice daily. Although this decision was reversed and the Angelus is still played twice a day
Cuthbert Tunstall was an English Scholastic, church leader, diplomat and royal adviser. He served as Prince-Bishop of Durham during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Cuthbert Tunstall was born at Hackforth in Yorkshire in 1474, an illegitimate son of Thomas Tunstall of Thurland Castle in Lancashire. His legitimate half-brother, Brian Tunstall, was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513, Cuthbert studied mathematics and law at Oxford and Padua, where he graduated Doctor of Laws. He was proficient in Greek and Hebrew, william Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, made Tunstall his chancellor on 25 August 1511, and shortly afterward appointed him rector of Harrow on the Hill. He eventually became a canon of Lincoln and archdeacon of Chester, soon thereafter he was employed on diplomatic business by King Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey. In 1515, Tunstall was sent to Flanders with Sir Thomas More and it was at Brussels that he would meet Erasmus as well, becoming the intimate friend of both scholars.
In 1519 he was sent to Cologne, a visit to Worms gave him a sense of the held by the Lutheran movement. Tunstall was made Master of the Rolls in 1516, and Dean of Salisbury in 1521, in 1522 he became Bishop of London by papal provision, and on 25 May 1523 he was made Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. In 1525 he negotiated with the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V after the Battle of Pavia, on 22 February 1530 — again by papal provision — Tunstall succeeded Cardinal Wolsey as Bishop of Durham. This role involved the assumption of power and authority within the territory of the diocese. In 1537 he was made President of the new Council of the North, in the question of Henrys divorce, Tunstall acted as one of Queen Catherines counselors. Tunstall disliked the policy pursued by the advisers of King Edward VI. However, he continued to discharge his duties without interruption. This hope failed, and after Somersets fall, Tunstall was summoned to London in May 1551, during this captivity he composed a treatise on the Eucharist, which was published at Paris in 1554.
At the end of 1551 he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, when this failed, he was tried by a commission on 4–5 October 1552, and deprived of his bishopric. On the ascension of Mary I to the throne in 1553 and his bishopric, which had been dissolved by Act of Parliament in March 1553, was re-established by a further Act in April 1554. Tunstall, now an octogenarian, again assumed his office as Bishop of Durham and he maintained his earlier conciliatory approach, indulging in no systematic persecution of Protestants. Through Marys reign he ruled his diocese in peace, when Elizabeth I ascended to the throne, Tunstall refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, and would not participate in the consecration of the Protestant Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares, and a population of 842, formally it is not sovereign, with sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world. It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope, the highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has full ownership, exclusive dominion, within Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peters Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the worlds most famous paintings and sculptures, the unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, the name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. Vatican is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the area the Romans called vaticanus ager. The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City officially uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ, this is used in documents by not just the Holy See. The name Vatican was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for an area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers that was completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply.
Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome had long considered sacred. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby, the particularly low quality of Vatican water, even after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial. The Vatican Obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant and this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down, opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Peters in the first half of the 4th century, the Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery
Adolph John Paschang
Bishop Adolph John Paschang was an American Maryknoll Catholic bishop, relief worker and educator working in southern part of China in the early 20th century. Fr Adolph J. Paschang was born in Martinsburg, Audrain County and he grew up on a farm there, studied at Campion College of the Sacred Heart, at St. Louis University High School in St. Louis, at Kenrick Seminary in St. Louis. He joined the newly founded Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, commonly known as the Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers, after being ordained a priest, Paschang was immediately sent off to Kongmoon China. Fr Adolph J. Paschang preached and worked in southern China, covering Gaozhou, previously known as Kochow, Jiaying Taishan, japan invaded China in phases in the 1930s, gradually taking southern China towards the end of the decade. Until the attack on Pearl Harbor of 1941, Paschang and his diocese were relatively undisturbed by Japanese forces, in February 1941, Fr Paschang received a pass from the Japanese occupation forces to visit Hong Kong.
The real purpose for his move was to leapfrog over into the areas of his Diocese of Jiangmen in order to visit the priests. Bishop Paschang would have to take the route and the same risks on his return visitations. While Bishop Paschang was in Hong Kong, he performed the ordinations at the Dominican Rosary Hill chapel, in May 1946, Bishop Paschang arrived at Stanley for a conference with more than a dozen Ordinaries of South China, including the four Ordinaries of Maryknoll. He arrived with a van dyke beard – only his Episcopal rank saved him from the customary Stanley practice of removing beards by force, after the liberation of Mainland China he chose to stay behind. He was captured and tortured by the Chinese Communist authorities, on 5 December 1951, Paschang was forced to contact Stanley House in Hong Kong on three times to relay information that the Chinese Communists were demanding US$22,000. On 7 December 1951, the price was reduced to US$6,000. On 19 December 1952, similar news was reported in The New York Times, “December 18 An official Roman Catholic spokesman said today that a 56-year-old Bishop, *Bishop Paschang was subsequently severely tortured and broken as a person.
William Downs in his Maryknoll Hong Kong Chronicle recorded on 9 June 1952, “Bishop Paschang, after very badly treated”, on 6 June 1952 Friday night, Paschang crossed the Chinese border into Portuguese Macao. On 9 June 1952 Mondayand finally reached Hong Kong, lots of reporters were waiting anxiously for him at the Hong Kong Pier. Upon arrival, Bishop Adolph Paschang recalled that he had made to kneel on broken bricks in the winter of 1951, in a third-degree procedure. After a long interview, Fr Paschang could finally return to the Stanley House for a late dinner. In March 1957, Fr Paschang suffered a cerebral thrombosis. He was thereafter no longer able to walk, the Canossian Sisters’ St. Francis Hospital in Wanchai became his home for the best part of a year