The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals.
Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt.
One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty
Setau was the Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramesses IIs reign. Contemporary records show that Setau served in this position from Year 38 until at least Year 63 of Ramesses IIs reign, Setau was a graduate of the royal school and already enjoyed an impressive record of royal service which is detailed in a long autobiographical inscription carved at Wadi es-Sebua. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was built for Ramesses II by Setau around 1236 BC or Year 44 of this pharaohs reign. Eleven of his stela, now in the Cairo Museum, were found in the courtyard of this temple and make it possible to establish his career, Setau states, Setau attracted the kings attention and records that he was promoted to be High Steward of Amen. I served as Superintendent of the Treasury and Festival Leader of Amen before finally being appointed as the Viceroy of Nubia, an avenue of sphinxes here led up to a pylon serving as the entrance to a peristyle court decorated with colossal Osirid statues. Setau notes in his series of autobiographical stelas that much of his workforce was derived from foreign captives, however, Setaus ambitious goals to leave his mark on the country of Nubia were handicapped by inferior raw materials and his untrained workforce.
As Joyce Tyldesley notes, the buildings which he supervised, although at first sight magnificent, were by no means well built while even his own great stela were full of spelling mistakes, Setau built or renovated at a temple at El-Kab. Setaus tomb is located in the Dra Abu el-Naga area of the Theban Necropolis, the tomb is large and decorated with scenes ranging from a funeral procession, to scenes from the book of the dead, to scenes of Setau – sometimes with his wife Nofretmut – before deities. Finds include the forementioned fragments of the sarcophagus of Setau. Setau reused the pyramid belonging to tomb 288 which belonged to Bekenkhons whose tomb is dated to the Ramesside period. British Museum, sarcophagus lid of Setau
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river.
In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border.
Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta
Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian sun god. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become a god in ancient Egyptian religion. In Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus and he was believed to rule in all parts of the created world, the sky, the earth, and the underworld. He was associated with the falcon or hawk, when in the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra as Amun-Ra. During the Amarna Period, Akhenaten suppressed the cult of Ra in favor of another deity, the Aten, the deified solar disc. The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis, all forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra, who called each of them into existence by speaking their secret names. Alternatively man was created from Ras tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the Cattle of Ra, in the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them.
When she became bloodthirsty she was pacified by drinking beer mixed with red dye, to the Egyptians, the sun represented light and growth. This made the sun deity very important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created, the sun disk was either seen as the body or eye of Ra. Ra was the father of Shu and Tefnut, whom he created, Shu was the god of the wind, and Tefnut was the goddess of the rain. Sekhmet was the Eye of Ra and was created by the fire in Ras eye, Ra was thought to travel on the Atet, two solar barks called the Mandjet or morning boat and the Mesektet or evening boat. These boats took him on his journey through the sky and the Duat, while Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form. When Ra traveled in his sun boat, he was accompanied by other deities including Sia and Hu. Sometimes, members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Set, who overcame the serpent Apophis, and Mehen, when Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms.
Apophis, the god of chaos, was a serpent who attempted to stop the sun boats journey every night by consuming it or by stopping it in its tracks with a hypnotic stare. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set as Atum or in the form of a ram, the night boat would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead, Ra was worshipped as the Creator god among some ancient Egyptians, specifically followers of his cult at Heliopolis. It was believed that Ra wept, and from his tears came man and these cult-followers believed that Ra was self-created, while followers of Ptah believed that Ra was created by Ptah
The Temple of Amada, the oldest Egyptian temple in Nubia, was first constructed by Pharaoh Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty and dedicated to Amun and Re-Horakhty. His son and successor, Amenhotep II continued the program for this structure. Amenhotep IIs successor, Thutmose IV decided to place a roof over its forecourt, during the Amarna period, Akhenaten had the name Amun destroyed throughout the temple but this was restored by Seti I of Egypts 19th dynasty. Various 19th dynasty kings especially Seti I and Ramesses II carried out minor restorations, the stelas of the Viceroys of Kush Setau and Messuy and that of Chancellor Bay describe their building activities under Ramesses II, Merneptah and Siptah respectively. The original building plan for the featured a pylon, forecourt. Although the temple has a dull and crumbling exterior, its interior features some of the most finely cut reliefs with bright. The finest painted reliefs are in the innermost section of the temple where Thutmose III, the left hand side of the vestibule shows Amenhotep II being crowned by Horus and Thoth and running with an oar and a hap.
There are two important historical inscriptions from Amada temple, the earliest, dated to Year 3 of Amenhotep II, is on a round topped stelae at the rear wall of the sanctuary. This was done as a warning to the subject Nubians of the dangerous consequences of rebellion during Amenhoteps reign. The second historical text, on a stela engraved on the thickness of the entrance doorway mentions the defeat of an invasion from Libya in Year 4 of Merneptah. The temple was described by travellers and first published by Henri Gauthier in 1913. Between 1964 and 1975, the temple was moved from its location to a new site some 65 m higher and 2.5 km away from its original site. Chopping it into blocks, as was being done with the temples, was not an option. Seeing that all seemed resigned to see the temple flooded by the silty waters of Lake Nasser and she asked two architects to propose a method for moving the temple in one piece. Their idea was to put the temple on rails and transport it hydraulically to a site a few kilometers away that was more than 60 meters higher, the rock-cut Temple of Derr was moved to the new site of Amada
Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by an elevated section which enclosed the entrance between them. The entrance was generally half the height of the towers. Contemporary paintings of pylons show them with long poles flying banners, in ancient Egyptian theology, the pylon mirrored the hieroglyph for horizon or akhet, which was a depiction of two hills between which the sun rose and set. Consequently, it played a role in the symbolic architecture of a cult building which was associated with the place of recreation. Pylons were often decorated with scenes emphasizing a kings authority since it was the face of a cult building. On the first pylon of the temple of Isis at Philae, other examples of pylons can be seen in Luxor and Edfu. Rituals to the god Amun who became identified with the sun god Ra were often carried out on the top of temple pylons. In addition to standard vertical grooves on the face of a pylon wall which was designed to hold flag poles, some pylons contained internal stairways.
The oldest intact pylons belong to mortuary temples from the 13th and 12th century BCE Ramessside period, a pair of obelisks usually stood in front of a pylon. A single stone pillar standing at the Propylaea of the Acropolis in Athens is known as the pylon, both Classical Revival and Egyptian Revival architecture employ the pylon form, with Boodles gentlemans club in London being an example of the Classical style. The 19th and 20th centuries saw pylon architecture employed for building with the Sydney Harbour Bridge being one of the largest examples. In 1928 a Pylon was erected by subscription to commemorate the extension of the County Borough of Brighton on 1 April of that same year. The two stone towers known locally as the Pylons still stand and are visible to travellers on either carriageway of the A23. The Patcham Pylon towers flank the southbound carriageway of the A23 just outside the CIty of Brighton and Hove and are listed Grade II, many cathedrals have a similar western end, such as Elgin Cathedral.
Obelisk Karnak Media related to Pylons at Wikimedia Commons Second Pylon Karnak
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control. Temples were seen as houses for the gods or kings to whom they were dedicated and these rituals were seen as necessary for the gods to continue to uphold maat, the divine order of the universe. Housing and caring for the gods were the obligations of pharaohs, nevertheless, a temple was an important religious site for all classes of Egyptians, who went there to pray, give offerings, and seek oracular guidance from the god dwelling within. The most important part of the temple was the sanctuary, which contained a cult image. These edifices are among the largest and most enduring examples of Egyptian architecture and their typical design consisted of a series of enclosed halls, open courts, and massive entrance pylons aligned along the path used for festival processions. Beyond the temple proper was a wall enclosing a wide variety of secondary buildings. A large temple owned sizable tracts of land and employed thousands of laymen to supply its needs, temples were therefore key economic as well as religious centers.
The priests who managed these powerful institutions wielded considerable influence, temple-building in Egypt continued despite the nations decline and ultimate loss of independence to the Roman Empire. With the coming of Christianity, Egyptian religion faced increasing persecution, for centuries, the ancient buildings suffered destruction and neglect. Dozens of temples survive today, and some have become world-famous tourist attractions that contribute significantly to the modern Egyptian economy, Egyptologists continue to study the surviving temples and the remains of destroyed ones, as they are invaluable sources of information about ancient Egyptian society. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the gods to reside on earth, the term the Egyptians most commonly used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means mansion of a god. A gods presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and these rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature.
They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, and it was the purpose of a temple as well. Because he was credited with divine power himself, the pharaoh, as a king, was regarded as Egypts representative to the gods. Thus, it was theoretically his duty to perform the temple rites, the pharaoh was nevertheless obligated to maintain, provide for, and expand the temples throughout his realm. Although the pharaoh delegated his authority, the performance of rituals was still an official duty. The participation of the populace in most ceremonies was prohibited. Much of the lay religious activity in Egypt instead took place in private and community shrines, however, as the primary link between the human and divine realms, temples attracted considerable veneration from ordinary Egyptians
Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 B. C. onward, and was home to one of the African empires. Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, the name Nubia is derived from that of the Noba people, nomads who settled the area in the 4th century following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, ancestral to Old Nubian, Old Nubian was mostly used in religious texts dating from the 8th and 15th centuries AD. Before the 4th century, and throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, until at least 1970, the Birgid language was spoken north of Nyala in Darfur, but is now extinct. Nubia was divided into two regions and Lower Nubia, so called because of their location in the Nile river valley. Early settlements sprouted in both Upper and Lower Nubia, Egyptians referred to Nubia as Ta-Seti, or The Land of the Bow, since the Nubians were known to be expert archers.
Modern scholars typically refer to the people from this area as the “A-Group” culture, fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract is known as the “pre-Kerma” culture in Upper Nubia, as they are the ancestors. The Neolithic people in the Nile Valley likely came from Sudan, as well as the Sahara, by the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa. Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the worlds first astronomical devices, around 3500 BC, the second Nubian culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally similar to. The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians and this trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people.
The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul. The Nubian culture may have contributed to the unification of the Nile Valley. The earliest known depiction of the crown is on a ceremonial incense burner from Cemetery at Qustul in Lower Nubia. New evidence from Abydos, particularly the excavation of Cemetery U, around the turn of the protodynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile Valley, seems to have conquered Ta-Seti and harmonized it with the Egyptian state
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek ὑπόστυλος hypóstȳlos meaning under columns, the roof may be constructed of with bridging lintels of stone, wood or other rigid material such as cast iron, steel or reinforced concrete. The architectural form has many applications, occurring in the cella of Ancient Greek temples and in many Asian buildings, with a combination of columns and arches, the hypostyle hall became one of the two main types of mosque construction. In many mosques, especially the early congregational mosques, the hall has the hypostyle form. One of the finest examples of the mosques is the Great Mosque of Kairouan in the city of Kairouan. The hypostyle is widely used in modern architecture, peristyle Portico Apadana Ancient Egyptian architecture This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hypostyle
Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures and sculptures, by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs. Rock-cut architecture is designed and made by man from the start to finish, in India and China, the terms cave and cavern are often applied to this form of man-made architecture. However and caverns, that began in natural form, are not considered to be rock-cut architecture even if extensively modified, although rock-cut structures differ from traditionally built structures in many ways, many rock-cut structures are made to replicate the facade or interior of traditional architectural forms. Interiors were usually carved out by starting at the roof of the planned space and this technique prevents stones falling on workers below. The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were temples and cave dwellings, some rock-cut architecture, mostly for tombs, is excavated entirely in chambers under the surface of relatively level rock. If the excavation is made into the side of a cliff or steep slope, there can be an impressive facade, as found in Lycian tombs, Ajanta.
Ellora in India and Lalibela in Ethiopia provide the most spectacular, rock-cut architecture is said to be cut, etc. from the living rock. Another term sometimes associated with architecture is monolithic architecture, which is rather applied to free-standing structures made of a single piece of material. Monolithic architecture is often rock-cut architecture but monolithic structures might be cast of artificial material, the largest monolithic statue in the world is situated at Shravanabelagola, India. It was built in 983 A. D and was carved out from a single block of granite. In many parts of the world there are rock reliefs, relief sculptures carved into rock faces. Ancient monuments of architecture are widespread in several regions of world. It dates from about 1280 BCE, and consists of a monumentally scaled facade carved out of the cliff, in the 5th century BCE, the Lycians, who inhabited southern Anatolia built hundreds of rock-cut tombs of a similar type, but smaller in scale. Excellent examples are to be found near Dalyan, a town in Muğla Province, since these served as tombs rather than as religious sites, the interiors were usually small and unassuming.
The ancient Etruscans of central Italy left an important legacy of architecture, mostly tombs, as those near the cities of Tarquinia. The creation of rock-cut tombs in ancient Israel began in the 8th-century BCE, the Nabataeans in their city of Petra, now in Jordan, extended this tradition, carving their temples and tombs into the yellowish-orange rock that defines the canyons and gullies of the region. These structures, dating from 1st century BCE to about 2nd century CE, are important in the history of architecture given their experimental forms. Here too, because the structures served as tombs, the interiors were rather perfunctory, in Petra one even finds a theater where the seats are cut out of the rock
Temple of Beit el-Wali
The Temple of Beit el-Wali is a rock-cut Ancient Egyptian temple in Nubia which was built by Pharaoh Ramesses II and dedicated to the deities of Amun-Re, Re-Horakhti and Anuket. The temple was relocated during the 1960s as a result of the Aswan High Dam project and this move was coordinated with a team of Polish archaeologists financed jointly by a Swiss and Chicago Institute respectively. The temple was located 50 kilometres south of Aswan, the Nubian temples of Ramesses II, were part of a state sponsored policy designed to maintain Egyptian control over this area. Many leading Nubians were educated in Egypt and adopted Egyptian dress, burial customs and they spoke the Egyptian language and even changed their names to Egyptian ones. The decoration of the temples was to some extent royal propaganda intended to intimidate the population, there is a large amount of original colour remaining in the inner part of this temple though the paint has disappeared from the historical scenes on its Forecourt.
In the next scene, Ramesses enthroned, receiving the tribute of Nubia. In the upper register, Ramesses eldest son and the viceroy Amenemope present the tribute procession, the viceroy is rewarded for his efforts with gold collars. Some of the Nubians who are part of the tribute would be destined to be taken to Egypt to work on the building projects. The theme of Ramesses might is carried into the interior where there are further smiting scenes on the walls of the vestibule. The pharaoh is shown presenting vases of wine to Khnum, the deity Anuket offers Ramesses several jubilees. The sanctuary contains 3 rock-cut cult images perhaps that of Amun, the exquisite reliefs of Beit el-Wali and its unusual plan differentiates it from temples by this pharaoh which are located further south in Nubia. The temple of Beit el-Wali is small, and was built on a symmetrical level and it is made up of a forecourt, an anteroom with two columns and a sanctuary cut into the surrounding rock, with the exception of the entrance and the doorway.
The temple was fronted by a pylon, at the beginning of the Christian Coptic period, the temple was used as a church. Many early travellers visited the temple, its architectural and artistic details were published by Günther Roeder in 1938, dieter Arnold & Nigel Strudwick, The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I. B. Lorna Oakes, Pyramids and Tombs of Ancient Egypt, An Illustrated Atlas of the Land of the Pharaohs, Hermes House, Günther Roeder, Der Felsentempel von Bet el-Wali
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, the warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence easily. The situation had changed radically towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the Hittites gradually extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to deal with. The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for one hundred and ten years. Seti Is reign is considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand, who wrote a biography on this pharaohs reign. Consequently, it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BC, Setis father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes, more information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.
New Kingdom Egypt reached the zenith of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who campaigned vigorously against the Libyans and the Hittites. The city of Kadesh was first captured by Seti I, who decided to concede it to Muwatalli of Hatti in a peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti. He ultimately accepted that a campaign against the Hittites was a drain on Egypts treasury and military. In his 21st regnal year, Ramesses signed the first recorded peace treaty with Urhi-Teshubs successor, Hattusili III, Ramesses II even married two Hittite princesses, the first after his second Sed Festival. At least as early as Josephus, it was believed that Moses lived during the reign of Ramesses II and this dynasty declined as internal fighting between the heirs of Merneptah for the throne increased. Amenmesse apparently usurped the throne from Merneptahs son and successor, Seti II, after his death, Seti regained power and destroyed most of Amenmesses monuments. Both Bay and Setis chief wife Twosret had a reputation in Ancient Egyptian folklore.
After Siptahs death, Twosret ruled Egypt for two years, but she proved unable to maintain her hold on power amid the conspiracies. She was likely ousted in a revolt led by Setnakhte, founder of the Twentieth Dynasty, Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree