Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia
Glacier Point is a viewpoint above Yosemite Valley, in California, United States. It is located on the south wall of Yosemite Valley at an elevation of 7,214 feet, 3,200 feet above Half Dome Village; the point offers a superb view of several of Yosemite National Park's well-known landmarks including Yosemite Valley, Yosemite Falls, Half Dome, Vernal Fall, Nevada Fall, Clouds Rest. The extreme point of the promontory of Glacier Point is wholly bare, but on the slopes below, in the hollow to the west, on the wooded slope above, glacial material is abundant, its glacial origin is proved by the presence in it of rocks derived from Little Yosemite Valley and the High Sierra There are three types of glacially-deposited rock at Glacier Point: Most plentiful are rounded boulders and cobbles and angular fragments, all weathered, of Half Dome quartz monzonite, the light-colored granite of which not only Half Dome, but all of the Little Yosemite and its surrounding heights are composed. There are a few boulders of a coarse-grained siliceous granite, light buff in general tone when fresh but vivid rose when weathered.
There is only one place in the High Sierra above the Yosemite from which they can be derived: Mount Clark, the sharp-profiled peak which stands on the east side of the Illilouette Basin, 8 miles from Glacier Point. There are fragments of yellowish quartzite and gray schist whose places of origin have been located on the long northern spur of Mount Clark. Glacier Point can be reached from the Valley via Glacier Point Road. During the summer, Glacier Point is crowded with tourists. Tours by bus are available and take about four hours; the road is open from June through October. In winter, Glacier Point Road closes due to snow, access to Glacier Point from the Badger Pass Ski Area is only by ski or snowshoe. Glacier Point can be reached via the Four Mile Trail, which ascends the 3,200 feet in 4.6 miles. This moderate to strenuous trail can provide access to Glacier Point when the Glacier Point Road is closed. Note, that the trail can be hazardous when covered with snow or ice, so it is closed by the Park Service from December through May.
Another 8.2 miles trail runs from Glacier Point down to the Valley, via the Panorama Trail, past Nevada and Vernal Falls. Hikers may access trailheads to the Panorama trail and the Pohono trail. Glacier Point Hotel Four Mile Trail Yosemite Firefall Yosemite Valley Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park: Glacier Point - U. S. National Park Service Yosemite National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Photos from Glacier Point QTVR of Yosemite Valley, including good view of Glacier Point
Badger Pass Ski Area
Badger Pass Ski Area is a small ski area located within Yosemite National Park. Badger Pass is one of only three lift serviced ski areas operating in a US National Park, it is situated five miles south-southeast of the Chinquapin intersection of Wawona Road with Glacier Point Road in the southern area of Yosemite National Park. Glacier Point Road provides the access to this ski area. During high snow level and/or ski season, Glacier Point road terminates at Badger Pass ski Resort. Under these conditions, the remainder of Glacier Point Road is used for cross-country skiing access to Glacier Point and other destinations in the high country. Due to a naming rights dispute in which outgoing concessionaire Delaware North Parks and Resorts claims to own the names of several Yosemite locations as intellectual property, Badger Pass was renamed "Yosemite Ski & Snowboard Area" effective March 1, 2016. Badger Pass is at about 7,200 feet in elevation at the restaurant and services buildings. At the summit of the downhill ski lifts, elevations rise to 8,000 feet.
The nearest community to Badger Pass is Yosemite West. The 90-acre skiing area provides 10 runs and 5 lifts with downhill, snow tubing and snow boarding facilities. There are training areas with instructors for beginners and novices that need "brushing up". A snow tubing area has been added near the cross-country equipment rental area. For safety reasons, this area is "roped off so. In addition to the downhill facilities, there are extensive cross-country skiing and snowshoe trails. In fact this is one of the highlights of the Badger Pass/Yosemite National Park winter activities. There are over 84 miles of trails encompassing many of the tourist sites in Yosemite. In addition, two overnight huts are available for extended winter trips into the wilderness; the history of winter sports in Yosemite National Park is unique. Following the building of the Ahwahnee Hotel in 1925–1927, came Yosemite’s first ski school in 1928 with Jules Fritsch as instructor. Fritsch, a Swiss ski expert was part of a trained staff of winter sports experts available in Yosemite.
Fritsch and the staff led six-day snow excursions in Yosemite from the Ahwahnee to Tenaya Lake to bolster the ski school. Many believe. In conjunction with the Curry Company, one of the first projects was the 1927 construction of a four-track toboggan slide near Camp Curry. Dr. Donald Tresidder, the first president the Yosemite Park & Curry Company and its guiding force, saw the visitor interest in winter sports and formed the Yosemite Winter Club. With the club’s enthusiast support, a small ski hill and ski jump near Tenaya Creek Bridge was built in 1928. With the interest building in Yosemite for winter sports, the Olympics selecting Los Angeles as the site for the summer games for 1932, Tresidder teamed up with William Garland, president of the Steering Committee of the Plays of Los Angeles to promote Yosemite for winter sports for the Olympics of 1932. Lake Placid was selected instead; this rather intensified it. Tresidder could see the need for real facilities in Yosemite for winter sports.
A lift was built in 1933 but it was not at the Ahwahnee but at Badger Pass some miles away. The first slalom in California was held in 1933 at Badger Pass. With the lingering effects of The Great Depression and the difficult road access to Badger Pass, the need for an easier route to the high country slowed further development; the History of the Yosemite area depicts the building of the tunnel as follows: "The completion of the 0.8 mile long Wawona Tunnel in 1933 was both an engineering marvel and reduced the amount of travel time to the Valley from Wawona without scarring the landscape with a long road cut." After the Wawona Road and Tunnel opened in late 1933 and Glacier Point Road to Badger Pass opened in 1935, Yosemite's first ski lodge was built in Monroe Meadow, by the end of the season Badger Pass had welcomed more than 25,000 skiers. The West's first ski lift, called the Upski, was installed in 1936. Nicknamed the “Queen Mary,” it was a large sled that moved up and down the hill on a cable, carrying six skiers at a time up to the summit.
With completion of the new Wawona Road and tunnel, visitors began to use the Chinquapin area for skiing as well as the Badger Pass slope. Because of the poor condition of the Glacier Point road, the Yosemite Park and Curry Company became interested in installing the cable tramway as a means of getting skiers to the south rim. Valley floor winter activities faded and skiers concentrated on Badger Pass and the high country after improvement of the Glacier Point road afforded greater accessibility to that area. Today, the Badger Pass Ski Area provides a public venue for both downhill and snowboarding activities, it is operated for the National Park Service by Aramark. One of the major features of the area is the restored Badger Pass Day Lodge, which houses the Snowflake Room. From this pub visitors can view the 5 lifts; the Lodge is for day use only. Food concessions and an activities desk are located on the lower level of the lodge. Several ski schools, catering to both beginners and advanced skiers, operate on the slopes.
In addition, cross-country skiing is available for those visitors interested in a back country experience
Half Dome is a granite dome at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California. It is a well-known rock formation in the park, named for its distinct shape. One side is a sheer face while the other three sides are smooth and round, making it appear like a dome cut in half; the granite crest rises more than 4,737 ft above the valley floor. The impression from the valley floor that this is a round dome that has lost its northwest half is an illusion. From Washburn Point, Half Dome can be seen as a thin ridge of rock, an arête, oriented northeast-southwest, with its southeast side as steep as its northwest side except for the top. Although the trend of this ridge, as well as that of Tenaya Canyon, is controlled by master joints, 80 percent of the northwest "half" of the original dome may well still be there; as late as the 1870s, Half Dome was described as "perfectly inaccessible" by Josiah Whitney of the California Geological Survey. The summit was reached by George G. Anderson in October 1875, via a route constructed by drilling and placing iron eyebolts into the smooth granite.
Today, Half Dome may now be ascended in several different ways. Thousands of hikers reach the top each year by following an 8.5 mi trail from the valley floor. After a rigorous 2 mi approach, including several hundred feet of granite stairs, the final pitch up the peak's steep but somewhat rounded east face is ascended with the aid of a pair of post-mounted braided steel cables constructed close to the Anderson route in 1919. Alternatively, over a dozen rock climbing routes lead from the valley up Half Dome's vertical northwest face; the first technical ascent was in 1957 via a route pioneered by Royal Robbins, Mike Sherrick, Jerry Gallwas, today known as the Regular Northwest Face. Their five-day epic was the first Grade VI climb in the United States, their route has now been free. Other technical routes ascend the west shoulder; the Half Dome Cable Route hike runs from the valley floor to the top of the dome in 8.2 mi, with 4,800 ft of elevation gain. The length and difficulty of the trail used to keep it less crowded than other park trails, but in recent years the trail traffic has grown to as many as 800 people a day.
The hike can be done from the valley floor in a single long day, but many people break it up by camping overnight in Little Yosemite Valley. The trail climbs past Vernal and Nevada Falls continues into Little Yosemite Valley north to the base of the northeast ridge of Half Dome itself; the final 400 ft ascent is steeply up the rock between two steel cables used as handholds. The cables are raised onto a series of metal poles in late May; the cables are taken down from the poles for the winter in early October, but they are still fixed to the rock surface and can be used. The National Park Service recommends against climbing the route when the cables are down and when the surface of the rock is wet and slippery; the Cable Route is rated class 3, while the same face away from the cables is rated class 5. The Cable Route can be crowded. In past years, as many as 1,000 hikers per day have sometimes climbed the dome on a summer weekend, about 50,000 hikers climb it every year. Since 2011, all hikers who intend to ascend the Cable Route must now obtain permits before entering the park.
Permits are checked by a ranger on the trail, no hikers without permits are allowed to hike beyond the base of the sub-dome or to the bottom of the cables. Hikers caught bypassing the rangers to visit either the sub-dome or main dome without a permit face fines of up to $5,000 and/or 6 months in jail. Backpackers with an appropriate wilderness permit can receive a Half Dome permit when they pick up their wilderness permit with no additional reservation required. Rock climbers who reach the top of Half Dome without entering the subdome area can descend on the Half Dome Trail without a permit; the top of Half Dome is a flat area where climbers can relax and enjoy their accomplishment. The summit offers views of the surrounding areas, including Little Yosemite Valley and the Valley Floor. A notable location to one side of Half Dome is the "Diving Board", where Ansel Adams took his photograph "Monolith, The Face of Half Dome" on April 10, 1927. Confused with "the Visor," a small overhanging ledge at the summit, the Diving Board is on the shoulder of Half Dome.
From 1919 when the cables were erected through 2011, there have been six fatal falls from the cables. The latest fatality occurred on May 21, 2018. Lightning strikes can be a risk while near the summit. On July 27, 1985, five hikers were struck by lightning; the Cable Route was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. 1875 George G. Anderson via drilled spikes on the east slope. 1946 Salathe Route on southwest face, FA by John Salathe and Anton Nelson 1957 Northwest Face, FA by Royal Robbins, Jerry Gallwas and Mike Sherrick. First Grade VI in North America. 1963 Direct Northwest Face, FA by Royal Robbins and Dick McCracken 1969 Tis-sa-ack, FA by Royal Robbins and Don Peterson. 1973 First "clean ascent" of NW face by Dennis Hennek, Doug Robinson, Galen Rowell, Hennek is on the cover of June 1974 National Geographic leading a nut protected traverse see Super Topo too 1987 The Big Chill, FA by Jim Bridwell, Peter Mayfield, Sean Plunkett and Steve Bosque 1989 Shadows, FA by Jim Bridwell, Charles Row, Cito Kirkpatrick, William Westbay 1997 Blue Shift FA by Jay Smith and Karl McConachie.
1964 Salathe Route, FFA by Fran
Vernal Fall is a 317-foot waterfall on the Merced River just downstream of Nevada Fall in Yosemite National Park, California. Like its upstream neighbor, Vernal Fall is visible at a distance, from Glacier Point, as well as close up, along the Mist Trail; the waterfall flows all year long, although by the end of summer it is reduced in volume and can split into multiple strands, rather than a single curtain of water. Yan-o-pah was the local name of the fall before it was named "Vernal"- meaning relating to Spring - by Lafayette Bunnell, a member of the Mariposa Battalion in 1851; the trail begins at the Happy Isles trail head in Yosemite Valley and travels east-southeast. This is one of the shortest and most popular trails in Yosemite; the trail is shaded and is progressive in incline until it reaches the base of the waterfall where mist sprays onto the hikers. At times of high flow in the spring, hikers may be drenched by the time they pass the mist from the waterfall; the final 15 minutes of the trail is a steep climb up rocks to the top of the waterfall.
Once atop the falls there is a pool of water called the Emerald Pool around which hikers lounge and rest. There is a 20 degree slope of rock with water flowing into the pool called the Silver Apron. Swimming above Vernal Fall carries a great deal of risk: the rocks are slippery, the river has strong undercurrents that may not be visible from the surface, tourists have been swept over the fall to their deaths. Though swimming there is illegal and warnings to stay out of the water are posted, several deaths have occurred when visitors entered the water above the fall in the vicinity of the Silver Apron and Emerald Pool. Three people died in a single day, on July 19, 2011, after being swept over Vernal Fall in this manner; the fall is shown in error on a 1932 Philippines stamp. Although the stamp indicates that it depicts Pagsanjan Falls in the Philippines, it in fact shows Vernal Fall. Media related to Vernal Fall at Wikimedia Commons Place Names of the High Sierra, "V", Francis Farquhar United States Geological Survey.
"Topographical Map for 37.7274262, -119.5437725". Retrieved 2008-07-05. View a short video embedded in Google Maps
Tuolumne Meadows is a gentle, dome-studded, sub-alpine meadow area along the Tuolumne River in the eastern section of Yosemite National Park in the United States. Its approximate location is 37°52.5′N 119°21′W. Its approximate elevation is 8,619 feet; the term Tuolumne Meadows is often used to describe a large portion of the Yosemite high country around the meadows in context of rock climbing. The meadow vegetation is supported by shallow groundwater; the water comes from 1,000 mm of precipitation predominately in the form of snow. Water arises from snowmelt and hill-slope aquifers, flows through the Tuolumne River, Budd Creek, Delaney Creek, Unicorn Creek. In spring, as soon as the snow melts, it is not uncommon to see large areas of the meadows flooded and transformed into lakes. While the mountains of the Sierra near the meadows have had some permanent snowfields, in the summer they are free of snow. Although brief, the late spring and summer wildflower bloom in Tuolumne Meadows is host to a wide variety of California wildflowers, including the rare Purple Webber, a type of lupin.
Plant species composition changes across the meadows with different landforms, landscape positions, summer water-table depths. Areas with seasonal flooding and deep-standing water support Sierra willow; the main herbaceous wet-meadow species include alpine aster, nearly-black sedge, King's ricegrass, western bistort, Breweri's reed grass, dwarf bilberry. Thread-leaved sedge, pussy-toes, Sierra lodgepole pine, Ross sedge are found in drier uplands within or on the edge of the meadows. See Hiking, rock climbing, mountain climbing around Tuolumne Meadows. Tuolumne Meadows has a good view of the Cathedral Range and Unicorn Peak, Lembert Dome, Mount Dana. Camping is available at the Tuolumne Meadows campground. Excellent hiking and rock climbing are accessible from Tuolumne Meadows, which tends to be less crowded than Yosemite Valley. Downstream, the Tuolumne River cascades over Waterwheel Falls near Glen Aulin pooling at Hetch Hetchy Reservoir; the road to the meadows is free of snow from June through October.
Due to the extreme elevation, road access over Tioga Pass along Highway 120 is closed through winter season. Many backcountry hiking and backpacking trails start in Tuolumne Meadows including the primary route to summit Mount Lyell, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park; the John Muir and the Pacific Crest Trails are long-distance backpacking trails and follow a route through Lyell Canyon into Tuolumne Meadows. A large number of backpackers hike these trails each year. Along with these longer trails, Tuolumne Meadows feature a wide range of day trails to locations including Gaylor Lakes, Cathedral Lakes, Mono Pass, Lembert Dome; the day hike trails are popular, become busy during the summer high seasons. These trails are serviced by the Tuolumne Meadows shuttle bus from June to September, though the dates are subject to change due to weather. In contrast to the big walls of Yosemite Valley, climbing at Tuolumne consists of short- to medium-length routes on eleven major domes and a number of minor ones, stretching from the Stately Pleasure Dome above Tenaya Lake to Lembert Dome on the east side of the Meadows.
Since the area is all at a high elevation, the climbing season is limited to June through September. The rock is porphyritic granite, a strong form of granite, it has a tendency for exfoliation, which helps preserve the distinctive dome shapes. The resulting climbing includes both face and crack routes, the former runout due to limited numbers of bolts, the latter following thin cracks; the local ethic is to limit the placement of bolts on new routes and to forbid the addition of bolts to existing routes, resulting in distances of 40 feet or more between bolts. The major domes include: Stately Pleasure Dome Polly Dome Daff Dome Pothole Dome Lembert Dome Fairview DomeSee Granite Domes of Yosemite National Park for a list of granite domes in Yosemite National park, not just around Tuolumne. In addition, the peaks of the nearby Cathedral Range, such as Cathedral Peak, Pywiack Dome, Medlicott Dome, are traditionally considered part of the climbing area. Yosemite National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage National Park Service Maps Tuolumne Meadows Day Hikes Tuolumne Meadows Campground Site Photos
El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The granite monolith is about 3,000 feet from base to summit along its tallest face, is a popular objective for rock climbers; the formation was named "El Capitan" by the Mariposa Battalion when they explored the valley in 1851. El Capitan was taken to be a loose Spanish translation of the local Native American name for the cliff, variously transcribed as "To-to-kon oo-lah" or "To-tock-ah-noo-lah", it is unclear if the Native American name referred to a specific tribal chief or meant "the chief" or "rock chief". The top of El Capitan can be reached by hiking out of Yosemite Valley on the trail next to Yosemite Falls proceeding west. For climbers, the challenge is to climb up the sheer granite face. There are many named climbing routes, all of them arduous, including Iron Hawk and Sea of Dreams. El Capitan is composed entirely of granite, a pale, coarse-grained granite emplaced 100 mya.
In addition to El Capitan, this granite forms most of the rock features of the western portions of Yosemite Valley. A separate intrusion of igneous rock, the Taft Granite, forms the uppermost portions of the cliff face. A third igneous rock, diorite, is present as dark-veined intrusions through both kinds of granite prominent in the area known as the North America Wall. Along with most of the other rock formations of Yosemite Valley, El Capitan was carved by glacial action. Several periods of glaciation have occurred in the Sierra Nevada, but the Sherwin Glaciation, which lasted from 1.3 million years ago to 1 mya, is considered to be responsible for the majority of the sculpting. The El Capitan Granite is free of joints, as a result the glacial ice did not erode the rock face as much as other, more jointed, rocks nearby. Nonetheless, as with most of the rock forming Yosemite's features, El Capitan's granite is under enormous internal tension brought on by the compression experienced prior to the erosion that brought it to the surface.
These forces contribute to the creation of features such as the Texas Flake, a large block of granite detaching from the main rock face about halfway up the side of the cliff. Between the two main faces, the Southwest and the Southeast, is a prow. While today there are numerous established routes on both faces, the most popular and famous route is The Nose, which follows the south buttress; the Nose was first climbed in 1958 by Warren Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore in 47 days using "siege" tactics: climbing in an expedition style using fixed ropes along the length of the route, linking established camps along the way. The fixed manila ropes allowed the climbers to ascend and descend from the ground up throughout the 18-month project, although they presented unique levels of danger as well, sometimes breaking due to the long exposure to cold temperatures; the climbing team relied on aid climbing, using rope and expansion bolts to make it to the summit. The second ascent of The Nose was in 1960 by Royal Robbins, Joe Fitschen, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost, who took seven days in the first continuous climb of the route without siege tactics.
The first solo climb of The Nose was done by Tom Bauman in 1969. The first ascent of The Nose in one day was accomplished in 1975 by John Long, Jim Bridwell and Billy Westbay. Today, The Nose takes fit climbers 4–5 full days of climbing. Efforts during the 1960s and 1970s explored the other faces of El Capitan, many of the early routes are still popular today. Among the early classics are Salathé Wall on the southwest face, the North America Wall on the southeast face. Climbed in the 1960s are routes such as: Dihedral Wall. Ascents include: Wall of the Early Morning Light, now known as Dawn Wall, on the Southeast face, adjacent to the prow. Today there are over 70 routes on "El Cap" of various difficulties and danger levels. New routes continue to be established consisting of additions to, or links between, existing routes. After his successful solo ascent of the Leaning Tower, Royal Robbins turned his attention to the Yvon Chouinard-T. M. Herbert Muir Wall route, completing the first solo ascent of El Capitan during a 10-day push in 1968.
The first solo ascents of El Capitan's four classic "siege" routes were accomplished by Thomas Bauman on The Nose in 1969. Other noteworthy early solo ascents were the solo first ascent of Cosmos by Jim Dunn in 1972, Zodiac by Charlie Porter in 1972; these ascents were long 7- to 14-day ordeals that required the solo climber lead each pitch, rappel, clean the climbing gear, reascend the lead rope, haul equipment, food