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The tengwar are an artificial script created by J. R. R. Tolkien. Within the fictional context of Tolkien's legendarium, the tengwar were invented by the Elf Fëanor, used first to write the Elven tongues Quenya and Telerin. A great number of languages of Middle-earth were written using the tengwar, including Sindarin. Tolkien used tengwar to write English: most of Tolkien's tengwar samples are in English. According to The War of the Jewels, Fëanor, when he created his script, introduced a change in terminology, he called a letter, i.e. a written representation of a tengwa. Any letter or symbol had been called a sarat; the alphabet of Rúmil of Tirion, on which Fëanor based his own work, was known as Sarati. It became known as "Tengwar of Rúmil"; the plural of tengwa was tengwar, this is the name by which Fëanor's system became known. Since, however, in used modes, an individual tengwa was equivalent to a consonant, the term tengwar in popular use became equivalent to "consonant sign", the vowel signs were known as ómatehtar.

By loan-translation, the tengwar became known as tîw in Sindarin, when they were introduced to Beleriand. The letters of the earlier alphabet native to Sindarin were called cirth; this term was loaned into exilic Quenya as plural certar. The sarati, a script developed by Tolkien in the late 1910s and described in Parma Eldalamberon 13, anticipates many features of the tengwar: vowel representation by diacritics. Closer to the tengwar is the Valmaric script, described in Parma Eldalamberon 14, which Tolkien used from about 1922 to 1925, it features many tengwar shapes, the inherent vowel found in some tengwar varieties, the tables in the samples V12 and V13 show an arrangement, similar to one of the primary tengwar in the classical Quenya "mode". Jim Allan compared the tengwar with the Universal Alphabet of Francis Lodwick of 1686, both on grounds of the correspondence between shape features and sound features, of the actual letter shapes; the tengwar were developed in the late 1920s or in the early 1930s.

The Lonely Mountain Jar Inscription, the first published Tengwar sample, dates to 1937. The full explanation of the tengwar was published in Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings in 1955; the Mellonath Daeron Index of Tengwar Specimina lists most of the known samples of tengwar by Tolkien. There are only a few known samples predating publication of The Lord of the Rings: DTS 1 – The Lonely Mountain Jar Inscription, published 1937 DTS 13 – Middle Page from the Book of Mazarbul DTS 14 – Last Page from the Book of Mazarbul, Last Line and the above one prepared for inclusion in The Lord of the Rings DTS 15 – Steinborg Drawing Title DTS 22 – Ilbereth's Greeting from The Father Christmas Letters, dating to 1937 DTS 24 – The Treebeard Page DTS 50/51 – Edwin Lowdham's Manuscript from The Notion Club Papers has Old English language text written in tengwar, dating to 1945/6. DTS 10 – The Brogan Tengwa-greetings, appearing in The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, No. 118, tentatively dated to 1948. The following samples predate the Lord of the Rings, but they were not explicitly dated: DTS 16, DTS 17, DTS 18 – Elvish Script Sample I, II, III, with parts of the English poems Errantry and Bombadil, first published in the Silmarillion Calendar 1978 in Pictures by J. R. R. Tolkien, as well as DTS 23 – So Lúthien, a page of the English Lay of Leithian text facsimiled in The Lays of Beleriand:299.

The most notable characteristic of the tengwar script is that the shapes of the letters correspond to the distinctive features of the sounds they represent. The Quenya consonant system has five places of articulation: labial, palatal and glottal; the velars distinguish between labialized. Each point of articulation, the corresponding tengwa series, has a name in the classical Quenya mode. Dental sounds are called Tincotéma and are represented with the tengwar in column I. Labial sounds are called Parmatéma, represented by the column II tengwar. Palatal sounds are called Tyelpetéma and have no tengwa series of their own, but are represented by column III letters with an added diacritic for following. Shaped letters reflect not only similar places of articulation, but similar manners of articulation. In the classical Quenya mode, row 1 represents voiceless stops, row 2 voiced prenasalized stops, row 3 voiceless fricatives, row 4 voiceless prenasalized stops, row 5 nasal stops, row 6 approximants.

Most letters are constructed by a combination of two basic shapes: a vertical stem and either one or two rounded bows. These principal letters are divided into four series that correspond to the main places of articulation and into six grades that correspond to the main manners of articulation. Both vary among modes; each series is headed by the basic signs composed of a vertical stem descending below the line, a single bow. These

Baillieston St Andrew's Church

Baillieston St Andrew's Church is a congregation of the Church of Scotland, a member of the Presbyterian Church. The church building is located on the corner of Bredisholm Road and Muirhead Road, Glasgow, Scotland; the church today serves the town of Baillieston. The congregation of Baillieston St Andrew's was established in November 1966, by the union of the Baillieston Old Parish and Rhinsdale Churches; the origins of Baillieston Parish Church go back to the late 1820s when George Scott of Daldowie donated a site on Crosshill Farm for the building of a church, to be known as the Crosshill Chapel of Ease, provision of a cemetery for the village. Plans were prepared and building proceeded; the church in Church Street, Crosshill only cost £507 to build and was opened on 7 July 1833 with seating for 500. Prior to this the only church in the area was Old Monklands Parish Church; the first minister was the Rev. Andrew Gray who as a probationer of the Church taught in the local school, he remained as minister until the Disruption in 1843.

Over the next 123 years Baillieston Parish Church had a further six ministers until the union with Rhinsdale Church in 1966. In June 1967 Rev. John J. C. Owen, took up his first charge at Baillieston Old Parish Church where he remained until December 1979, a period of twelve years. During his ministry a fund for the building of a new church was started and with the generosity of the congregation and members of the public, sufficient money was collected over some years to allow the building of the new church to proceed; the “Old Church” had served its purpose well, having been in constant use for about 140 years, but was now in need of continual and costly maintenance. This, coupled with the closure of Rhinsdale Church whose congregation had united with the “Old Church” in November 1966 causing a considerable increase in its membership, made it necessary to build a new church; the War Memorial to those who had fallen in the 1914-18 war was extended to include the names of those who gave their lives in the 2nd World War, 1939–45, on Sunday, 15 April 1951 an Unveiling and Dedication Service was held.

The Rev. Roy McVicar officiated; the memorial was unveiled by William Reid. who gave the address to a full church. Other gifts were given by members of the congregation and these included a full suite of chairs for the choir along with a special chair in keeping with the design of the Communion chairs as a memorial. Rhinsdale Church known in Baillieston as the U. P. Kirk was first started by a number of people from Baillieston and district in March 1862, they met for services at school building at Fauldshill known as a preaching U. P. Church, getting their preachers from the U. P. Presbytery of Glasgow. James Hunter, a Glasgow merchant, who lived in Rhinsdale House and in all probability owned Fauldshill where the old school stood, was one, responsible for the beginning of the congregation. While the early members were using the school they resolved to have a church of their own and began to collect subscriptions for this purpose. In due course, with their subscriptions, plus assistance from the U.

P. Building Fund and the Ferguson Bequest Fund, they had a total of £1,200. A site which latterly became well known in Baillieston was chosen, it was given to the church by James Beaumont Neilson, the inventor of hot blast which revolutionised iron smelting in Coatbridge in the 1830s. By October 1863 construction of the buildings was well ahead so the members, 81 of them, petitioned the Glasgow Presbytery of the U. P. Church for permission to form a congregation of the U. P. Church in Baillieston; this was granted and in January 1864 the U. P. Church in Baillieston was born, it was opened for worship on 17 February 1864. The new buildings were the church and at the rear the Session House and Vestry and above a small hail, it was five months before the new congregation called its first minister. He was the Rev. John Mcintyre and he was ordained on 1 June 1865. Over the next 100 years Rhinsdale Church had a further eight ministers until the union with Baillieston Old Parish Church in 1966. Rhinsdale Church War Memorial: Many men from the Rhinsdale congregation saw active service, sixteen of them being killed in action.

Their names were inscribed on a memorial plaque incorporated in the Communion Table. The congregation of Baillieston St Andrew's was established in November 1966, by the union of the Baillieston Old and Rhinsdale Churches; the new congregation appointed its first minister, the Rev John Owen in June 1967. During the first seven years of his ministry the Rev Owen worked with his congregation to plan and oversee the building of a new church building to replace the "Old" parish church; the new church was dedicated in December 1974. Rev Andrew Gray - First minister of Baillieston Parish Church Rev Matthew Graham - Rev Graham was called from Calton Church Rev Hugh Ramsay - called from Gartmore - during his ministry the seating accommodation was extended and a manse built. Rev Dr Alexander Andrew - Mr Andrew was the longest serving minister in Baillieston, he had been an Assistant to Mr Ramsay. Rev Adrian G. Watt - Rev Watt came from Aberdeen, he was called to St. Michael’s Parish Church, Edinburgh Rev Roy McVicar - Mr McVicar had been a missionary in Africa before coming to Baillieston Old Parish Church.

He was called to Davidson Mains Church, Edinburgh Rev Cameron Walker - Rev Walker was called from Tynecastle Church, Edinburgh Rev James McIntyre - Rev McIntyre left to become a missionary in North China. Rev

Czechoslovakia at the 1964 Summer Olympics

Czechoslovakia competed at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan. 104 competitors, 95 men and 9 women, took part in 64 events in 13 sports. The most successful competitor was Věra Čáslavská with 4 medals - one team silver. Other big surprises were gold medal performances of the cyclist Jiří Daler and weightlifter Hans Zdražila, who broke a world record during his performance. Medal hopes of world record holder athlete Ludvík Daněk were fulfilled with little disappointment, in the form of a silver medal. Nine cyclists represented Czechoslovakia in 1964. Individual road raceDaniel Gráč Jiří Daler František Řezáč Jan SmolíkSprintIvan Kučírek1000m time trialJiří PeckaTandemKarel Paar Karel ŠtarkIndividual pursuitJiří DalerTeam pursuitJiří Daler Antonín Kříž Jiří Pecka František Řezáč Four shooters represented Czechoslovakia in 1964. Lubomír Nácovský won a bronze medal in the 25 m pistol event. 25 m pistolLubomír Nácovský Ladislav Falta50 m pistolVladimír Kudrna300 m rifle, three positionsVladimír Stibořík50 m rifle, three positionsVladimír Stibořík50 m rifle, proneVladimír Stibořík Round Robin Defeated Hungary Defeated Bulgaria Defeated Japan Defeated United States Lost to Soviet Union Defeated Brazil Defeated Romania Defeated Netherlands Defeated South Korea → Silver Medal Team Roster Antonín Procházka Jiří Svoboda Luboš Zajíček Josef Musil Josef Smolka Vladimír Petlák Petr Kop František Sokol Bohunil Golián Zdeněk Groessl Pavel Schenk Drahomír Koudelka Head Coach: Václav Matiášek Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database Czech olympic report

Toda–Smith complex

In mathematics, Toda–Smith complexes are spectra characterized by having a simple BP-homology, are useful objects in stable homotopy theory. Toda–Smith complexes provide examples of periodic self maps; these self maps were exploited in order to construct infinite families of elements in the homotopy groups of spheres. Their existence pointed the way towards the periodicity theorems; the story begins with the degree p map on S 1: S 1 → S 1 z ↦ z p The degree p map is well defined for S k in general, where k ∈ N. If we apply the infinite suspension functor to this map, Σ ∞ S 1 → Σ ∞ S 1 =: S 1 → S 1 and we take the cofiber of the resulting map: S → p S → S / p We find that S / p has the remarkable property of coming from a Moore space, it is of note that the periodic maps, α t, β t, γ t, come from degree maps between the Toda–Smith complexes, V k, V k, V 2 respectively. The n th Toda–Smith complex, V where n ∈ − 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …, is a finite spectrum which satisfies the property that its BP-homology, B P ∗:=, is isomorphic to B P ∗ /.

That is, Toda–Smith complexes are characterized by their B P -local properties, are defined as any object V satisfying one of the following equations: B P ∗ ≃ B P ∗ B P ∗ ≃ B P ∗ / p B P ∗ ≃ B P ∗ / ⋮ It may help the reader to recall that B P ∗ = Z p, deg ⁡ v i = 2. The sphere spectrum, B P ∗ ≃ B P ∗, V. the mod p Moore spectrum, B P ∗ ≃ B P ∗ / p, V

Max Fordham

Sigurd Max Fordham OBE RDI FREng MA FCIBSE Hon FRIBA, known as Max Fordham, is a British designer and pioneer of sustainable design and environmentally friendly engineering. He is the founder of building services engineering firm Max Fordham LLP. Fordham was born in 1933 to Molly Swabey, a journalist, Michael Fordham, a Jungian analytical psychotherapist, his parents’ marriage dissolved in 1940. Michael remarried another analytical psychotherapist Frieda Hoyle the same year. Around this time, during World War Two, Fordham went with his mother to stay with his uncle in the Caribbean, to avoid the bombing of London. Fordham settled in well there and Molly decided to return to England. However, while crossing the Atlantic in 1942, her boat sunk and she drowned. Upon returning to England, Fordham attended the progressive Dartington Hall School, which intended to change social attitudes in the world; the school was a pupil-run democracy with the headmaster sitting in on the meetings and with a formal power of veto, never used.

Fordham was the elected chairman for several years. Lessons were voluntary but the first hour of every morning there was compulsory "useful work", where students helped maintain the school building. Fordham learned skills such as carpentry and metalwork and completed work including working as an assistant in the chemistry laboratory, book-binding in the library, repairing dining room oak chairs, building desks and turning spare parts for the electric polishing machines, it was an apprenticeship as such, useful work tended to extend beyond the allotted hour. This was where Fordham first identified that he liked to design and create – the roots of his career stem from there. After school, Fordham did National Service as a pilot in the Fleet Air Arm; when he returned, he attended Trinity College, completing an MA in Natural Science. He chose to specialise in chemistry, physics and mineralogy; this gave him a deeper education in chemistry and physics than he would have done if he had studied engineering.

Fordham began to have doubts about becoming a scientist. He enjoyed the company of people studying the humanities and shared rooms with a school friend whose parents were artists; the professor of architecture, Sir Leslie Martin, suggested he consider heating engineering, a new field where he could be free to be inventive and design things using his physics degree. He took a vacation job with engineering firm G N Haden. There he completed a small research project. After that, he did a one year course at the National College of Heating, Ventilation and Fan Engineering before starting work. Sir Leslie Martin arranged a job for Fordham as a development engineer at Weatherfoil Heating Systems Ltd in 1958, where he worked until 1961. There he completed a wide variety of research work, he designed the metered fan convection heating for Harvey Court and was named as the inventor when this was patented. While Weatherfoil gave him a generous introduction to the building industry, they wanted to promote him away from design and into representing the firm.

By this time he realised this direction included all of the building services: water supply, heating, air conditioning, as well as electrical engineering and he wanted more time to develop his detailing skills. After meeting Sir Philip Dowson through his future wife, Thalia Dyson, in 1961 he joined the Building Group, a group that included architects and structural engineers from Ove Arup & Partners. Here Fordham had to get to grips with drawing the services in complete detail, it provided an integrated team, where discussions about services could be argued over the lunch table. Fordham took on the public health and electrical services as well, so the services disciplines could be represented by just one person at meetings. After moonlighting while at Arup Associates, Fordham realised he had the opportunity to start his own practice. In September 1966 he left Arup, started working from his bedroom. Here he pursued a new approach to engineering based on his own curiosity about, he resisted pigeonholing into the conventional boxes of engineering.

He was always interested in the whole building, taking a creative but practical approach to building services design, starting "with the edge of the universe as its boundary and quickly narrowing down to the specific problem". Fordham did not like imposing his will on people, developed a philosophical justification for reconstituting the practice as a democracy. "Anyone fit to be an employee is fit to be a partner" was the slogan. They had difficulty getting a lawyer to take the proposition until a young barrister teaching at Oxford, Leonard Hoffman, took the brief and made a working legal document, first signed in 1973; this co-operative meant everyone were in charge of running it. However, as the practice expanded, they found the practice could not have more than 20 partners. To combat this, Fordham established Max Fordham Associates in 1984. In 2001, under the new Limited Liability Partnership, the two partnerships became the single practice it is today. Max Fordham has been a visiting professor in building and design at the University of Bath since 1990.

He was an external examiner at the Architectural Association from 1991–1997 and 2007-2011. Fordham has lectured to designers and architects at: University of Edinburgh, 1992–1994 University of Cambridge School of Architecture 1996-1999 Mackintosh School of Architecture University of Reading Yale University University of Plymouth Hong Kong Un

Kappa Kappa Psi

Kappa Kappa Psi, National Honorary Band Fraternity, is a fraternity for college and university band members in the United States. It was founded on November 27, 1919, on Thanksgiving Day, at Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, now known as Oklahoma State University, in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Kappa Kappa Psi operates as a recognition society providing service, leadership opportunities, social programming for band members. Tau Beta Sigma, National Honorary Band Sorority, has been recognized as a sister organization since 1947, the two organizations share National Headquarters in Stillwater Station, a converted historical Santa Fe rail depot, purchased by the fraternity and sorority in 1991. Since 1919, more than 66,000 men and women have been initiated into Kappa Kappa Psi, with nearly 6,000 collegiate members active today. Members of Kappa Kappa Psi include President Bill Clinton. William A. Scroggs, a student at Oklahoma A&M College, sought to establish an organization that would "bind friendship together indefinitely" and unite members across colleges and universities.

After some initial planning, he consulted band president A. Frank Martin and Bohumil Makovsky, director of bands at Oklahoma A&M, both of whom agreed to help with the creation of the fraternity. From Makovsky's band, 10 members were selected as the first members of Kappa Kappa Psi: William Alexander Scroggs, Andrew Franklin Martin, Raymond David Shannon, Clyde DeWitt Haston, Clayton Everett Soule, Carl Anderson Stevens, William Houston Coppedge, Dick Hurst, George Asher Hendrickson, Iron Hawthorne Nelson; the founders accepted chemistry professor Hilton Ira Jones' suggestion to name the fraternity "Kappa Kappa Psi." It was organized on November 27, 1919, Scroggs was unanimously elected to serve as the President. Legal organization was completed on March 5, 1920, when the fraternity received its charter from the state of Oklahoma; the formal organization of the fraternity was celebrated on either March 23 or 25, 1920, with the initiation of the first membership class and a banquet. The fraternity grew in its first years.

Within ten years, there were 27 chapters spanning from the University of Washington in the west to Duke University in the east. Only 14 were installed during the Great Depression, while World War II put a further damper on fraternal activities. At the 1939 National Convention in Cincinnati, plans were set into action to make Kappa Kappa Psi an international fraternity. Invitations were sent to colleges and universities in Canada and South America, but no chapters were installed at those institutions. Before World War II, most college bands were military-style and male; when the war began, most band members left to serve in the armed forces, which strained the fraternity—to the point that 90 percent of chapters were forced to suspend activities. The Grand Council granted those chapters that were forced to suspend their activities "war furlough" so that instead of treating the chapter as inactive, their service would be honored. War furlough enabled a chapter to seal its records and keep its materials in safekeeping for the duration of the war.

Petitions for war furlough required the signatures of all active members, the director of bands or other faculty member, an honorary member of the fraternity, as well as the signature of the college or university president. Only five chapters remained active during the war: the Alpha chapter at Oklahoma A&M College, Alpha Beta at Butler University, Alpha Iota at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Alpha Omicron at Texas Technological College, Alpha Pi at the University of Tulsa. With so many members serving overseas, including members of the Grand Council, the 1943 and 1945 national conventions were canceled; because of the number of men serving in the military, many band programs opened up to women during this time. At Texas Tech, a local sorority for women in the band was established as Tau Beta Sigma; the women of Tau Beta Sigma petitioned Kappa Kappa Psi to be chartered as an auxiliary chapter of the fraternity, supported by founder A. Frank Martin, serving as National Executive Secretary, Max Mitchell, Grand Second Vice President.

On January 25, 1944, Martin wrote to fellow founder, William Scroggs, "If we do not meet this new situation and give recognition to the girls who are coming into the bands or make it possible to give aid or assistance to the many universities and colleges that have bands composed of both boys and girls, we will be playing second fiddle within the next five years to some band fraternity that will grant membership to boys and girls and their chapters will open up in the smaller schools where ours have died." The fraternity was unable to decide whether or not to accept Tau Beta Sigma's petition due to the reduced number of members and the cancelation of the 1943 and 1945 national conventions. Tau Beta Sigma decided not to become an auxiliary chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi and chartered as a national organization on March 26, 1946, they were recognized and accepted as a sister organization of the fraternity at the first national convention following the war in 1947. After the war, Kappa Kappa Psi began an ambitious expansion program to reactivate old chapters and install new ones.

The fraternity had been divided into 11 districts since 1941. With the revitalization of the fraternity, these districts were reorganized and pamphlets were printed detailing the fraternity's purposes and history. District gove