Temple names are posthumous titles that were given to East Asian monarchs. The practice of honoring monarchs with temple names began during the Shang dynasty in China and had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes in the Sinosphere, with the notable exception of Japan. Temple names should not be confused with era posthumous names. Among modern historians, referencing Chinese monarchs from the Tang to the Yuan dynasties, Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, Vietnamese sovereigns from the Lý to Later Lê dynasties by their temple names is a common practice. Numerous individuals who did not rule as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to emperor or king by their descendants and honored with temple names. Meanwhile, several individuals who were assigned temple names had their titles revoked, as was the case for Liu Zhi whose temple name Weizong was removed by Liu Xie of the Eastern Han dynasty. In other cases, numerous individuals were honored with more than one temple name, either due to intentional changes or they were given different titles by different monarchs.
There were instances where individuals who ruled as sovereigns of a particular realm was accorded a temple name by another realm. The "temple" in "temple name" refers to the grand temples built by each dynasty for the purpose of ancestor worship; the temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple. Temple names trace their origins to the Shang dynasty of China. In earlier times, temple names were assigned to competent rulers after their passing; the temple name system established during the Shang period utilized only four adjectives: 太: honored to dynastic founders. Chinese monarchs of the Zhou dynasty were given posthumous names but not temple names. During the Qin dynasty, the practice of assigning both temple names and posthumous names was abandoned; the Han dynasty reintroduced both titles, although temple names were assigned sporadically and remained more exclusive than posthumous names. It was during the Han era that other adjectives aside from the four listed above began appearing in temple names.
Numerous Han emperors had their temple names removed by Liu Xie in AD 190. In deciding whether a monarch should be honored as "祖" or "宗", a principle was adhered to: "祖" was to be given to accomplished rulers while "宗" was to be assigned to virtuous rulers. However, this principle was abandoned during the Sixteen Kingdoms era with the ubiquitous usage of "祖" by various non-Han Chinese regimes. Temple names became widespread from the Tang dynasty onwards. Apart from the final ruler of a dynasty or monarchs who died prematurely, most Chinese monarchs were given temple names by their descendants; the practice of honoring rulers with temple names had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes within the Sinosphere, including those based on the Korean Peninsula and in Vietnam. Japan, while having adopted both posthumous names and era names from China, did not assign temple names to its monarchs. Most temple names consist unlike the more elaborate posthumous names. In rare cases, temple names could consist of three Chinese characters.
The first character is an adjective, chosen to reflect the circumstances of the monarch's reign. The vocabulary may overlap with that of the posthumous names' adjectives, but for one sovereign, the temple name's adjective character does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name; the last character is either "祖" or "宗": 祖: implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. This character was used for monarchs with great accomplishments; the equivalent in Korean is jo, tổ in Vietnamese. 宗: used for all other monarchs. It is rendered as jong in Korean, tông in Vietnamese. Individuals who are known by more than one temple name have their personal name in English italicized; the temple name Tàizǔ can be translated to mean "Grand Forefather". It was given to the founder of a dynasty; the temple name Gāozǔ can be translated to mean "High Forefather". It was given to the founder of a dynasty; the temple name Chéngzǔ can be translated to mean "Accomplished Forefather".
The temple name Chúnzǔ can be translated to mean "Refined Forefather". The temple name Chúnzǔ can be translated to mean "Honorable Forefather"; the temple name Dàizǔ can be translated to mean "Generational Forefather". The temple name Dàshèngzǔ can be translated to mean "Great Sacred Forefather"; the temple name Dézǔ can be translated to mean "Virtuous Forefather". The temple name Dùzǔ can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Forefather"; the temple name Gāoshàngzǔ can be translated to mean "Venerable
Gerard Edmund Lynch is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He was confirmed to that seat on September 17, 2009 after having been appointed in 2000 by President Bill Clinton to serve on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Judge Lynch was the first appeals-court judge nominated by President Barack Obama to win confirmation from the United States Senate. Lynch is the Paul J. Kellner Professor of Law at Columbia Law School. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Lynch graduated from Regis High School in 1968, received his Bachelors of Arts degree from Columbia University in 1972, his Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School in 1975, graduating first in his class at all three institutions, he joined the Columbia faculty in 1977, following judicial clerkships for Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1975–76 and United States Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. in 1976–77.
