Tokugawa Ienari was the eleventh and longest-serving shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1787 to 1837. He was a great-grandson of the eighth shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune through his son Munetada, head of the Hitotsubashi branch of the family, his grandson Harusada. Ienari was given the Buddhist name Bunkyouin and buried at Kan ` ei-ji. In 1778, the four-year-old Hitotsubashi Toyochiyo, a minor figure in the Tokugawa clan hierarchy, was betrothed to Shimazu no Shige-hime or Tadako-hime, the four-year-old daughter of Shimazu Shigehide, the tozama daimyō of Satsuma Domain on the island of Kyūshū; the significance of this alliance was enhanced when, in 1781, the young Toyochiyo was adopted by the childless shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu. This meant that when Toyochiyo became Shōgun Ienari in 1786, Shigehide was set to become the father-in-law of the shōgun; the marriage was completed in 1789, after which Tadako became formally known as Midaidokoro Sadako, or "first wife" Sadako.
Protocol required that she be adopted into a court family, the Konoe family agreed to take her in but this was a mere formality. Ienari was fathered over 75 children. Many of Ienari's children were adopted into various daimyō houses throughout Japan, some played important roles in the history of the Bakumatsu and Boshin War; some of the more famous among them included: Hachisuka Narihiro, Tokushima Domain Hachisuka Mochiaki Hachisuka Masaaki Hachisuka Masauji Hachisuka Masako Hachisuka Toshiko Matsudaira Naritami, Tsuyama Domain Tokugawa Narikatsu, Shimizu Tokugawa family to Wakayama Domain Matsudaira Narisawa, Fukui Domain Tokugawa Nariyuki, Wakayama Domain Tokugawa Iemochi Tazawa Hidenari, Tazawa Domain, as Tazawa Hideyasu's adopted son Father: Tokugawa Harusada Mother: O-Tomi no Kata Adoptive Father: Tokugawa Ieharu Siblings: Kiihime married Hosokawa Naritatsu of Kumamoto Domain Matsudaira Yoshisue of Takasu Domain Kuroda Naritaka of Fukuoka Domain Tokugawa Harukuni Tokugawa Nariatsu Hisanosuke Honnosuke Tokugawa Narimasa Yunosuke Wife: Shimazu no Shigehime Kodaiin Concubine: Omiyo no Kata Senkoin O-ito no kata Oyae no Kata Kaishun'in Oraku no Kata Korin'in Otase no Kata Myosoin Ohana no Kata Seiren'in Ohachi no Kata Honrin'in Ohachi no Kata Chisoin Osode no Kata Honshoin Oyachi no Kata Seishoin Osato no Kata Chosoin Ocho no Kata Sokuseiin Oshiga no Kata Keimeiin Outa no Kata Hoschiin Oume no Kata Shinsei-in Oman no Kata Seishin'in Obi no Kata Hoshin'in Toshihime married Tokugawa Naritomo by Oman Koso-in by Oman Takechiyo by Oman Tokugawa Ieyoshi born by Korin'in Hidehime Tansei-in by Oume Ayahime Married Date Chikamune of Sendai Domain by Oman Tokugawa Keinosuke by Oume Tokugawa Atsunosuke born by Shigehime inherited Shimazu-Tokugawa family Sohime by Oshiga Tokugawa Toyasaburo by Oume Kakuhime by Osato Gohime by Oume Tazawa Hidenari Tokugawa Hidemaru Mine-hime born by Otase and married Tokugawa Narinobu of Owari Domain Tokugawa Nariyuki inherited Shimizu-Tokugawa family inherited Kii Domain and born to Otase Toruhime by Ocho Jiyohime by Oume Asahime married Date Chikamune married Matsudaira Naritsugu of Fukui Domain by Obi Jukihime by Otase Tokugawa Tokinosuke by Ocho Harehime by Otase Tokugawa Torachiyo by Ocho Kohime Kishihime Motohime married Matsudaira Katahiro of Aizu Domain by Oyachi Ayahime married Matsudaira Yoritane of Takamatsu Domain by Osode Tokugawa Tomomatsu by Ocho Yohime, married Maeda Nariyasu, born to Omiyo Nakahime, born to Omiyo Tokugawa Narinori inherited Shimizu family of Gosankyō and born by Oyae Tokugawa Naritaka born by Ocho Tsuyahime by Osode Morihime married Nabeshima Naomasa of Saga Domain by Oyae Ikeda Narihiro born by Oyae Kazuhime married Mori Narito of Chōshū Domain by Ocho Takahime by Osode Tokugawa Okugoro by Ohachi Kotohime by Ohana Tokugawa Kyugoro by Ocho Matsudaira Naritami born to Oyae Suehime married Asano Naritaka of Hiroshima Domain Yousein by Omiyo Kiyohime, married Sakai Tadanori of Himeji Domain Seiko-in, born to Oyae Matsudaira Nariyoshi adopted to Fukui-Matsudaira family by Ohana Tokugawa Shichiro by Osode Matsudaira Nariyoshi of Hamada Domain and born to Oyae Ei-hime married Tokugawa Narikura of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa Family by Ohana Tokugawa Nariharu born by Ohana Matsudaira Narisawa born by Honrin'in Tokugawa Narikatsu inherited Shimizu-Tokugawa family inherited Kii Domain and born by Osode Hachisuka Narihiro born by Oyae Tokugawa Hachiro by Osode Matsudaira Narisada born by Ohana Matsudaira Narikoto of Akashi Domain born by Ohana Taehime by Ohana and married Ikeda Narimichi of Tottori Domain Tokugawa Taminosuke, born by O-ito Fumihime Tokugawa Nariyuk
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Ōshio Heihachirō was a former yoriki and a Neo-Confucianist scholar of the Wang Yangming school in Osaka. Despite working for the government, he was against the Tokugawa regime, he is known for his role as leader in the rebellion against the Tokugawa shogunate. Ōshio was born as the eldest son in a samurai family in 1793. At the age of 15 he discovered he had a shameful ancestor who spent his days writing documents in the company of prisoners and municipals; this finding was the immediate cause of his decision to become a disciple of Neo-confucianism. At the age of 24 he read a book about the morals and precepts of chinese philosopher Lü Kun and he became inspired by Lü Kun's master: Wang Yangming. From that moment on, Ōshio began his lifelong study aimed at the teachings of his students. From the age of 13, Ōshio was employed as a Yoriki. Additionally, he was a police inspector in Ōsaka, he proved his integrity by to oppose corruption. After 14 years he discovered that the new court official was a corrupt man which led to his resignation in 1830.
Henceforth he began a pilgrimage to a place called Ōmi. When he returned to Ōsaka, he began writing and teaching about the Yōmeigaku and founded his own private school called the Senshindō. Ōshio spent the rest of his retirement teaching his students. On he published a book called Senshindō Sakki, a compilation of scripts used in his lectures. Ōshio built upon the teachings of confucianism and the interpretation that learning innate knowledge could lead to inner peace and the transcendence of life and death. His metaphysics was based on Wang Yangming's theory about Makoto. Taikyō is the source of everything in the universe. One must turn to the absolute spirit if one wants to overcome the false, conventional categories of distinction; the re-identification with this absolute spirit makes life easier. One should adopt an attitude of true nature, sincere acts and an indifference to the concept of death. Sincerity is known in Buddhism for acting according to distinct standards. Ōshio adopted the idea of sincerity from Chinese philosopher Wang Yangming and gave the idea a unique Japanese interpretation.
One must act as a brave samurai. This inner quality is known as sincerity, it reflects the course of action Ōshio took during the rebellion. The shogunate of the Edo-period and influenced by the Tokugawa family since the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, next to climate, the biggest cause of suffering. Both the peasants and lower sub-caste samurai were affected by their actions. Agriculture and food production experienced a crisis due to a failed harvest in 1833 and 1836 and the government demanded high tax rates from ordinary citizens; this crisis was rare in the ever-prosperous Kansai and unrest spread into the big cities. The population protested against the high-rise rice prices and as an act of resistance began to ushi kowashi; this led to the destruction of a large part of Ōsaka. The unrest alarmed the Tokugawa shogunate and Ōshio, who at that moment was employed as a Yoriki. In 1837 Ōshio sought help from the administrators and wealthy merchants of Ōsaka, but his efforts were fruitless. There was no movement at the time for the rights of ordinary citizens, so Ōshio ensured that the anger of the population was channeled to an organized uprising.
Despite the fact that he had a lot of influence and was a member of the elite of Japan, he helped them fight the government's corruption. The failed harvest, which caused famine and high rice prices, together with exacerbating fiscal problems and problems with foreign countries, is called the Tenpō Crisis; this was the direct reason for the uprising led by Ōshio Heihachirō. Ōshio and his allies were forced to start the rebellion earlier than planned because a traitor informant had informed the authorities. On February 19, 1837, Ōshio set fire to his house in Ōsaka as a signal for his followers to start the rebellion before the Bakufu troops had the chance to suppress them, he ordered the farmers to burn tax archives and ordered the poor to rob the warehouses of the rich and redistribute the rice among the hungry population. Although planned in detail, the uprising was a fiasco; the insurgents were poorly trained in the use of weapons and combat techniques, but the bakufu troops were inadequate.
The government soldiers were able to suppress the uprising and Ōshio, together with his son, fled to the mountains. He lit his shelter on fire before the bakufu troops could arrest him, he burned himself and his son alive. One can conclude. More than 3,000 houses burned and 30,000 to 40,000 koku rice were destroyed; the majority of his followers committed suicide and from the 29 insurgents who were captured, only five survived the interrogations. The survivors were salted. Despite all the hype, it is still unclear what Ōshio's political strategy was. One suspects that he only wanted to help the population for confucian reasons. A positive outcome was that it sparked the country's interest in international politics and that social and economic problems were addressed. Cullen, L. M. A history of Japan, 1582–1941. Cambridge: Cambridge. Jansen, M. B; the making of modern Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge. Fred G. Notehelfer and Kokugaku, article by Encyclopædia Britannica Vincent Shen, Wisdom in China and the West, online reference work "Chinese Philosophical studies" Lou
Tenpō was a Japanese era name after Bunsei and before Kōka. The period spanned from December 1830 through December 1844; the reigning emperor was Ninko-tennō. December 10, 1830: In the 13th year of Bunsei, the new era name of Tenpō was created to mark the disasters of a great fire in Edo and an earthquake at Kyoto; the new era name was created from an hortatory aphorism: "Respect and worship the Ways of heaven. Eternally keep the Mandate of Heaven"; the Tenpō era is described as the beginning of the end of bakufu government. Though the era accomplished much through its reforms, culturally speaking, the injury inflicted on the Tokugawa system of government during the Tenpō period was unparalleled. Public order and dissatisfaction with government was a main issue, but the bakufu was not at fault for the stir amongst the people. For example, the failure of crops in 1833, which soon became a lengthy disaster endured for over four years called the Great Tenpō famine, was caused due to poor weather conditions.
Because crops could not grow under these circumstances, prices began to skyrocket. These dire circumstances sparked many rebellions and riots across Japan over the course of the Tenpō years. Weary and desperate for someone to blame, the people rose up against the government, Ōshio Heihachirō, known for leading one of the largest rebellions, made a statement to implicate "the natural disasters as sure signs of Heavens's discontent with the government". Mizuno Tadakuni's reforms were meant to remedy these economic issues, but the reforms could not rescue the bakufu from its ultimate collapse; the shogunate rule during the Tenpō era was that of Tokugawa Ieyoshi, the 12th shōgun' of the bakufu government. His reign lasted from 1837 to 1853. During this time, many factors appeared to have seen to the decline of his health: namely, the great and devastating famine, the many rebellions rising up against the bakufu, the swift advance of foreign influence; the Great Tenpō famine of the 1830s was a devastating term in which the whole of Japan suffered decreasing temperatures and loss of crops, in turn, merchant prices began to spike.
Many starved to death during this grim time: "The death rate for a village in the northeast rose to thirty-seven per thousand and that for the city of Takayama was nearly forty-five". As crops continued to decline in the countryside, prices increased, a shortage of supplies left people competing to survive on meager funds; the rising expense of rice in particular, a staple food of the Japanese, was a firm blow to both the economy and the people, who starved because of it. Some resorted to "eating leaves and weeds, or straw raincoats"; the samurai suffered the effects of the famine, dealing with lower wages from the Japanese domain governments in anticipation for challenging fiscal issues to come. To further the dire conditions of the famine, illness began to spread, many who were starving could not resist forms of sickness such as pestilence, smallpox and influenza. Thousands died from hunger alone at the pinnacle of the crisis in 1836 to 1837. One of the rebellions sparked by the Great Tenpō famine was the Ōshio Heihachirō Rebellion.
The man for whom it was named led an attempted revolt in the 1830s, was granted the label of yonaoshi daimyojin, or "world saviour", for his attempts at moral restoration. Formally a police officer and scholar, Ōshio Heihachirō had requested help from Osaka city commissioners and otherwise wealthy merchants in 1837, only to be met with indifference. Shocked by his lack of success in the endeavour, Ōshio instigated an uprising to oppose those who had refused their aid. With 300 followers, including poor townsfolk and peasants from various villages, Ōshio set fire to one-fifth of Osaka city, but the rebellion was suppressed in short order, forcing Ōshio to a quick end in which he committed suicide. The scholar Ikuta Yorozo instigated a rebellion from similar roots as that of Ōshio Heihachirō. Ikuta had opened a school for the education of adolescents, consisting of peasants. Having suffered from the Great Tenpō Famine, Ikuta despaired the lack of aid local bureaucrats were willing to provide, in 1837, he assembled a band of peasants in retaliation.
Together they launched an attack on the bureaucrats, which met with devastating results and ended with Ikuta taking his own life. In 1838, a year following Ōshio Heihachirō's rebellion, after the fire that had scorched nearly a quarter of Osaka city, the physician Ogata Kōan founded an academy to teach medicine and Rangaku, or Dutch Studies; the school was called Tekijuku, where competition abounded. Ogata encouraged this competitive learning of the Dutch language to which he had dedicated much of his own study. However, the competition escalated and students bent to the rigorous pressure of the academy, acting recklessly to vent frustrations. For example: "slashing their swords against the central pillar of the main boarding hall, leaving gashes and nicks". Ogata did not deem it necessary to take disciplinary measures, thinking it harmless and recreational. Much of Ogata's life was devoted to Rangaku, displayed in the vision he had for Tekijuku. Ogata is known in history for his attentions to the medical, or internal therapeutic aspects of Rangaku, including emphasis on diseases and his aid in translation of foreign medicinal terms.
In 1837, upon rescuing several stranded Japanese sailors, an American merchant ship called the Morrison endeavoured to return them to their homeland, hoping this venture would earn them the right to trade
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation and increased mortality; every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe that suffered the most deaths from famine; the numbers dying from famine began to fall from the 2000s. Some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa has been the most affected continent in the world; as of 2017, the United Nations has warned some 20 million are at risk in South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen. The distribution of food has been affected by conflict. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. According to the United Nations humanitarian criteria if there are food shortages with large numbers of people lacking nutrition, a famine is declared only when certain measures of mortality and hunger are met.
The criteria are: At least 20% of households in an area face extreme food shortages with a limited ability to cope The prevalence of acute malnutrition in children exceeds 30% The death rate exceeds two people per 10,000 people per dayThe declaration of a famine carries no binding obligations on the UN or member states, but serves to focus global attention on the problem. The cyclical occurrence of famine has been a mainstay of societies engaged in subsistence agriculture since the dawn of agriculture itself; the frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as population growth, supply-side shifts caused by changing climatic conditions. Famine was first eliminated in Holland and England during the 17th century, due to the commercialization of agriculture and the implementation of improved techniques to increase crop yields. In the 16th and 17th century, the feudal system began to break down, more prosperous farmers began to enclose their own land and improve their yields to sell the surplus crops for a profit.
These capitalist landowners paid their labourers with money, thereby increasing the commercialization of rural society. In the emerging competitive labour market, better techniques for the improvement of labour productivity were valued and rewarded, it was in the farmer's interest to produce as much as possible on their land in order to sell it to areas that demanded that product. They produced guaranteed surpluses of their crop every year. Subsistence peasants were increasingly forced to commercialize their activities because of increasing taxes. Taxes that had to be paid to central governments in money forced the peasants to produce crops to sell. Sometimes they produced industrial crops, but they would find ways to increase their production in order to meet both their subsistence requirements as well as their tax obligations. Peasants used the new money to purchase manufactured goods; the agricultural and social developments encouraging increased food production were taking place throughout the 16th century, but took off in the early 17th century.
By the 1590s, these trends were sufficiently developed in the rich and commercialized province of Holland to allow its population to withstand a general outbreak of famine in Western Europe at that time. By that time, the Netherlands had one of the most commercialized agricultural systems in Europe, they grew many industrial crops such as flax and hops. Agriculture became specialized and efficient; the efficiency of Dutch agriculture allowed for much more rapid urbanization in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries than anywhere else in Europe. As a result and wealth increased, allowing the Netherlands to maintain a steady food supply. By 1650, English agriculture had become commercialized on a much wider scale; the last peacetime famine in England was in 1623–24. There were still periods of hunger, as in the Netherlands, but no more famines occurred. Common areas for pasture were enclosed for private use and large scale, efficient farms were consolidated. Other technical developments included the draining of marshes, more efficient field use patterns, the wider introduction of industrial crops.
These agricultural developments led to wider prosperity in increasing urbanization. By the end of the 17th century, English agriculture was the most productive in Europe. In both England and the Netherlands, the population stabilized between 1650 and 1750, the same time period in which the sweeping changes to agriculture occurred. Famine still occurred in other parts of Europe, however. In East Europe, famines occurred as late as the twentieth century; because of the severity of famine, it was a chief concern for other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, preventing famine, ensuring timely food supplies, was one of the chief concerns of many governments, although they were limited in their options due to limited levels of external trade and an infrastructure and bureaucracy too rudimentary to effect real relief. Most governments were concerned by famine because it could lead to revolt and other forms of social disruption. By the mid-19th century and the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it became possible for governments to alleviate the effects of famine through price controls, large scale importation of food products from foreign markets, rationing, regulation of production and charity.
The Great Famine of 1845 in Ireland was one of the first famines to feature such intervention, although the government respon
The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto