A tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice types. It is one of the highest of the male voice types; the tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The low extreme for tenors is A♭2. At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to the second F above middle C; the tenor voice type is divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor and tenor buffo or spieltenor. The name "tenor" derives from the Latin word tenere, which means "to hold"; as Fallows, Forbes, Steane and Waldman note in the "Tenor" article at Grove Music Online: In polyphony between about 1250 and 1500, the structurally fundamental voice, vocal or instrumental. All other voices were calculated in relation to the tenor, which proceeded in longer note values and carried a borrowed Cantus firmus melody; until the late 16th century introduction of the contratenor singers, the tenor was the highest voice, assuming the role of providing a foundation.
It was in the 18th century that "tenor" came to signify the male voice that sang such parts. Thus, for earlier repertoire, a line marked'tenor' indicated the part's role, not the required voice type; the vocal range of the tenor is one of the highest of the male voice types. Within opera, the lowest note in the standard tenor repertoire is A♭2 in Rossini's performed La donna del lago in the role of Rodrigo di Dhu, written for Andrea Nozzari. Within more performed repertoire and Herod both call for an A2. A few tenor roles in the standard repertoire call for a "tenor C". Some, if not all, of the few top Cs in the standard operatic repertoire are either optional—such as in "Che gelida manina" in Puccini's La bohème—or interpolated by tradition, such as in "Di quella pira" from Verdi's Il trovatore). In the leggero repertoire, the highest note is F5, therefore few tenors have this role in their repertoire without transposition, or resorting to falsetto. In SATB four-part mixed chorus, the tenor is the second lowest vocal range, above the bass and below the alto and soprano.
Men's chorus denotes an ensemble of TTBB in which the first tenor is the highest voice. Whilst certain choral music does require the first tenors to ascend the full tenor range, the majority of choral music places the tenors in the range from B2 up to A4; the requirements of the tenor voice in choral music are tied to the style of music most performed by a given choir. Orchestra choruses require tenors with resonant voices, but chamber or a cappella choral music can sometimes rely on light baritones singing in falsetto. So, one nearly ubiquitous facet of choral singing is the shortage of tenor voices. Most men tend to have baritone voices and for this reason the majority of men tend to prefer singing in the bass section of a choir; some men sing tenor if they lack the full range, sometimes low altos sing the tenor part. In men's choruses that consist of four male vocal parts TTBB, tenors will sing both in chest tone and falsetto, extending the vocal range of the choir. Within the tenor voice type category are seven recognized subcategories: leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, Mozart tenor, tenor buffo or spieltenor.
There is considerable overlap of voice-type. Known as the tenore di grazia, the leggero tenor is the male equivalent of a lyric coloratura; this voice is light and capable of executing difficult passages of fioritura. The typical leggero tenor possesses a range spanning from C3 to E5, with a few being able to sing up to F5 or higher in full voice. In some cases, the chest register of the leggero tenor may extend below C3. Voices of this type are utilized in the operas of Rossini, Bellini and in music dating from the Baroque period. Leggero tenor roles in operas: The lyric tenor is a warm graceful voice with a bright, full timbre, strong but not heavy and can be heard over an orchestra. Lyric tenors have a range from the C one octave below middle C to the D one octave above middle C, their lower range may extend a few notes below the C3. There are many vocal shades to the lyric tenor group, repertoire should be selected according to the weight and abilities of the voice. Lyric tenor roles in operas: The spinto tenor has the brightness and height of a lyric tenor, but with a heavier vocal weight enabling the voice to be "pushed" to dramatic climaxes with less strain than the lighter-voice counterparts.
Spinto tenors have a darker timbre than a lyric tenor, without having a vocal color as dark as many dramatic tenors. The German equivalent of the Spinto fach is the Jugendlicher Heldentenor and encompasses many of the Dramatic tenor roles as well as some Wagner r
The 2007 Zell am See mid-air collision was an aviation accident that occurred on 5 March 2007, at 10:53 a.m. CET, in which eight people died when an Aérospatiale SA 332 Super Puma helicopter, operated by Helog, collided with a private Diamond DV20 Katana light aircraft near Zell am See, Austria. At the time of the accident, both aircraft were operating under visual flight rules; the weather was good, with 50 km visibility. The collision occurred at an altitude of about 5,090 feet 1 nautical mile north-west of Zell am See Airport, as the helicopter flew over the airport's traffic pattern travelling north-north-eastwards. At the same time, the light aircraft was climbing through the traffic pattern and was subsequently involved in a collision with the helicopter, destroying both aircraft; the Austrian Federal Department of Aviation's Air Accident Investigation Board launched an investigation into the accident, releasing the investigation report on 9 April 2008. The report stated that the main cause of the accident was the inability of both pilots to see the other aircraft in time to avoid the collision as a result of the reduced fields of vision allowed by the cockpit designs.
Another factor in the collision was the subtle limitations on visual perception relating in part to the proximity of the mountain slope not far below both aircraft, requiring both pilots' attention to maintain suitable terrain clearance. Inattentional blindness known as perceptual blindness, is the failure to notice a visible, but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object. Change blindness is a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. Inattentional Blindness, an article by Daniel J. Simons of UIUC Mack, Arien. Inattentional Blindness. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-26-263203-4. Simons, Daniel. "Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events". Perception. 28: 1059–1074. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.65.8130. Doi:10.1068/p2952. PMID 10694957. Archived from the original on 2015-07-17
Holger Stanislawski is a German football manager and former player. Stanislawski became interim manager of FC St. Pauli on 22 November 2006 after Andreas Bergmann was sacked by the club. André Trulsen became the new manager. Stanislawski returned as manager on 27 June 2008 after spending time in Cologne getting his coaching certificate. Stanislawski left at the end of the 2010–11 season in order to manage 1899 Hoffenheim. Stanislawski spent 18 years at FC St. Pauli. On 19 April 2011, 1899 Hoffenheim announced he would become their new manager when the new season started. On 9 February 2012, he left Hoffenheim after having his contract terminated by club advisory board. Stanislawski was hired as the new coach for 1. FC Köln on 14 May 2012. Stanislawski had his contract terminated with his final match on 19 May 2013 against FC Ingolstadt 04; as of 19 May 2013 Holger Stanislawski at fussballdaten.de