He served as Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York from 1980 to 1983, prosecuting white-collar criminal cases and serving as chief appellate attorney. He returned to that office as chief of the criminal division in 1990–92, he was in private practice of law in New York City from 1992 to 2000. Lynch served as Vice Dean of Columbia Law School from 1992 to 1997, he has been lecturer at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He was appointed counsel to numerous city and federal commissions and special prosecutors investigating public corruption, including the Iran/Contra investigation, where among other responsibilities he briefed and argued the prosecution position in the appeal of Oliver North, he briefed and argued cases in federal appellate courts, including the Supreme Court, as a cooperating attorney with the American and New York Civil Liberties Unions. He has extensive experience as a defense attorney in state and federal cases. Lynch sits on its Council, he is a member of various bar associations and advisory committees.
He has published and lectured on the federal racketeering laws, plea bargaining and other aspects of criminal law, constitutional theory, legal ethics. He received the student-voted Willis Reese Award for Excellence in Teaching in 1994, in 1997 became the first member of the law faculty to receive the University-wide President's Award for Outstanding Teaching, his principal teaching and research areas include criminal law and procedure and professional responsibility. On February 28, 2000, Lynch was nominated by President Bill Clinton to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by John E. Sprizzo. After Lynch was nominated to the district court in 2000, some Senate Republicans expressed concerns that he was a judicial activist, citing a previous warning in writings by Lynch warning the legal community not to overemphasize words from "18th- and 19th-century dictionaries" when interpreting the United States Constitution. However, as part of a deal between Senate Democrats and Republicans that paved the way for a vote to confirm Clinton's nomination of Republican Bradley A. Smith to the Federal Election Commission and United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit nominee Timothy B.
Dyk, Lynch was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 24, 2000 in a 63–36 vote, he received his commission the following day. As a district court judge, Lynch presided over the perjury trial of rap artist Lil' Kim in 2005, he sentenced her to a day in jail. Judge Lynch is an active participant in Legal Outreach, a non-for-profit organization in which he mentors inner-city kids in New York. On April 2, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Lynch to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated when Chester J. Straub assumed senior status. Lynch was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 17, 2009, by a vote of 94–3, received his commission the following day. On May 7, 2015, Lynch wrote an opinion for the 2nd U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan, ruling that the systematic collection of American's phone records by the NSA is illegal, he referred to the program as "an unprecedented contraction of the privacy expectations of all Americans", advancing the national debate started by the revelations of Edward Snowden.
Lynch took senior status on September 5, 2016. On May 31, 2017, Lynch wrote an opinion for the 2nd U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan, affirming the conviction and life sentence of Ross William Ulbricht, a/k/a "Dread Pirate Roberts," for operating the Silk Road underground website, responsible for the distribution of over $200 million of drugs and other contraband between 2011 and October 2013. On February 26, 2018, Lynch authored a dissenting opinion in Zarda v. Altitude Express, Inc. in which he disagreed with the court's holding that Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act applies to sexual-orientation discrimination in the workplace. Gerard E. Lynch at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Gerard Lynch at Ballotpedia Profiles of Columbia Law School faculty
St Martin at Oak, Norwich is a Grade I listed redundant parish church in the Church of England in Norwich. The church is medieval dating from before 1491, it was destroyed by bombing in January 1942. It was rebuilt in 1953 by the architect John Chaplin as a church hall for neighbouring parishes, but this never materialised as the local churches were closed in the 1960s. After a period of use as a night shelter by the St Martins Housing Trust, the church was transformed into Oak Studios, a rehearsal space for theatre and music groups; the church purchased an organ dating in 1887 by Beard. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register; when the church closed for worship, the organ was transferred to St Bartholomew’s Church, Suffolk