Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award. Hawke has directed three feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, a documentary, he has written three novels. He made his film debut with the 1985 science fiction feature Explorers, before making a breakthrough appearance in the 1989 drama Dead Poets Society, he appeared in various films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites, for which he received critical praise. Hawke starred alongside Julie Delpy in Richard Linklater's Before trilogy: Before Sunrise, Before Sunset and Before Midnight, all of which received critical acclaim. Hawke has been nominated twice for both the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for both films, as well as BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter, his other films include the science fiction drama Gattaca, the contemporary adaptation of Hamlet, the action thriller Assault on Precinct 13, the crime drama Before the Devil Knows You're Dead, the horror film Sinister.
In 2018 he garnered critical acclaim for his performance as a protestant minister in Paul Schrader's drama First Reformed receiving numerous accolades including New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and nominations at the Independent Spirit Awards and Critics' Choice Awards. In addition to his film work, Hawke has appeared in many theater productions, he made his Broadway debut in 1992 in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play in 2007 for his performance in Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia. In 2010, Hawke directed Sam Shepard's A Lie of the Mind, for which he received a Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Director of a Play. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, James Hawke, an insurance actuary. Hawke's parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth and married young, when Hawke's mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later. Hawke's parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, separated and divorced in 1974.
After the separation, Hawke was raised by his mother. The two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawke's mother remarried when he was 10 and the family moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey, where Hawke attended West Windsor Plainsboro High School, he transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a secondary boarding school, from which he graduated in 1988. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, but developed an interest in acting, he made his stage debut at age 13, in a production at The McCarter Theatre of George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, appearances in West Windsor-Plainsboro High School productions of Meet Me in St. Louis and You Can't Take It with You followed. At the Hun School he took acting classes at the McCarter Theatre on the Princeton campus, after high school graduation he studied acting at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh dropping out after he was cast in Dead Poets Society.
He enrolled in New York University's English program for two years, but dropped out to pursue other acting roles. Hawke obtained his mother's permission to attend his first casting call at the age of 14, secured his first film role in Joe Dante's Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix; the film was met with favorable reviews but had poor box office results, a failure which Hawke has admitted caused him to quit acting for a brief period after the film's release. Hawke described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding "I would never recommend that a kid act."In 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance in Peter Weir's Dead Poets Society, playing one of the students taught by Robin Williams's inspirational English teacher. The Variety reviewer noted "Hawke, as the painfully shy Todd, gives a haunting performance." The film received considerable acclaim, winning the BAFTA Award for Best Film and an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
With revenue of $235 million worldwide, it remains Hawke's most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the film's success as critical to his decision to continue acting: "I didn't want to be an actor and I went back to college, but the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, it seemed silly to pursue anything else." While filming Dead Poets Society he auditioned for what would be his next film appearance, 1989's comedy drama Dad, where he played Ted Danson's son and Jack Lemmon's grandson. Hawke's next film, 1991's White Fang, brought his first leading role; the film, an adaptation of Jack London's novel of the same name, featured Hawke as Jack Conroy, a Yukon gold hunter who befriends a wolfdog. According to The Oregonian, "Hawke does a good job as young Jack... He makes Jack's passion for White Fang real and keeps it from being ridiculous or overly sentimental."
He appeared in Keith Gordon's A Midnight Clear, a well-received war film based on William Wharton's novel of the same name. In the survival drama Alive, adapted from Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Hawke portrayed Nando Pa
Avan Tudor Jogia is a Canadian actor and director. He is known for his roles as Ben Stark in Syfy show Caprica, Beck Oliver in the Nickelodeon sitcom Victorious, Danny Desai in the ABC drama Twisted. Jogia first came to prominence with his portrayal of Danny Araujo in the 2006 biographical television film A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story. After moving to the United States in his late teens, he landed various television roles within series such as Caprica, Victorious and miniseries Tut. Jogia's numerous credits in television and cinema include Spectacular!, Finding Hope Now, Ten Thousand Saints, I Am Michael. His directorial debut came in 2011 with the short film Alex, followed by the 2016 web series Last Teenagers of the Apocalypse. In 2011, Jogia co-founded the LGBT online organization Straight But Not Narrow, which seeks to shape the viewpoints of teenagers and adults on matters pertaining to the LGBT community. Avan Tudor Jogia was born on February 1992 in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Jogia's father is a British Indian, his mother is of English and German descent. He is the younger brother of a music producer in London. Besides English, Jogia learned to speak some French. According to The Start, Jogia was a student at Killarney Secondary School until the age of 17, when he left to pursue acting full-time, having gained a number of small television credits. In an interview, he said that his parents withdrew him from middle school in favor of home schooling, he moved to Los Angeles, California on the trial-basis that he would land a role within a six-month period – or return to schooling. Jogia has cited British actor Tim Curry as one of his early acting inspirations Curry's role as Long John Silver in the 1996 musical adventure comedy film, Muppet Treasure Island. British actor Sir Ben Kingsley is another of Jogia's inspirations, his first role came in 2006, when he portrayed Danny Araujo–the younger brother of teenage transgender woman Gwen Araujo–in the biographical television film A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story, directed by Agnieszka Holland.
In 2007, he had a recurring role in The CW television sitcom Aliens in America as the character Sam, appeared in the Canadian horror television movie Devil's Diary. Jogia next appeared in the 2008 Nickelodeon network original film Gym Teacher: The Movie, as Champ Sinclair, a role opposite Law & Order: Special Victims Unit actor Christopher Meloni, he returned to the network the following year, starring in the 2009 film Spectacular! as Tajid, alongside future Victorious co-star Victoria Justice. From 2009 to 2010, Jogia had a recurring role in the television series Caprica, a spin-off of Battlestar Galactica, on Syfy, he had been cast in the role of Ben Stark in August 2008, with production of the series' pilot episode completed by the conclusion of that year. In late 2009, Jogia joined the cast of Nickelodeon television program Victorious. Starring alongside Victoria Justice, Ariana Grande, Elizabeth Gillies, Jogia played Beck Oliver, the boyfriend of Jade West; this was the actor's first main role in a television series.
Jogia appeared as Oliver in the Nickelodeon film, iParty with Victorious, a Victorious crossover movie with iCarly. Throughout his tenure on Victorious, Jogia starred in various films. In 2010, he appeared in the drama film Triple Dog, the gang-crime film Finding Hope Now as the lead character, Santos Delgado. Jogia directed and starred in Alex, a short film. During the following year, he appeared in the 2012 Nickelodeon television movie Rags, along with Keke Palmer and Drake Bell, where Jogia portrayed Finn Covington. Jogia was cast in the lead role of Danny Desai on the ABC Family mystery–thriller series Twisted, in October 2012; the role saw Jogia opposite main cast members Maddie Hasson and Kylie Bunbury, supporting cast members including Denise Richards, Sam Robards and Kimberly Quinn. The series pilot was greenlit in August 2012, was filmed in October in New York City. In February 2013, ABC Family ordered the show as a series and production commenced in Studio City the following month, on April 3, 2013.
On the themes of the series, Jogia remarked, "Twisted is similar to Pretty Little Liars in that it's about trying to find out who did it, but it's more about the human relationships between characters and the strain that things can put on them. It's a little bit of a social commentary piece, because it covers timely issues." The series premiered on June 11, 2013, ran for 19 episodes. ABC Family opted not to renew Twisted for a second season, in August 2014. In 2014, Jogia was cast in the Spike TV miniseries, alongside English actor Sir Ben Kingsley. In the lead role of the titular Pharaoh Tutankhamun, Jogia was reunited with Twisted actress Kylie Bunbury, who portrayed Suhad –Tutankhamun's love interest. On the casting of Bunbury, Jogia noted that, "t was cool to be able to work with someone you have built-in chemistry with. Going into this situation, I had no idea what it was going to be like, so knowing I was taking this on with someone I knew helped." The miniseries, filmed in Morocco, premiered on Spike on July 19, 2015, concluded on July 21, 2015.
Tompkins Square Park riot (1988)
The Tompkins Square Park riot occurred on August 6–7, 1988 in Tompkins Square Park, located in the East Village and Alphabet City neighborhoods of Manhattan, New York City. Groups of "drug pushers, homeless people and young people known as squatters and punks," had taken over the park; the East Village and Alphabet City communities were divided about what, if anything, should be done about it. The local governing body, Manhattan Community Board 3, the New York City Parks Department adopted, a 1 a.m. curfew for the 24-hour park, in an attempt to bring it under control. On July 31, a protest rally against the curfew saw several clashes between police. Another rally was held on August 6. Here, the police charged a crowd of protesters, a riot ensued. Bystanders, police officers, neighborhood residents and journalists were caught up in the violence. Despite a brief lull in the fighting, the mêlée continued until 6 a.m. the next day. Mayor Ed Koch temporarily rescinded the curfew; the neighborhood divided over how to deal with the park, was unanimous in its condemnation of the heavy-handed actions of the police.
Over 100 complaints of police brutality were lodged following the riot. Much blame was laid on poor police handling and the commander of the precinct in charge was deprived of office for a year. In an editorial entitled "Yes, a Police Riot", The New York Times commended Commissioner Benjamin Ward and the New York City Police Department for their candor in a report that confirmed what ubiquitous media images made clear: the NYPD were responsible for inciting a riot. After the Tompkins Square Riot of 1874, the park held a symbolic place in the New York labor movement. In the years leading up to 1988, the East Village — and Tompkins Square Park in particular — had become a gathering place and home for the wayward and contingents of the homeless and rowdy youth, growing into a large tent city. Neighborhood residents, voicing their preferences through at least four community organizations, had differing perspectives on the evolving nature of the park, what actions should or should not be taken; the Avenue A Block Association insisted a curfew be introduced.
Other groups such as Friends of Tompkins Square Park and political organizers on the poorer east side of the park preferred that no curfew be imposed, Manhattan Community Board 3 took the middle ground. On June 28, 1988 the Community Board 3 approved a report that included a proposal for a 1 a.m. curfew. While there was some controversy about how well-informed the voting board members were, board manager Martha Danziger affirmed the validity of the decision; the New York City Parks Department adopted the curfew. Park workers painted a warning on the ground days. On July 11 the police, under the direction of Captain Gerald McNamara of the 9th Precinct, confined homeless people to the park's southeast quadrant, evicted all others, they closed the park down periodically over the next two weeks. Though the park was a de facto homeless shelter, some residents considered the police department's actions an attempt to take the park away from the public. Protests were organized and a rally called for July 31.
That night, police entered the park in response to alleged noise complaints, by the end of the call several civilians and six officers were treated for injuries, four men were arrested on charges of reckless endangerment and inciting to riot. Sarah Lewison, an eyewitness, said the protest was over rumors of a midnight curfew at the park and another witness, John McDermott, said the police provoked the melee. Angry organizers planned another rally for August 6; the police were there to meet the protesters. "It's time to bring a little law and order back to the park and restore it to the legitimate members of the community," said Captain McNamara. "We don't want to get into a situation where we under-police something like this and it turns into a fiasco."The city was on edge and in the midst of this, the park was turned into what Times reporter McFadden described as a bloody "war zone." Around 11:30 p.m. 150 or 200 protesters came through the St. Mark's Place entrance to the park, holding banners proclaiming "Gentrification is Class War".
By the time dawn broke, 38 people, including reporters and police officers, suffered injuries. In total, nine people were arrested on riot and other charges, six complaints of police brutality were logged with the Civilian Complaint Review Board. Although bottles flew, it was the police who charged the crowd. Despite NYPD protestations that their actions were measured, "The police panicked and were beating up bystanders who had done nothing wrong and were just observing," said poet Allen Ginsberg, a local resident and witness. Captain McNamara countered, "We did everything in our power not to provoke an incident, they didn't charge the crowd until the bricks and bottles started flying." New York Times photographer Angel Franco saw the police beat a couple who emerged from a grocery store. A New York Daily News reporter, Natalie Byfield, was clubbed on the head. Both were wearing cards identifying them as the press. Jeff Dean Kuipers, a reporter for Downtown Magazine, was clubbed after an officer told his African-American companion, Tisha Pryor, to "move along, you black nigger bitch."
Pryor is in tears, with blood running down her neck, in a videotape made by artist Clayton Patterson. Another video made by freelance cameraman Paul Garrin shows officers swinging clubs at him and slamming him against a wall. Photographer John McBride, taking still photos of the riot that were to be published in The Village Voice, was al
Sundance Film Festival
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, the largest independent film festival in the United States with more than 46,660 attending in 2016. It is held in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, it is a showcase for new work from international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres; the 2019 Sundance Film Festival began January 24 and ran through February 3. Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978, as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah, it was founded by John Earle. The 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. With chairman Robert Redford, the help of Utah Governor Scott M. Matheson, the goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, to increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah.
At the time, the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, to celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system; the jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, included Verna Fields, Linwood G. Dunn, Katharine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr. Mark Rydell, Anthea Sylbert. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what was to become the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania as executive director. More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers; that year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart. The festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left the festival to pursue a production career in Hollywood. Several factors helped propel the growth of Utah/US Film Festival.
First was the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, who became the festival's inaugural chairman. By having Redford's name associated with the festival, it received great attention. Secondly, the country was hungry for more venues that would celebrate American-made films as the only other festival doing so at the time was the USA Film Festival in Dallas. Response in Hollywood was unprecedented, as major studios did all they could to contribute their resources. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.
The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.
The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena; the Sundance London 2015 Festival was cancelled in an announcement on 16 January 2015. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016 and again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Cinema in London's West End. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong took place from 22 September to 2 October 2016 and is scheduled again for 21 September to 1 October 2017, it is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City. M
Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Trudie Styler is an English actress, film producer and director. Styler trained at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School and went on to star in various period BBC productions, she joined the Royal Shakespeare Company. Her theatre credits include The Vagina Monologues, Twin Spirits, The Seagull, she has appeared in many British television series such as The Mayor of Casterbridge and The Scold's Bridle, in the United States television shows Empire, The Night Of, Falling Water. Film work includes Paul Haggis' The Next Three Days. Styler has made seven popular mind-body fitness DVDs released by Gaia, Inc.. In the mid-nineties Styler established Xingu Films, a production company dedicated to supporting new talent, such as Guy Ritchie, Dito Montiel and Duncan Jones. In late July 2008 it was announced that Xingu had optioned American Reaper, an upcoming graphic novel written by Pat Mills, who would write the screenplay. Styler has produced and co-directed several award-winning documentaries and feature films, including Guy Ritchie's Lock and Two Smoking Barrels and Snatch.
After moving to New York, Styler co-founded the production company Maven Pictures with Celine Rattray in 2011. Their first feature, Girl Most Likely, starred Kristen Wiig. Styler's 2017 directorial debut, Freak Show, is based on the New York Times bestseller by James St. James, stars Abigail Breslin, Alex Lawther, Bette Midler. Freak Show debuted at the 2017 Berlin International Film Festival. In 1989, Styler and Sting started the Rainforest Foundation Fund, an organisation devoted to protecting rainforests and their indigenous peoples, since 1991 she has produced regular Rock for the Rainforest benefits at Carnegie Hall; as a UNICEF Ambassador, Styler has raised millions for their projects around the globe. In 2008, it was reported. Sumani was terminally ill with cancer and unable to afford treatment in her native Ghana, but had been deported from a Cardiff hospital after the expiry of her visa. Sumani died on 19 March 2008. Styler is a patron of the Elton John AIDS Foundation. In 2011, she and producer Celine Rattray founded Maven Pictures, a motion picture development and financing company.
Trudie Styler was born in Bromsgrove, England, the daughter of Pauline and Harry Styler, a farmer and factory worker. When Styler was two years old, she was hit by a van, she received severe facial injuries that left her badly scarred and required several plastic surgery operations up until the age of 18. Her classmates nicknamed her "scarface", which caused her to feel for many years that she was "not a attractive person". Styler met rock musician Sting while she was in the Royal Shakespeare Company and dating actor Peter O'Toole, they were married on 22 August 1992, have four children: Bridget Michael, Jake Sumner, Eliot Paulina and Giacomo Luke. Eliot is the lead singer for the band I Blame Coco. Skin Boarding School Wildling The Kindergarten Teacher Kings Freak Show Novitiate Anatomy of Violence For Grace American Honey Miss You Already 10,000 Saints Still Alice Black Nativity Filth Girl Most Likely The Son of No One Moon Alpha Male A Guide to Recognizing Your Saints Cheeky The Sweatbox and directed Greenfingers a.k.a.
Jailbuds Snatch Lock and Two Smoking Barrels a.k.a. Two Smoking Barrels The Grotesque a.k.a. Gentlemen Don't Eat Poets a.k.a. Grave Indiscretion Moving the Mountain Boys from Brazil A Dish of Tea with Dr Johnson Paris Connections Living Proof The Vicar of Dibley Alpha Male Love Soup Empire Friends guest starred as herself Me Without You Midsomer Murders The Scold's Bridle Fair Game The American Bride Miss Marple as Josephine Turner The Mayor Of Casterbridge Poldark The Sweatbox Freak Show Trudie Styler on IMDb