Areva S. A. was a French multinational group specializing in nuclear power and renewable energy with headquartered in Paris, France. Before restructuring Areva was majority owned by the French state, through French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Banque publique d'investissement, Agence des participations de l'État. Moreover, Électricité de France of which the French government has a majority ownership stake, owned 2.24%. It was listed at Euronext; as a part of the restructuring program after insolvency, Areva sold out or discontinued its renewable energy businesses, sold its reactors business subsidiary Areva NP to EDF and nuclear nuclear propulsion and research reactors subsidiary Areva TA to Agence des participations de l'État, separated nuclear cycle business into a separate company New Areva. As a results, Areva S. A. became a wholly state-owned by the French Government, it stayed responsible only for the liabilities related to the Olkiluoto 3 project in Finland, as well for a holding of 40% stake in Orano.
Areva was created on 3 April 2001, by the merger of Framatome and Technicatome. It was based on the structure of CEA-Industrie. Anne Lauvergeon became its first CEO. Jean-Pierre Raffarin, the former Prime Minister of France, government announced the privatization of Areva in 2003, but it was postponed several times, the French government opting for the privatization of GDF and EDF. At the end of October 2005, French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin announced that he had suspended the privatization process. In 2003, Areva get a contract for the Olkiluoto 3 project, which foreseen construction of the third generation EPR-type pressurised water reactor. In 2004 a contracted fixed price was established as €3.2 billion. Contraction started in 2005. In 2004, Areva acquired Alstom's transmission and distribution activities which became Areva T&D, it was sold back to Alstom and Schneider Electric in June 2010. On 15 September 2005, Areva and Constellation Energy of Baltimore announced a joint venture called UniStar Nuclear to market the commercial EPR in the United States.
The joint venture became UniStar Nuclear Energy in 2007. In 2010, EDF acquired 100% of UniStar Nuclear Energy; however these plans failed to come to fruition, in February 2015 Areva suspended the EPR Design Certification Application Review process at the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In 2006, Areva created its renewable energies business group. Creusot Forge and Creusot Mécanique merged into the Areva group though there were quality concerns over Creusot Forge's work. In 2007, Areva purchased 51% of offshore wind turbine manufacturer Multibrid. In June 2010, Areva formed Areva Wind. In February 2010, Areva bought Ausra, renamed it Areva Solar. In 2007, Areva purchased UraMin, which became Areva Resources Southern Africa. In 2007, Areva started construction of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor. In addition, in November 2007 Areva agreed to a €8 billion deal with the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group to supply them with two EPRs for Taishan Nuclear Power Plant. Under the terms of the agreement, Areva had to help operate the plant, including the reprocessing of spent fuel.
In 2007, Areva and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries created a joint venture named Atmea. The company develops a 1,100 MWe Atmea-1 pressurised water reactor. In 2009, Siemens sold its remaining shares of Areva NP and Arvea NP became wholly owned by Areva. At the same year, Areva NP acquired 30% stake in the Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel company. On 6 May 2008 Areva announced that it would seek all necessary approval to build an enrichment facility in Bonneville County, Idaho; the project was cancelled. In 2008, Areva was awarded an operations contract to clean up the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site as part of the Nuclear Management Partners consortium, made up of URS, Amec and Areva. In June 2008, Areva reached an agreement with Kazatomprom to create a joint-venture Katco. On 4 February 2009, Areva signed a memorandum to supply two to six nuclear reactors to the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, for the Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project in the Indian state of Maharashtra. In March 2010, Areva indicated work was being done on a new type of burner reactor type capable of breaking down actinides created as a product of nuclear fission.
In 2011, Areva was listed at the Euronext stock exchange in Paris. In December 2011, Areva suspended building work at several sites in France and the United States, one day after forecasting a €1.6 billion loss. Areva halted "capacity extensions" at its La Hague Reprocessing Plant, in northern France, at its Melox factory in the southwest, at two sites attached to its Tricastin power plant in the south. Work has stopped on extensions to uranium mines in Bakouma in the Central African Republic, Trekkopje in Namibia, Ryst Kuil in South Africa, caused a potential delay in construction until a capital solution is secured for the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in the United States. Areva wrote off most of the $2.5 billion purchase cost of Canadian uranium mining company Uramin, purchased in 2007, after concluding that its uranium ore deposits were of negligible value. In September 2014 Standard & Poor's stated it might downgrade Areva's credit rating following weak first-half results, leading to Areva indicating it would cut capital spending and dispose of some assets.
In March 2015 Standard & Poor's further downgrade
A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system. The two-symbol system used is "0" and "1" from the binary number system; the binary code assigns a pattern of binary digits known as bits, to each character, etc. For example, a binary string of eight bits can represent any of 256 possible values and can, represent a wide variety of different items. In computing and telecommunications, binary codes are used for various methods of encoding data, such as character strings, into bit strings; those methods may use variable-width strings. In a fixed-width binary code, each letter, digit, or other character is represented by a bit string of the same length. There are many character sets and many character encodings for them. A bit string, interpreted as a binary number, can be translated into a decimal number. For example, the lower case a, if represented by the bit string 01100001, can be represented as the decimal number "97"; the modern binary number system, the basis for binary code, was invented by Gottfried Leibniz in 1689 and appears in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire.
The full title is translated into English as the "Explanation of the binary arithmetic", which uses only the characters 1 and 0, with some remarks on its usefulness, on the light it throws on the ancient Chinese figures of Fu Xi.". Leibniz's system uses 1, like the modern binary numeral system. Leibniz encountered the I Ching through French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet and noted with fascination how its hexagrams correspond to the binary numbers from 0 to 111111, concluded that this mapping was evidence of major Chinese accomplishments in the sort of philosophical mathematics he admired. Leibniz saw the hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own religious belief. Binary numerals were central to Leibniz's theology, he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Leibniz was trying to find a system that converts logic’s verbal statements into a pure mathematical one. After his ideas were ignored, he came across a classic Chinese text called I Ching or ‘Book of Changes’, which used a type of binary code.
The book had confirmed his theory that life could be simplified or reduced down to a series of straightforward propositions. He created a system consisting of rows of ones. During this time period, Leibniz had not yet found a use for this system. Binary systems predating Leibniz existed in the ancient world; the aforementioned I Ching that Leibniz encountered dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary system of the I Ching, a text for divination, is based on the duality of yang. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Asia; the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody in his Chandashutram. The residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. In the 11th century and philosopher Shao Yong developed a method for arranging the hexagrams which corresponds, albeit unintentionally, to the sequence 0 to 63, as represented in binary, with yin as 0, yang as 1 and the least significant bit on top.
The ordering is the lexicographical order on sextuples of elements chosen from a two-element set. In 1605 Francis Bacon discussed a system whereby letters of the alphabet could be reduced to sequences of binary digits, which could be encoded as scarcely visible variations in the font in any random text. For the general theory of binary encoding, he added that this method could be used with any objects at all: "provided those objects be capable of a twofold difference only. George Boole published a paper in 1847 called'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic' that describes an algebraic system of logic, now known as Boolean algebra. Boole's system was based on binary, a yes-no, on-off approach that consisted of the three most basic operations: AND, OR, NOT; this system was not put into use until a graduate student from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Claude Shannon, noticed that the Boolean algebra he learned was similar to an electric circuit. Shannon wrote his thesis in 1937. Shannon's thesis became a starting point for the use of the binary code in practical applications such as computers, electric circuits, more.
The bit string is not the only type of binary code. A binary system, in general, is any system that allows only two choices such as a switch in an electronic system or a simple true or false test. Braille is a type of binary code, used by the blind to read and write by touch, named for its creator, Louis Braille; this system consists of grids of six dots each, three per column, in which each dot has two states: raised or not raised. The different combinations of raised and flattened dots are capable of representing all letters and punctuation signs; the bagua are diagrams used in feng shui, Taoist cosmology and I Ching studies. The ba gua consists of 8 trigrams; the same word is used for the 64 guà. Each figure combines three lines that are either unbroken; the relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the primordial, "Earlier Heaven" or "Fuxi" bagua, the manifested, "Later Heaven,"or "King Wen" bagua. (See the King Wen seque
A scanner is a radio receiver that can automatically tune, or scan, two or more discrete frequencies, stopping when it finds a signal on one of them and continuing to scan other frequencies when the initial transmission ceases. The terms radio scanner or police scanner refer to a communications receiver, intended for monitoring VHF and UHF landmobile radio systems, as opposed to, for instance, a receiver used to monitor international shortwave transmissions. More than not, these scanners can tune to different types of modulation as well. Early scanners were slow and expensive. Today, modern microprocessors have enabled scanners to store thousands of channels and monitor hundreds of channels per second. Recent models can decode APCO-P25 digital transmissions. Both hand held and desktop models are available. Scanners are used to monitor police and emergency medical services. Radio scanning serves an important role in the fields of journalism and crime investigation, as well as a hobby for many people around the world.
