In Greek mythology, the Cretan Bull was the bull Pasiphaë fell in love with, giving birth to the Minotaur. In order to confirm his right to rule, rather than any of his brothers, Poseidon sent Minos the bull, with the understanding that it would be sacrificed to the god. Deciding that Poseidons bull was too fine a specimen to kill, Minos sent it to his herds and substituted another, Poseidon had Aphrodite cause Pasiphaë, wife of Minos, to fall in love with the bull. She subsequently gave birth to the half-man, half-bull, Poseidon passed on his rage to the bull, causing it lay waste the land. After consulting the oracle at Delphi, Minos had Daedalus construct the Labyrinth to hold the Minotaur, Heracles was sent to capture the bull by Eurystheus as his seventh task. He sailed to Crete, whereupon Minos gave Heracles permission to take the bull away as it had been wreaking havoc on Crete by uprooting crops, Heracles captured the bull, and shipped it to Eurystheus in Tiryns. The bull broke loose and wandered into Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull, Eurystheus sent Heracles to bring back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes.
Androgeus, a son of Minos and Pasiphaë, competed in the held by Aegeus. He won all the games, so angering Aegeus that he had the man killed. Devastated, Minos went to war with Athens and won, as punishment, the Athenians had to send several youths every 9 years to be devoured by the Minotaur. Theseus set to try to capture the bull, on the way to Marathon, Theseus sought shelter from a storm in the shack owned by an old lady named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to Zeus if Theseus was successful in capturing the bull, Theseus did capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecales hut, she was dead. Theseus built a deme in her honor and he dragged the bull to Athens where he sacrificed it to Athena and/or Apollo. Theseus went to Crete where he killed the Minotaur with the help of Minos daughter Ariadne, according to Jeremy McInerney, the iconography of the bull permeates Minoan culture. The cult of the bull was prominent in southwestern Anatolia, bernard Clive Dietrich notes that the most important animal in the Neolithic shrines at Çatalhöyük was the bull.
The bull was an animal associated with fertility and vegetation. It figured in cave cults connected with rites for the dead, the palace at Knossos displays a number of murals depicting young men and women vaulting over a bull. While scholars are divided as to whether or not this reflects an actual practice, McInerney observes that the story of Pasiphaë and the Cretan Bull were not written until after Crete had come under Greek control
Olympia, a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The Olympic Games were held four years throughout Classical antiquity. The sanctuary, known as the Altis, consists of an arrangement of various buildings. Enclosed within the temenos are the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Zeus, the Pelopion, and the area of the altar, to the north of the sanctuary can be found the Prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city-states. The Metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the east, the hippodrome and stadium were located east of the Echo Stoa. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the Palaestra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion, very close to the Temple of Zeus which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there, such as tools, corroborates this opinion.
The ancient ruins sit north of the Alpheios River and south of Mount Kronos, the Kladeos, a tributary of the Alpheios, flows around the area. Building of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II,13, Pheidias workshop and paleochristian basilica,25. For a history of the Olympic Games, see Olympic Games or Ancient Olympic Games, remains of food and burnt offerings dating back to the 10th century BC give evidence of a long history of religious activity at the site. No buildings have survived from this earliest period of use, the first Olympic festival was organized on the site by the authorities of Elis in the 8th century BC – with tradition dating the first games at 776 BC. Major changes were made to the site around 700 BC, including levelling land, Elis power diminished and the sanctuary fell into the hands of the Pisatans in 676 BC. The Pisatans organized the games until the late 7th century BC, the earliest evidence of building activity on the site dates from around 600 BC. At this time the Skiloudians, allies of the Pistans, built the Temple of Hera, the Treasuries and the Pelopion were built during the course of the 6th century BC.
The secular structures and athletic arenas were under construction during this period including the Bouleuterion, the first stadium was constructed around 560 BC, it consisted of just a simple track. The stadium was remodelled around 500 BC with sloping sides for spectators, over the course of the 6th century BC a range of sports were added to the Olympic festival. In 580 BC, Elis, in alliance with Sparta, occupied Pisa, the classical period, between the 5th and 4th centuries BC, was the golden age of the site at Olympia. A wide range of new religious and secular buildings and structures were constructed, the Temple of Zeus was built in the middle of the 5th century BC
Hera is the goddess of women and marriage in Greek mythology and religion. She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, Hera is married to her brother Zeus and is titled as the Queen of Heaven. One of her characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeuss other lovers and offspring, Hera is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow and the peacock. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, there are memories of an aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos. Her counterpart in the religion of ancient Rome was Juno, According to Plutarch, Hera was an allegorical name and an anagram of aēr. So begins the section on Hera in Walter Burkerts Greek Religion, in a note, he records other scholars arguments for the meaning Mistress as a feminine to Heros, Master. John Chadwick, a decipherer of Linear B, remarks her name may be connected with hērōs, ἥρως, hero, a. J. van Windekens, offers young cow, which is consonant with Heras common epithet βοῶπις. R. S. P.
Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin and her name is attested in Mycenaean Greek written in the Linear B syllabic script as
Ancient Greek architecture
Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration, nikolaus Pevsner refers to the plastic shape of the temple. placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any building. The architecture of ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece, the successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky, with deeply indented coastline, the most freely available building material is stone. Limestone was readily available and easily worked, there is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands, particularly Paros and Naxos.
This finely grained material was a contributing factor to precision of detail. Deposits of high quality potters clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands and it was used not only for pottery vessels, but roof tiles and architectural decoration. The climate of Greece is maritime, with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes and this led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun, the light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of ancient Greek architecture. The light is extremely bright, with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape, pale rocky outcrops and this clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. In this characteristic environment, the ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail, the gleaming marble surfaces were smooth, fluted, or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun, cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day.
Historians divide ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period, and the Hellenistic period, during the earlier Hellenic period, substantial works of architecture began to appear around 600 BC. Before the Hellenic era, two cultures had dominated the region, the Minoan, and the Mycenaean. The Mycenaean culture, which flourished on the Peloponnesus, was different in character. Its people built citadels and tombs rather than palaces, following these events, there was a period from which few signs of culture remain. This period is often referred to as a Dark Age
Paeonius of Mende, Chalkidiki was a Greek sculptor of the late 5th century BC. In any case, he was “attic-trained. ”Paeonius won the commission to decorate the acroteria of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, an ancient account references Paeonius work at Olympia. Pausanias attributes the front pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Olympian Zeus to Paeonius, the Nike Temple parapet at Athens is often attributed to Paeonius, on the basis of similarities between the styles of drapery on both monuments. Despite this assertion, scholars continue to debate the reliability of these based upon the various interpretations of the scant additional evidence. The Nike of Paionios featured prominently in the design of medals of the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, the statue likely influenced artistic renderings of victory personified. It is on permanent exhibition at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia, the only work that can be positively attributed to him is the statue of Nike discovered at Olympia. The Nike of Paeonios adorned a three-sided triangular pillar roughly 30 feet tall and she stood in the altis of the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia.
With her wings and head intact, the statue itself was about 3 meters tall and her drapery would have been painted red. The German School began excavations at Olympia in 1875, the French School had done earlier in the nineteenth century. The Nike of Paeonius was erected c.420 BC, a few years after the Athenian allies defeated the Spartans at the Battle of Sphacteria in 425 BC, the inscription reads that it was “dedicated by the Messenians and Naupaktians as a tithe of the spoils of their enemies. The Messenians and Naupaktians, allies of the Athenians, are not to mention “their enemies, ” the Spartans. The placement of this statue at Olympia, considered Spartan ground, is most often interpreted by scholars as a deliberate. This sculpture may be understood as political propaganda within the context of the Messenian Wars, at least a century earlier, the Spartans had erected a statue of Zeus in the sanctuary, commemorating a victory over the Messenians. This dedication is mentioned by Pausanias, the positioning of the Nike may be seen as a visual response, the Nike erected by the Messenians and Naupaktians would appear to the visitor in front of the hand of the Zeus dedication behind it.
Paeonios combined both Ionian and Doric traditions in this monument, the erection of an offering on a high pillar is of Ionian origin, as the Dorians tended to use lower bases. By placing a well-known, generic image of triumph upon a pillar to symbolize a specific Victory, the Ionians favoured marble more often, yet the Nike wears a Dorian peplos. Paeonios slips his own victory into the inscription on his Nike monument. It reads that he was the competitor in the construction of the akroteria for the temple. ”His victory in the competition was likely the result of devising not only the most aesthetically pleasing option
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 13 m tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia and erected in the Temple of Zeus there. A sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels over a framework, it represented the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar wood throne ornamented with ebony, gold. The statue of Zeus was commissioned by the Eleans, custodians of the Olympic Games, seeking to outdo their Athenian rivals, the Eleans employed the renowned sculptor Phidias, who had previously made the massive statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon. The great seated statue as fashioned by Phidias occupied half the width of the aisle of the temple built to house it and it seems that if Zeus were to stand up, the geographer Strabo noted early in the 1st century BC, he would unroof the temple. The Zeus was a sculpture, made with ivory and gold panels on a wooden substructure. No copy in marble or bronze has survived, though there are recognizable but only approximate versions on coins of nearby Elis and on Roman coins, in the 2nd century AD, the geographer and traveler Pausanias gave a detailed description.
The statue was crowned with a wreath of olive sprays. In its right hand was a small statue of crowned Nike. Its left hand held a scepter inlaid with many metals, supporting an eagle, the throne featured painted figures and wrought images and was decorated in gold, precious stones and ivory. Zeus golden sandals rested upon a footstool decorated with an Amazonomachy in relief, the passage underneath the throne was restricted by painted screens. Pausanias recounts that the statue was kept constantly coated with oil to counter the harmful effect on the ivory caused by the marshiness of the Altis grove. The floor in front of the image was paved with tiles and surrounded by a raised rim of marble. This reservoir acted as a pool which doubled the apparent height of the statue. He spoke, the son of Cronos, and nodded his head with the dark brows, and the immortally anointed hair of the great god swept from his divine head, and all Olympos was shaken. According to Pausanias, when the image was quite finished Pheidias prayed the god to show by a sign whether the work was to his liking.
Immediately, runs the legend, a fell on that part of the floor where down to the present day the bronze jar stood to cover the place. In 391 AD the Roman emperor Theodosius I banned participation in pagan cults, the sanctuary at Olympia fell into disuse. The circumstances of the eventual destruction are unknown
Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia. The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC, the city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads. The site is open to the public, and there is a national museum within it. After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia it was conquered by the local Lucanians. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name, as Pesto or Paestum, the town became a bishopric, but it was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century. Today the remains of the city are found in the frazione of Paestum. The modern settlement, directly to the south of the site, is a popular seaside resort. Much the most celebrated features of the site today are the three temples in the Archaic version of the Greek Doric order, dating from about 550 to 450 BC.
All are typical of the period, with massive colonnades having a pronounced entasis. Above the columns, only the second Temple of Hera retains most of its entablature, the two temples of Hera are right next to each other, while the Temple of Athena is on the other side of the town center. There were other temples, both Greek and Roman, which are far less well-preserved, Paestum is far from any sources of good marble. The three main temples had few stone reliefs, perhaps using painting instead, painted terracotta was for some detailed parts of the structure. The large pieces of terracotta that have survived are in the museum, the whole ancient city of Paestum covers an area of approximately 120 hectares. It is only the 25 hectares that contain the three temples and the other main buildings that have been excavated. The other 95 hectares remain on land and have not been excavated. The city is surrounded by walls that still stand. The walls are approximately 4750 m long,5 –7 m thick and 15 m high, positioned along the wall are 24 square and round towers.
There may have been as many as 28, but some of them were destroyed during the construction of a highway during the century that effectively cut the site in two
In Greek mythology, was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. His father, was the founder of the House of Atreus through Pelopss son of that name. At the sanctuary at Olympia, chthonic night-time libations were offered each time to dark-faced Pelops in his sacrificial pit before they were offered in the daylight to the sky-god Zeus. Pelops was a son of Tantalus and either Dione, Euryanassa or Eurythemista, of Phrygian or Lydian birth, he departed his homeland for Greece, and won the crown of Pisa or Olympia from King Oenomaus in a chariot race married Oenomauss daughter, Hippodameia. Pelops and Hippodameia had at least sixteen children and their sons include Pittheus, Alcathous, Pleisthenes, Thyestes, Hippalcimus, Sciron and Letreus. Four of their daughters married into the House of Perseus, Nicippe, by the nymph Axioche or Danais Pelops was father of Chrysippus Pelops is believed to have Anatolian origins. He may have been worshipped in Phrygia or Lydia. Other ancient mythographers connect him with Paphlagonia and he may have come from the Paphlagonian town of Enete.
Others represent him as a native of Greece, who came from Olenos in Achaia, according to Strabo, Pelops cult may have come to the Peloponnese originally from Phthiotis, and was first based in Laconia. The Achaeans of Phthiotis came down with Pelops into the Peloponnesus, Pelops father was Tantalus, king at Mount Sipylus in Anatolia. Wanting to make an offering to the Olympians, Tantalus cut Pelops into pieces and made his flesh into a stew, deep in grief after the abduction of her daughter Persephone by Hades, absentmindedly accepted the offering and ate the left shoulder. The other gods sensed the plot and held off from eating of the boys body, while Tantalus was banished to Tartarus, Pelops was ritually reassembled and brought back to life, his shoulder replaced with one of ivory made for him by Hephaestus. Pindar mentioned this tradition in his First Olympian Ode, only to reject it as a malicious invention, after Pelops resurrection, Poseidon took him to Olympus, and made him the youth apprentice, teaching him to drive the divine chariot.
Later, Zeus found out about the stolen food and their now revealed secrets. Having grown to manhood, Pelops wanted to marry Hippodamia, worried about losing, Pelops went to the seaside and invoked Poseidon, his former lover. Reminding Poseidon of their love, he asked Poseidon for help, Poseidon caused a chariot drawn by untamed winged horses to appear. Two episodes involving charioteers were added into the account of the heroic chariot race. In the first related by Theopompus, having received the horses, on the way, his charioteer Cillus dies and stands in a dream over Pelops, who was highly distressed about him, to make requests for a funeral
There were a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is known as Theodosius II in Coptic history, Theodosius II, commonly surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and he presided over the outbreak of two great christological controversies and Eutychianism. Theodosius was born in 401 as the son of Emperor Arcadius. Already in January AD402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, in 408, his father died and the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire. Government was at first by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius older sister Pulcheria was proclaimed Augusta and assumed the regency, by 416 Theodosius was declared Augustus in his own right and the regency ended, but his sister remained a strong influence on him.
In June 421, Theodosius married Aelia Eudocia, a woman of Greek origin, the two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. In 423, the Western Emperor Honorius, Theodosius uncle, Honorius sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes. On 23 October 425, Valentinian III was installed as Emperor of the West with the assistance of the magister officiorum Helion, to strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian. In 425, Theodosius founded the University of Constantinople with 31 chairs, among subjects were law, medicine, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric. In 429, Theodosius appointed a commission to collect all of the laws since the reign of Constantine I, and create a fully formalized system of law. The law code of Theodosius II, summarizing edicts promulgated since Constantine, formed a basis for the law code of Emperor Justinian I, the war with Persia proved indecisive, and a peace was arranged in 422 without changes to the status quo.
The wars of Theodosius were generally less successful, the Eastern Empire was plagued by raids by the Huns. Early in Theodosius IIs reign Romans used internal Hun discord to overcome Uldins invasion of the Balkans, the Romans strengthened their fortifications and in 424 agreed to pay 350 pounds of gold to encourage the Huns to remain at peace with the Romans. In 433 with the rise of Attila and Bleda to unify the Huns, when Roman Africa fell to the Vandals in 439, both Eastern and Western Emperors sent forces to Sicily, intending to launch an attack on the Vandals at Carthage, but this project failed. Seeing the Imperial borders without significant forces, the Huns and Sassanid Persia both attacked and the force had to be recalled. During 443 two Roman armies were defeated and destroyed by the Huns, anatolius negotiated a peace agreement, the Huns withdrew in exchange for humiliating concessions, including an annual tribute of 2,100 Roman pounds of gold
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, a cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape, in this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a tumulus, commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe. The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad, Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre, achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing.
Beowulfs body is taken to Hronesness, where it is burned on a funeral pyre, during cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widows lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, a band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have drawn to the account of Attilas burial in Jordanes Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attilas body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below, Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow - round barrow with a flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow - generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a hemispherical shape.
Long barrow Oval barrow - a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, platform barrow - The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow - a barrow consisting of a circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression