Temple name

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Temple name
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese廟號
Simplified Chinese庙号
Vietnamese name
VietnameseMiếu hiệu
Korean name
Hangul묘호
Hanja廟號

Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon dynasties), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, , and ) monarchs. They should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.

Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to a ruler, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:

  1. an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (孝). The founders are almost always either "High" (高) or "Grand" (太).
  2. "emperor": either (祖) or zōng (宗).
    • Zu ("forefather") implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. Zu is also given to monarchs with great accomplishment. The equivalent in Korean is jo (조), and tổ in Vietnamese.
    • Zong ("ancestor") is used in all other rulers. It is rendered as jong (종) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.

The "temple" in "temple name" refers to the "grand temple" (太廟), also called "great temple" (大廟) or "ancestral temple" (祖廟), where crown princes and other royalty gathered to worship their ancestors. The ancestral tablets in the grand temple recorded the temple names of the rulers.

In earlier times, only rulers had temple names, such as Taihao (太昊). Temple names were assigned sporadically from the Shang dynasty and regularly from the Tang dynasty. Some Han emperors had their temple names permanently removed by their descendants in 190 AD. Temple names are the usual way to refer to emperors from the Tang dynasty up to the Ming dynasty. For the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty (from 1368 AD), era names are often used instead.

In Korea, temple names are used to refer to kings of the early Goryeo (until 1274 AD), and kings and emperors of Joseon. For the Korean Empire, era names should be used, but the temple names are often used instead.[1] In Vietnam, most rulers are known by their temple names, with the exception of Tây Sơn and Nguyễn monarchs, who are better known by their era names.

Numerous individuals who did not serve as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to "emperor" or "king" by their descendants and given temple names.

Contents

List of temple names[edit]

Tàizǔ (太祖)[edit]

The temple name Tàizǔ (太祖/태조/Thái Tổ) can be translated to mean "Grand Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Gāozǔ (高祖)[edit]

The temple name Gāozǔ (高祖/고조/Cao Tổ) can be translated to mean "High Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Shǐzǔ (始祖)[edit]

The temple name Shǐzǔ (始祖/시조/Thủy Tổ) can be translated to mean "First Forefather".

Shìzǔ (世祖)[edit]

The temple name Shìzǔ (世祖/세조/Thế Tổ) can be translated to mean "Eternal Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Lièzǔ (烈祖)[edit]

The temple name Lièzǔ (烈祖/열조/Liệt Tổ) can be translated to mean "Ardent Forefather".

Shèngzǔ (圣祖/聖祖)[edit]

The temple name Shèngzǔ (圣祖/聖祖/성조/Thánh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Sacred Forefather".

Sùzǔ (肃祖)[edit]

The temple name Sùzǔ (肃祖/숙조/Túc Tổ) can be translated to mean "Solemn Forefather".

Dézǔ (德祖)[edit]

The temple name Dézǔ (德祖/덕조/Đức Tổ) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Forefather".

Yìzǔ (毅祖)[edit]

The temple name Yìzǔ (毅祖/의조/Nghị Tổ) can be translated to mean "Persistent Forefather".

Yìzǔ (懿祖)[edit]

The temple name Yìzǔ (懿祖/의조/Ý Tổ) can be translated to mean "Benign Forefather".

Yìzǔ (翼祖)[edit]

The temple name Yìzǔ (翼祖) is translated as "의조" in Korean and "Dực Tổ" in Vietnamese.

Yìzǔ (义祖/義祖)[edit]

The temple name Yìzǔ (义祖/義祖/의조/Nghĩa Tổ) can be translated to mean "Righteous Forefather".

Ruìzǔ (睿祖)[edit]

The temple name Ruìzǔ (睿祖/예조/Duệ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Astute Forefather".

Yīngzǔ (英祖)[edit]

The temple name Yīngzǔ (英祖/영조/Anh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Forefather".

Chéngzǔ (成祖)[edit]

The temple name Chéngzǔ (成祖/성조/Thành Tổ) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Forefather".

Jǐngzǔ (景祖)[edit]

The temple name Jǐngzǔ (景祖/경조/Cảnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Admirable Forefather".

Jìngzǔ (敬祖)[edit]

The temple name Jìngzǔ (敬祖/경조/Cảnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Revered Forefather".

Jìngzǔ (靖祖)[edit]

The temple name Jìngzǔ (靖祖/정조/Tĩnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Forefather".

Huìzǔ (惠祖)[edit]

The temple name Huìzǔ (惠祖/혜조/Huệ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Forefather".

Shùnzǔ (顺祖/順祖)[edit]

The temple name Shùnzǔ (顺祖/順祖/순조/Thuận Tổ) can be translated to mean "Obedient Forefather".

Wénzǔ (文祖)[edit]

The temple name Wénzǔ (文祖/문조/Văn Tổ) can be translated to mean "Civil Forefather".

Xìnzǔ (信祖)[edit]

The temple name Xìnzǔ (信祖) can be translated to mean "Faithful Forefather".

Qìngzǔ (庆祖/慶祖)[edit]

The temple name Qìngzǔ (庆祖/慶祖/경조/Khánh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Forefather".

Guāngzǔ (光祖)[edit]

The temple name Guāngzǔ (光祖/광조/Quang Tổ) can be translated to mean "Radiant Forefather".

Wángzǔ (王祖)[edit]

The temple name Wángzǔ (王祖/왕조/Vương Tổ) can be translated to mean "Sovereign Forefather".

Xuānzǔ (宣祖)[edit]

The temple name Xuānzǔ (宣祖) is translated as "선조" in Korean and "Tuyên Tổ" in Vietnamese.

Xuánzǔ (玄祖)[edit]

The temple name Xuánzǔ (玄祖/현조/Huyền Tổ) can be translated to mean "Profound Forefather".

Zhāozǔ (昭祖)[edit]

The temple name Zhāozǔ (昭祖/소조/Chiêu Tổ) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Forefather".

Zhàozǔ (肇祖)[edit]

The temple name Zhàozǔ (肇祖/조조/Triệu Tổ) can be translated to mean "Original Forefather".

Xīzǔ (熙祖)[edit]

The temple name Xīzǔ (熙祖/희조/Hi Tổ) can be translated to mean "Glorious Forefather".

Xīzǔ (僖祖)[edit]

The temple name Xīzǔ (僖祖/희조/Hy Tổ) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Forefather".

Rénzǔ (仁祖)[edit]

The temple name Rénzǔ (仁祖/인조/Nhân Tổ) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Forefather".

Xīngzǔ (兴祖/興祖)[edit]

The temple name Xīngzǔ (兴祖/興祖/흥조/Hưng Tổ) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Forefather".

Yuānzǔ (渊祖/淵祖)[edit]

The temple name Yuānzǔ (渊祖/淵祖) can be translated to mean "Erudite Forefather".

Yuánzǔ (元祖)[edit]

The temple name Yuánzǔ (元祖/원조/Nguyên Tổ) can be translated to mean "Primal Forefather".

Mùzǔ (穆祖)[edit]

The temple name Mùzǔ (穆祖/목조/Mục Tổ) can be translated to mean "Majestic Forefather".

Hóngzǔ (弘祖)[edit]

The temple name Hóngzǔ (弘祖/홍조/Hoằng Tổ) can be translated to mean "Great Forefather".

Yùzǔ (裕祖)[edit]

The temple name Yùzǔ (裕祖/유조/Dụ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Affluent Forefather".

Yánzǔ (严祖/嚴祖)[edit]

The temple name Yánzǔ (严祖/嚴祖/Nghiêm Tổ) can be translated to mean "Austere Forefather".

Dàizǔ (代祖)[edit]

The temple name Dàizǔ (代祖/대조/Đại Tổ) can be translated to mean "Generational Forefather".

Guózǔ (国祖/國祖)[edit]

The temple name Guózǔ (国祖/國祖/국조/Quốc Tổ) can be translated to mean "National Forefather".

Dùzǔ (度祖)[edit]

The temple name Dùzǔ (度祖/도조/Đoan Tổ) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Forefather".

Tǒngzǔ (统祖/統祖)[edit]

The temple name Tǒngzǔ (统祖/統祖/통조/Thống Tổ) can be translated to mean "Commanding Forefather".

Húanzǔ (桓祖)[edit]

The temple name Húanzǔ (桓祖/환조/Hoàn Tổ) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Forefather".

Níngzǔ (宁祖/寧祖)[edit]

The temple name Níngzǔ (宁祖/寧祖/영조/Ninh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Amicable Forefather".

Shénzǔ (神祖)[edit]

The temple name Shénzǔ (神祖/신조/Thần Tổ) can be translated to mean "Divine Forefather".

Zhuāngzǔ (莊祖)[edit]

The temple name Zhuāngzǔ (莊祖/장조/Trang Tổ) can be translated to mean "Dignified Forefather".

Zhèngzǔ (正祖)[edit]

The temple name Zhèngzǔ (正祖/정조/Chính Tổ) can be translated to mean "Orthodox Forefather".

Xiǎnzǔ (显祖/顯祖)[edit]

The temple name Xiǎnzǔ (显祖/顯祖/현조/Hiển Tổ) can be translated to mean "Eminent Forefather".

Xiànzǔ (宪祖/憲祖)[edit]

The temple name Xiànzǔ (宪祖/憲祖/헌조/Hiến Tổ) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Forefather".

Xiànzǔ (献祖/獻祖)[edit]

The temple name Xiànzǔ (献祖/獻祖/헌조/Hiến Tổ) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Forefather".

Chúnzǔ (纯祖/純祖)[edit]

The temple name Chúnzǔ (纯祖/純祖/순조/Thuần Tổ) can be translated to mean "Refined Forefather".

Chúnzǔ (淳祖)[edit]

The temple name Chúnzǔ (淳祖) can be translated to mean "Honorable Forefather".

Tàizōng (太宗)[edit]

The temple name Tàizōng (太宗/태종/Thái Tông) can be translated to mean "Grand Ancestor".

Shìzōng (世宗)[edit]

The temple name Shìzōng (世宗/세종/Thế Tông) can be translated to mean "Eternal Ancestor".

Gāozōng (高宗)[edit]

The temple name Gāozōng (高宗/고종/Cao Tông) can be translated to mean "High Ancestor".

Xiǎnzōng (显宗/顯宗)[edit]

The temple name Xiǎnzōng (显宗/顯宗/현종/Hiển Tông) can be translated to mean "Eminent Ancestor".

Xiànzōng (宪宗/憲宗)[edit]

The temple name Xiànzōng (宪宗/憲宗/헌종/Hiến Tông) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Ancestor".

Xiànzōng (献宗/獻宗)[edit]

The temple name Xiànzōng (献宗/獻宗/헌종/Hiến Tông) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Ancestor".

Zhōngzōng (中宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhōngzōng (中宗/중종/Trung Tông) can be translated to mean "Resurgent Ancestor".

Sùzōng (肃宗/肅宗)[edit]

The temple name Sùzōng (肃宗/肅宗/숙종/Túc Tông) can be translated to mean "Solemn Ancestor".

Xīngzōng (兴宗/興宗)[edit]

The temple name Xīngzōng (兴宗/興宗/흥종/Hưng Tông) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Ancestor".

Rénzōng (仁宗)[edit]

The temple name Rénzōng (仁宗/인종/Nhân Tông) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Ancestor".

Wénzōng (文宗)[edit]

The temple name Wénzōng (文宗/문종/Văn Tông) can be translated to mean "Civil Ancestor".

Wǔzōng (武宗)[edit]

The temple name Wǔzōng (武宗/무종/Vũ Tông) can be translated to mean "Martial Ancestor".

Shénzōng (神宗)[edit]

The temple name Shénzōng (神宗/신종/Thần Tông) can be translated to mean "Divine Ancestor".

Mùzōng (穆宗)[edit]

The temple name Mùzōng (穆宗/목종/Mục Tông) can be translated to mean "Majestic Ancestor".

Zhézōng (哲宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhézōng (哲宗/철종/Triết Tông) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Ancestor".

Huáizōng (怀宗/懷宗)[edit]

The temple name Huáizōng (怀宗/懷宗/회종/Hoài Tông) can be translated to mean "Yearned Ancestor".

Yuánzōng (元宗)[edit]

The temple name Yuánzōng (元宗/원종/Nguyên Tông) can be translated to mean "Primal Ancestor".

Xuānzōng (宣宗)[edit]

The temple name Xuānzōng (宣宗) is translated as "선종" in Korean and "Tuyên Tông" in Vietnamese.

Xuánzōng (玄宗)[edit]

The temple name Xuánzōng (玄宗/현종/Huyền Tông) can be translated to mean "Profound Ancestor".

Lièzōng (烈宗)[edit]

The temple name Lièzōng (烈宗/열종/Liệt Tông) can be translated to mean "Ardent Ancestor".

Huīzōng (徽宗)[edit]

The temple name Huīzōng (徽宗/휘종/Huy Tông) can be translated to mean "Exemplary Ancestor".

Huìzōng (惠宗)[edit]

The temple name Huìzōng (惠宗/혜종/Huệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Ancestor".

Ruìzōng (睿宗)[edit]

The temple name Ruìzōng (睿宗/예종/Duệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Astute Ancestor".

Dézōng (德宗)[edit]

The temple name Dézōng (德宗/덕종/Đức Tông) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Ancestor".

Jǐngzōng (景宗)[edit]

The temple name Jǐngzōng (景宗/경종/Cảnh Tông) can be translated to mean "Admirable Ancestor".

Jìngzōng (敬宗)[edit]

The temple name Jìngzōng (敬宗/경종/Kính Tông) can be translated to mean "Revered Ancestor".

Jìngzōng (靖宗)[edit]

The temple name Jìngzōng (靖宗/정종/Tĩnh Tông) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Ancestor".

Xiàozōng (孝宗)[edit]

The temple name Xiàozōng (孝宗/효종/Hiếu Tông) can be translated to mean "Filial Ancestor".

Shùnzōng (顺宗/順宗)[edit]

The temple name Shùnzōng (顺宗/順宗/순종/Thuận Tông) can be translated to mean "Obedient Ancestor".

Chéngzōng (成宗)[edit]

The temple name Chéngzōng (成宗/성종/Thành Tông) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Ancestor".

Yīngzōng (英宗)[edit]

The temple name Yīngzōng (英宗/영종/Anh Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Ancestor".

Gōngzōng (恭宗)[edit]

The temple name Gōngzōng (恭宗/공종/Cung Tông) can be translated to mean "Reverent Ancestor".

Chúnzōng (纯宗/純宗)[edit]

The temple name Chúnzōng (纯宗/純宗/순종/Thuần Tông) can be translated to mean "Refined Ancestor".

Dàizōng (代宗)[edit]

The temple name Dàizōng (代宗/대종/Đại Tông) can be translated to mean "Generational Ancestor".

Dàizōng (戴宗)[edit]

The temple name Dàizōng (戴宗/대종/Đới Tông) can be translated to mean "Esteemed Ancestor".

Zhāozōng (昭宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhāozōng (昭宗/소종/Chiêu Tông) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Ancestor".

Míngzōng (明宗)[edit]

The temple name Míngzōng (明宗/명종/Minh Tông) can be translated to mean "Brilliant Ancestor".

Kāngzōng (康宗)[edit]

The temple name Kāngzōng (康宗/강종/Khang Tông) can be translated to mean "Harmonious Ancestor".

Dìngzōng (定宗)[edit]

The temple name Dìngzōng (定宗/정종/Định Tông) can be translated to mean "Resolute Ancestor".

Guāngzōng (光宗)[edit]

The temple name Guāngzōng (光宗/광종/Quang Tông) can be translated to mean "Radiant Ancestor".

Níngzōng (宁宗/寧宗)[edit]

The temple name Níngzōng (宁宗/寧宗/영종/Ninh Tông) can be translated to mean "Amicable Ancestor".

Yìzōng (毅宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (毅宗/의종/Nghị Tông) can be translated to mean "Persistent Ancestor".

Yìzōng (懿宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (懿宗/의종/Ý Tông) can be translated to mean "Benign Ancestor".

Yìzōng (翼宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (翼宗) is translated as "익종" in Korean and "Dực Tông" in Vietnamese.

Yìzōng (义宗/義宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (义宗/義宗/의종/Nghĩa Tông) can be translated to mean "Righteous Ancestor".

Yìzōng (艺宗/藝宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (艺宗/藝宗/예종/Nghệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Competent Ancestor".

Yìzōng (益宗)[edit]

The temple name Yìzōng (益宗/익종/Ích Tông) can be translated to mean "Flourishing Ancestor".

Tǒngzōng (统宗/統宗)[edit]

The temple name Tǒngzōng (统宗/統宗/통종/Thống Tông) can be translated to mean "Commanding Ancestor".

Wēizōng (威宗)[edit]

The temple name Wēizōng (威宗/위종/Uy Tông) can be translated to mean "Mighty Ancestor".

Xīzōng (熙宗)[edit]

The temple name Xīzōng (熙宗/희종/Hi Tông) can be translated to mean "Glorious Ancestor".

Xīzōng (僖宗)[edit]

The temple name Xīzōng (僖宗/희종/Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Ancestor".

Xīzōng (熹宗)[edit]

The temple name Xīzōng (熹宗/희종/Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Coruscating Ancestor".

Zhuāngzōng (莊宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhuāngzōng (莊宗/장종/Trang Tông) can be translated to mean "Dignified Ancestor".

Qìngzōng (庆宗/慶宗)[edit]

The temple name Qìngzōng (庆宗/慶宗/경종/Khánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Ancestor".

Zhēnzōng (真宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhēnzōng (真宗/진종/Chân Tông) can be translated to mean "Sterling Ancestor".

Zhēnzōng (贞宗/貞宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhēnzōng (贞宗/貞宗/정종/Trinh Tông) can be translated to mean "Steadfast Ancestor".

Qīnzōng (钦宗/欽宗)[edit]

The temple name Qīnzōng (钦宗/欽宗/흠종/Khâm Tông) can be translated to mean "Laudable Ancestor".

Lǐzōng (理宗)[edit]

The temple name Lǐzōng (理宗/이종/Lý Tông) can be translated to mean "Enlightened Ancestor".

Dùzōng (度宗)[edit]

The temple name Dùzōng (度宗/도종/Độ Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Ancestor".

Duānzōng (端宗)[edit]

The temple name Duānzōng (端宗/단종/Đoan Tông) can be translated to mean "Noble Ancestor".

Shèngzōng (圣宗/聖宗)[edit]

The temple name Shèngzōng (圣宗/聖宗/성종/Thánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Sacred Ancestor".

Dàozōng (道宗)[edit]

The temple name Dàozōng (道宗/도종/Đạo Tông) can be translated to mean "Principled Ancestor".

Zhāngzōng (章宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhāngzōng (章宗/장종/Chương Tông) can be translated to mean "Decorous Ancestor".

Aīzōng (哀宗)[edit]

The temple name Aīzōng (哀宗/애종/Ai Tông) can be translated to mean "Lamentable Ancestor".

Chóngzōng (崇宗)[edit]

The temple name Chóngzōng (崇宗/숭종/Sùng Tông) can be translated to mean "Lofty Ancestor".

Huánzōng (桓宗)[edit]

The temple name Huánzōng (桓宗/환종/Hoàn Tông) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Ancestor".

Xiāngzōng (襄宗)[edit]

The temple name Xiāngzōng (襄宗/양종/Tương Tông) can be translated to mean "Assisted Ancestor".

Yùzōng (裕宗)[edit]

The temple name Yùzōng (裕宗/유종/Dụ Tông) can be translated to mean "Affluent Ancestor".

Sīzōng (思宗)[edit]

The temple name Sīzōng (思宗/사종/Tư Tông) can be translated to mean "Pensive Ancestor".

Ānzōng (安宗)[edit]

The temple name Ānzōng (安宗/안종/An Tông) can be translated to mean "Pacific Ancestor".

Shàozōng (绍宗/紹宗)[edit]

The temple name Shàozōng (绍宗/紹宗/소종/Thiệu Tông) can be translated to mean "Perpetual Ancestor".

Mǐnzōng (闵宗/閔宗)[edit]

The temple name Mǐnzōng (闵宗/閔宗/Mẫn Tông) can be translated to mean "Solicitous Ancestor".

Mǐnzōng (愍宗)[edit]

The temple name Mǐnzōng (愍宗/민종/Mẫn Tông) can be translated to mean "Dejected Ancestor".

Zhèngzōng (正宗)[edit]

The temple name Zhèngzōng (正宗/정종/Chính Tông) can be translated to mean "Orthodox Ancestor".

Jiāzōng (嘉宗)[edit]

The temple name Jiāzōng (嘉宗/가종/Gia Tông) can be translated to mean "Exalted Ancestor".

Hóngzōng (弘宗)[edit]

The temple name Hóngzōng (弘宗/홍종/Hoằng Tông) can be translated to mean "Great Ancestor".

Yòuzōng (佑宗)[edit]

The temple name Yòuzōng (佑宗/우종/Hựu Tông) can be translated to mean "Blessed Ancestor".

Jiǎnzōng (简宗/簡宗)[edit]

The temple name Jiǎnzōng (简宗/簡宗/간종/Giản Tông) can be translated to mean "Modest Ancestor".

Kuízōng (夔宗)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Keith Pratt; Richard Rutt; James Hoare (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0464-7.