Scanners developed from earlier tunable and fixed-frequency radios that received one frequency at a time. Non-broadcast radio systems, such as those used by public safety agencies, do not transmit continuously. With a radio fixed on a single frequency, much time could pass between transmissions, while other frequencies might be active. A scanning radio will sequentially monitor multiple programmed channels, or search between user defined frequency limits; the scanner will stop on an active frequency strong enough to break the radio's squelch setting and resume scanning other frequencies when that activity ceases. Scanners first became popular and available during the heyday of CB radio in the 1970s; the first scanners had between four and ten channels and required the purchase of a separate crystal for each frequency received. A US patent was issued to Peter W. Pflasterer on June 1, 1976. An early 1976 US entry was the Tennelec MCP-1, sold at the January 1976 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago.
Many recent models will allow scanning of the specific DCS or CTCSS code used on a specific frequency should it have multiple users. One memory bank can be assigned to air traffic control, another can be for local marine communications, yet another for local police frequencies; these can be switched off depending on the user's preference. Most scanners have a weather radio band, allowing the listener to tune into weather radio broadcasts from a NOAA transmitter; some scanners are equipped with Fire-Tone out. Fire tone out decodes Quick Call type tones and acts as a pager when the correct sequence of tones is detected. Modern scanners allow hundreds or thousands of frequencies to be entered via a keypad and stored in various'memory banks' and can scan at a rapid rate due to modern microprocessors. Active frequencies can be found by searching the internet and frequency reference books or can be discovered through a programmable scanner's search function. An external antenna for a desktop scanner or an extendable antenna for a hand held unit will provide greater performance than the original equipment antennas provided by manufacturers.
Scanners are used by hobbyists, auto race fans, aviation enthusiasts, off-duty emergency services personnel, reporters. Many scanner clubs exist to allow members to share information about frequencies and operations. Most have Internet presence, such as email lists or Web forums, it is legal to possess a scanner in Australia. It is legal to listen to any transmission, not classified as telecommunication. Owning a scanner, able to intercept the frequencies of law enforcement, is illegal and carries a jail sentence from one to five years. Art. 617 bis Civil Penal Code. It is legal to possess and operate a scanner in Japan; the radio law prohibits from disclosing or passing on information received to other persons and using the information to gain personal profit. It is illegal to listen to telephone communication and those transmitted using tapping devices. An amateur radio license is required. In New Zealand, according to the Radiocommunications Act 1989 it is legal to possess and use a scanner at any time to tune to any private voice radio provided that private information is not passed on or disclosed to any other person or party.
In the UK it is not illegal to use a scanner except in particular circumstances. For example, particular transmissions or frequencies should only be listened to with authorization an example of this being UK aviation frequencies, which in many other countries may be publicly listened to but in the UK are restricted; the legality of radio scanners in the United States varies between jurisdictions, although it is a federal crime to monitor cellular phone calls. Five US states restrict the use of a scanner in an automobile. Although scanners capable of following trunked radio systems and demodulating some digital radio systems such as APCO Project 25 are available, decryption-capable scanners would be a violation of United States law and laws of other countries. A law passed by the Congress of the United States, under the pressure from cellular telephone interests, prohibited scanners sold after a certain date from receiving frequencies allocated to the Cellular Radio Service; the law was amended to make it illegal to modify radios to receive those frequencies, to sell radios that could be modified to do so.
This law re
Consumer Electronics Show
CES is an annual trade show organized by the Consumer Technology Association. Held in January at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, United States, the event hosts presentations of new products and technologies in the consumer electronics industry; the first CES was held in June 1967 in New York City. It was a spinoff from the Chicago Music Show, until had served as the main event for exhibiting consumer electronics; the event had over 100 exhibitors. From 1978 to 1994, CES was held twice each year: once in January in Las Vegas known for Winter Consumer Electronics Show and once in June in Chicago, known as Summer Consumer Electronics Show; the winter show was held in Las Vegas in 1995 as planned. However, since the summer Chicago shows were beginning to lose popularity, the organizers decided to experiment by having the show travel around to different cities starting in 1995 with a planned show in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. However, the inaugural E3 gaming show was scheduled to be held on the West Coast in May and proved a source of increasing competition, causing the Philadelphia Summer CES show to be cancelled.
The 1996 Winter show was again held in Las Vegas in January, followed by a Summer show this time in Orlando, however only a fraction of the traditional exhibitors participated. Again, the 1997 Winter show in Las Vegas was successful; the next "Summer" show was scheduled to be held in conjunction with Spring COMDEX in Atlanta, however when only two dozen-or-so exhibitors signed on, the CES portion of the show was cancelled. In 1998, the show changed to a once-a-year format with Las Vegas as the location. In Las Vegas, the show is one of the largest, taking up to 18 days to run and break down; the first CES was held in New York City from June 24 to 28, 1967. The 200 exhibitors attracted 17,500 attendees to the Hilton and Americana hotels over those four days. On view: the latest pocket radios and TVs sporting integrated circuits. Philips unveiled the N1500 videocassette recorder; until that point, VCRs cost upward of $50,000 and were used by TV stations, but the Philips model with a built-in tuner was just $900.
Winter CES held January 7-9 at the Conrad Hilton Hotel. Per the show guide, it included video and calculator and watch areas, considered separate component conferences. Speakers included the FTC's Joan Bernstein on "The Warranty Law -- Its Status and Impact," and the FCC's Richard M. Smith on "Regulating Citizens' Band Radios." Summer CES held June 13-16 in Chicago, at McCormick Place. Winter CES held January in Las Vegas. Atari 400 and 800 computers introduced. Summer CES held June 3-6 at McCormick Place. Features included personal communications, retail advertising and store layout, video, auto sound/telephone sales, a large series of retail sales and sales management breakouts. Summer CES June 6 at Chicago saw the first appearance of Commodore 64 and General Consumer Electronics’ Vectrex. In a one-time experiment, the Summer CES 1993 was open to the general public. Major announcements during this edition were: Capcom unveils Mega Man X for the first Time in North America. Microsoft demonstrated a preview version of Windows XP Media Center Edition at CES 2002.
The Blu-ray Group held at the January 2004 CES the first US press conference to promote the Blu-ray Disc format. The 2005 CES was from January 6 to 9, 2005, in Las Vegas, Nevada, at the Las Vegas Convention Center; the event started off with a twist when the main keynote address by Microsoft chairman Bill Gates went wrong, as his demonstration of Windows Media Center resulted in a Blue Screen of Death, much to the amusement of the onlookers. Samsung showed off a 102-inch plasma television. Zimiti Ltd won the "Best of Innovators" award for Personal Electronics, it is the only British company to have won this award. The 2006 exhibition took place on January 5–8, 2006, at the Las Vegas Convention Center, the Sands Convention Center, the Alexis Park Hotel and the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. HDTV was a central theme in the Bill Gates keynote as well as many of the other manufacturer's speeches; the standards competition between HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc was conspicuous, with some of the first HD movie releases and first HD players being announced at the show.
Philips showed a rollable display prototype whose screen can retain an image for several months without electricity. Hillcrest Labs won the "Best Of Innovations" award in the video accessories category for software and hardware that allows a television to be controlled with natural gestures. Attendance was over 150,000 individuals in 1.67 million net square feet of space, making it the largest electronics event in the United States. In a break from recent tradition, the 2007 CES exhibition did not begin on a Thursday, nor span a weekend, it ran from Monday to Thursday on January 8–11, 2007. The venues changed with the high-performance audio and home theater expo moving from the Alexis Park venue to The Venetian; the remaining venues were the same as previous years: the Las Vegas Convention Center was the center of events, with the adjacent Las Vegas Hilton, the Sands Expo and Convention Center hosting satellite exhibitions. The location for the main keynotes was the other major change for 2007.
Held at the Las Vegas Hilton's Main Theater, they staged for t
RadioShack RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921. Since 2017, General Wireless Operations, Inc. has leased the name from Kensington Capital Holdings and operates as an e-commerce website, a network of 425 independently owned authorized dealer stores, as a supplier of parts for HobbyTown. All stores are located in the United States. At its peak in 1999, it had operated stores in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada. While outside of those listed areas, the company had sold licenses to other companies to be able to use the Radio Shack brand name in other parts of the world that had included parts of Asia, North Africa, South America, Central America, the Caribbean. On February 5, 2015, the company filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy law after 11 consecutive quarterly losses. By it was operating only in the United States and Mexico; the following month, General Wireless purchased the assets of the company, including the "RadioShack" brand, for US$160 million.
General Wireless filed for bankruptcy in March 2017, claiming its Sprint partnership was not as profitable as expected, announcing plans to close nearly all of their company-owned stores after Memorial Day Weekend of 2017, to shift its business to online. As a result of RadioShack Corporation filing for bankruptcy in 2015, Kensington Capital Holdings only owns the RadioShack brand within the United States while other companies own the brand in the rest of the world since 2015. Mexico-based Grupo Gigante, through it subsidiary RadioShack de México, owns the RadioShack brand within Mexico. El Salvador-based Unicomer Group owns the RadioShack brand within Central America, South America, the Caribbean. Egypt-based Delta RS for Trading owns the RadioShack brand within the Middle East. All four companies are separate and unrelated; the company was started as "Radio Shack" in 1921 by two brothers and Milton Deutschmann, who wanted to provide equipment for the then-nascent field of amateur, or ham radio.
The brothers opened a one-store retail and mail-order operation in the heart of downtown Boston at 46 Brattle Street. They chose the name "Radio Shack", the term for a small, wooden structure that housed a ship's radio equipment; the Deutschmanns thought the name was appropriate for a store that would supply the needs of radio officers aboard ships, as well as hams. The term was in use — and is to this day — by hams when referring to the location of their stations; the company issued its first catalog in 1939. In 1954, Radio Shack began selling its own private-label products under the brand name Realist, changing the brand name to Realistic after being sued by Stereo Realist. After expanding to nine stores plus an extensive mail-order business, the company fell on hard times in the 1960s. Radio Shack was bankrupt, but Charles D. Tandy saw the potential of Radio Shack and retail consumer electronics and bought the company for US$300,000; the Tandy Corporation, a leather goods corporation, was looking for other hobbyist-related businesses into which it could expand.
At the time of the Tandy Radio Shack & Leather 1962 acquisition, the Radio Shack chain was nearly bankrupt. Tandy's strategy was to appeal to hobbyists, it created small stores that were staffed by people who knew electronics, sold private brands. Tandy closed Radio Shack's unprofitable mail-order business, ended credit purchases and eliminated many top management positions, keeping the salespeople and advertisers; the number of items carried was cut from 40,000 to 2,500, as Tandy sought to "identify the 20% that represents 80% of the sales" and replace Radio Shack's handful of large stores with many "little holes in the wall", large numbers of rented locations which were easier to close and re-open elsewhere if one location didn't work out. Private-label brands from lower-cost manufacturers displaced name brands to raise Radio Shack profit margins. Customer data from the former RadioShack mail-order business determined where Tandy would locate new stores; as an incentive for them to work long hours and remain profitable, store managers were required to take an ownership stake in their stores.
In markets too small to support a company-owned Radio Shack store, the chain relied on independent dealers who carried the products as a sideline. Charles D. Tandy, who had guided the firm through a period of growth in the 1960s and 1970s, died of a heart attack at age 60 in November 1978. In 1982, the breakup of the Bell System encouraged subscribers to own their own telephones instead of renting them from local phone companies. Much of the Radio Shack line was manufactured in the company's own factories. By 1990/1991, Tandy was the world's biggest manufacturer of personal computers; the company manufactured everything from store fixtures to computer software to wire and cable, TV antennas and video tape. At one point, Radio Shack was the world's largest electronics chain. In June 1991, Tandy closed or restructured its 200 Radio Shack Computer Centers, acquired Computer City, attempted to shift its emphasis away from components and cables, toward mainstream consumer electronics. Tandy sold its computer manufacturing to AST Research in 1993, including the laptop computer Grid Systems Corporation which it had purchased in 1988.
It sold the Memorex consumer recordi
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi