Tenrikyo Doyusha is the official publisher of Tenrikyo Church Headquarters, disseminating news and doctrinal materials related to Tenrikyo. Tenrikyo Doyusha was founded on August 4, 1891, following a direction from spiritual leader Iburi Izō requesting that "a periodical should be published under the auspices of the Tenrikyo Church." The periodical Michi no tomo was first published in December 28 of the same year. During the Meiji and Taisho periods, Michi no tomo was the only periodical issued by Tenrikyo Doyusha. On November 18, 1930, the first issue of Tenri Jiho was published by Tenri Central Library as a commemorative issue celebrating the opening of the library. For several months Tenri Jiho was a bulletin for the library, but on July 2, 1931, the responsibility of its publication was transferred to Tenrikyo Doyusha, where it has since taken a newspaper format
The oyasato-yakata complex is a collection of buildings in Tenri City, Japan, that form an incomplete square 872 metres on each side surrounding the Divine Residence, a structure sacred to the Japanese new religion Tenrikyo. The task of revitalizing the area around the Residence was informed by both religious prophecy and city planning, construction began in 1954 on a project that continues today; the oyasato-yakata is a massive organizational undertaking, understood by Tenrikyo adherents as a spiritual practice, creating a model city that reflects their belief in a Joyous Life. As such a practice it has involved the entire Tenrikyo community, from the volunteers who assist in construction to professors who plan the scope of future wings. Archaeologists have excavated ancient artifacts beneath its foundations; the complex includes Tenri University, Tenri Hospital, Tenri Seminary, the Besseki Lecture Hall, the Shuyoka and Tenri High School. 25 wings of the complex are complete. The complete structure calls for 68 wings.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the teachings of Tenrikyo's foundress Oyasama became popular throughout Japan. In the following decades, the most devoted followers coalesced around Oyasama's residence in rural Nara, which she had perceived as the birthplace of the world, or Jiba; the six villages surrounding the Jiba became filled with Tenrikyo ministers and evangelists, the area was urbanized. A popular international school and Tenri Central Library, built by followers, were attracting a variety of people to the area, it was around this time that Tenrikyo's Second Shinbashira Shōzen Nakayama conceived of creating a grand construction project as a testament to the loyalty of Oyasama's followers. In 1934, Nakayama commissioned the famed architect Yoshikazu Uchida to draw up a blueprint for the area. Uchida arranged ten buildings around Oyasama's Residence. A 50-meter boulevard would come out of the Residence on a north-south axis, along which six school buildings would be lined up. Classrooms and large auditoriums would be built at the end of this boulevard.
The international school and library were to be integrated into this plan. In January 1937, a middle school was built according to Uchida's plan, but as Japan mobilized for the Pacific War the plan had to be temporarily shelved. In 1952, after the war and Occupation, Tenrikyo Chief of Architecture Onzō Okumura was asked by Nakayama to design a large Besseki Lecture Hall to accommodate 10,000 people on the site of an old girls' school. However, considering the location of the school, several hundred meters to the west of the Residence. Okumura thought back to an old prophecy of Oyasama, as recorded in Tenrikyo's Anecdotes: One day Oyasama was gazing out of the south window of Her room in the Nakaminami-Gatehouse and looking at the vast expanse of bamboo thickets and rice fields, she said to the attendants: "Someday this neighborhood will be filled with houses. Houses will line the street for seven ri between Hase. One ri square will be filled with inns; the divine Residence will become eight cho square."
Since Tenrikyo was at the time a tiny cult centered on a house in a farming village, the growth of Tenri into a city full of inns paralleling this prophecy was seen as miraculous. In the Osashizu these prophecies are repeated, with the admonition that "it will not do to think of small things." The original idea was that the planned school buildings and classrooms would be the first part of an enormous central hub that would fill eight cho square. But Okumura began to consider the relationships between the Residence. If other buildings were placed directly next to the Residence, he reasoned, they would put the Residence in shadow during the sunrise, metaphorically crowd out the importance of the Jiba itself. Thus, with Nakayama's permission, he developed a new overarching plan for the school and other Tenrikyo buildings surrounding the Residence, his new plan, which arranged the buildings in a great square with open space on the inside, was dubbed the oyasato-yakata meaning the "grounds of Oyasama's Residence".
In 1954 the Japanese government merged the six villages surrounding the Residence into a single city, dubbed Tenri City. In the same year, the Tenrikyo central church announced the construction of the first wing of the yakata; the continuing development of the oyasato-yakata is overseen by a committee with a small office in Tenri Seminary. The yakata was designed along the lines of Edo period tenement housing, but modernized with reinforced walls, multiple stories, balconies for emergency access; the result is a fusion between Japanese architecture. Gaps were purposefully left in the ground floors for pedestrians, making the yakata a walkable space; the balconies and rooftops were designed to please the eye at the ground level. At the same time, the roofs are visible from Oyasama's gravesite north of the city; as construction began, Tenrikyo followers founded the Oyasato Construction Young Men's Association Hinokishin Corps, which volunteered time and labor to help build the yakata. The corps still continues their work today.
By 1956, one corner of the complex had been built at the cost of 23 billion yen, an enormous expense given the economic depression of the time. When part of the foundations for the complex were dug in 1977, an archaeological investigation uncovered prehistoric artifacts, as is typical during construction in Tenri. Although it was a sparsely inhabited village in Oyasama's time, Tenri City lies on top of a confirmed cultural center of prehistoric Japan. Information theorist No
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Sazuke refers to a prayer in which a Tenrikyo follower asks for divine intervention to heal an ailment. In the original Japanese, the term is preceded by an honorific prefix and is written in hiragana: おさづけ; the kanji most associated with the term is 授, meaning "give, grant. The follower who administers the Sazuke to the suffering person acts as a mediator through which Tenri-O-no-Mikoto grants the blessing of a cure. In her lifetime, Nakayama Miki bestowed the Sazuke to her most devout followers. After she passed in 1887, Izo Iburi bestowed the Sazuke in her place. Followers who distinguished themselves during Nakayama's physical lifetime would receive the Sazuke spontaneously as a divine direction. Increased demand for the Sazuke led to the creation of a standard lecture system known as the Besseki in 1889 or 1890; this system continues to this day. Nowadays, members who wish to receive the Sazuke are asked to attend nine lectures that cover Nakayama's life and teachings. Nakayama and Iburi bestowed several forms of the Sazuke during their lifetimes, but today only one form is practiced – the "Sazuke of Hand Dance," or the "Sazuke of Ashiki Harai."
The person administering this grant chants "Ashiki harai tasuke tamae, Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto" three times with accompanying hand movements and chants "Namu tasuke tamae Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto" three times while stroking the afflicted area. This process is repeated two more times. During Nakayama Miki's lifetime, the Sazuke was a generic term that referred to any grant that she bestowed on her followers; the first set of these grants included the Sazuke of the Fan, the Sazuke of the Gohei, the Sazuke of Fertilizer, bestowed from 1864 to 1867. Nakayama began to bestow the Sazuke of the Fan to about 50 to 60 people. With this Sazuke, followers had the ability to inquire the divine will and receive a response by reading the movements of a fan received from Nakayama; the follower would place the fan on his lap, ponder over the illness of a person, interpret whether or not there whether or not the person would recover based on which direction the fan moved. Nakayama banned the Sazuke of the Fan around 1868, one conjecture for the reason this Sazuke was banned was that "God's will was not conveyed as it should have been.
The Sazuke of the Fan is mentioned in Song Twelve of the Mikagura-uta. The Sazuke of the Gohei is similar to the Sazuke of the Fan, except that a gohei was used in place of a fan; the recipient of this Sazuke would make an offering of three gō 合 each of rice-bran and soil. When this mixture was placed in a field, Nakayama said that the mixture would be just as effective as one da 駄 of night soil; the Sazuke of Fertilizer is mentioned in the Ofudesaki, Song One of the Mikagura-uta, as well as Anecdotes of Oyasama. In December 1874, Nakayama Miki began to bestow grants that allowed followers to petition the divine to heal physical ailments. According to Nakayama's hagiography, she bestowed different forms of the Sazuke to followers on December 26: "First, I bestow the Grant of Breath to Nakata. Second, the Grant of Boiled Rice to Matsuo. Third, the Grant of Hand Dance to Tsuji, to be performed with an innocent heart like that of a three-year-old child. Fourth, the Grant of the Kanrodai-Teodori to Masui, to be performed in one accord, all united."
The person administering this grant would breathe on the afflicted area of an ill person. Or breathe on sheets of rice paper called o-iki no kami; this grant is mentioned in the Ofudesaki with the Sazuke of Hand Dance. The person administering this grant would place three gō of clean rice in a bag, immerse it three times in boiling water, have the afflicted person eat three grains from it. Another name for this grant was the Sazuke of Stroking Hands; this grant was similar to the Sazuke of the Hand Dance, except that sections two and three of the Mikagura-uta were performed instead of section one. Out of all the grants by Nakayama Miki and Izo Iburi, this one was the least bestowed; the person administering this grant would sip water three times from a cup and have its recipient drink the rest. This grant was similar to the Sazuke of Water except white sugar was added to the water
Sheng Xuanhuai was a Qing dynasty Chinese tycoon and educator. He founded several major banks and universities and served as Minister of Transportation of the Qing Empire, he was known as Sheng Gongbao. Sheng was born into a family of officials, was the eldest of six children. Sheng's father was a close friend of General Li Hongzhang. In 1870, Li appreciated Sheng's talent, employed him as his aide and soon became his chief economic deputy. Sheng recommended that Li build more merchant ships in order to fund the military ships that the Qing government needed. Sheng's suggestion was accepted and from on Sheng became well known for his career in ship building. Taking active part in the Self-Strengthening Movement, He advocated using Western technology in saving the country from destitution, his influence was felt in the southern part of China in Shanghai. By 1893, Sheng controlled China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company, established the Imperial Telegraphy Administration and created first successful cotton mill in China.
In 1896, he took over the Hanyang ironworks and related mines, along with control of the newly created imperial railway administration. In 1895, he founded the first institution of modern higher education in China. In 1896, he founded the forerunner of Jiaotong University, divided into Shanghai Jiaotong University and Xi'an Jiaotong University, he created eleven "first", including the first modern bank, first telegraphy company, the first iron and steel joint enterprise.... In 1897, official Sheng founded the Imperial Bank of China, the first Chinese owned commercial bank modeled on the Western banking system; the bank was headquartered in Shanghai and had the authority to issue notes from the Qing government. Sheng Xuanhuai was a founder and the first president of the Red Cross Society of China, is considered one of the key officials behind the fledgling movement alongside Shen Dunhe. After the Boxer Uprising, in 1900 when Eight Nation Alliance entered Peking and Ronglu initiated the Mutual Protection of Southeast China, resisting Empress Dowager Cixi's Imperial Decree of declaration of war against foreign powers.
Li Hongzhang, Yuan Shikai and other viceroys rejected Dowager's call for staging military actions against the foreign powers. In 1902, Sheng and British diplomat James Mackay negotiated and signed the Sino-British "Mackay Treaty," which anticipated the abolition of extraterritoriality in China. In 1911, Sheng was appointed head of the Board of Posts and Communications, a high rank in the Imperial cabinet during the Qing Dynasty, until the dynasty fell in 1911. Sheng died at the age of 72 in Shanghai. Sheng's private residence in Beijing while he was serving as the postal minister, has since been turned into a hotel for the public. In Shanghai, Sheng lived a mansion constructed in 1900 at No. 1517 Huaihuai Zhong Lu. Tongmenghui revolutionaries Xia Chao and Gu Naibin planned to burn down the building in 1911; the manor houses the Japanese Consulate. Sheng Aiyi Feuerwerker, Albert. China's Early Industrialization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1958. Shêng, Hu; the 1911 Revolution: A Retrospective After 70 Years.
New World Press
History of Tenrikyo
The History of Tenrikyo concerns the social and institutional development of Tenrikyo, from the day the teachings were founded by Miki Nakayama in October 26, 1838, to the present day. Since the early 1860s, Miki Nakayama had asked her followers to form confraternities. One of the earliest examples was the Shinmei confraternity, formed sometime in April 1878. From the 1870s, Miki Nakayama and her followers were being persecuted by local government authorities and from members of established religions for expressing their beliefs and performing the Service. To put an end to the persecution, various followers sought for recognition from different religious and state authorities though this was against the wishes of Nakayama. Tenrikyo could not apply as a independent religion because Japanese law during the Meiji period did not grant civil authorization to churches outside of the established traditions, which at the time were Shinto and Christianity. In 1880, Nakayama's eldest son, Shuji traveled to the Jifuku Temple at the foot of Mount Kongō, a Buddhist temple belonging to the Shingon sect.
The Jifuku Temple agreed to Shuji's request to establish a church, on September 22, 1880, the "Tenrin-O-Kosha" church was formally inaugurated with a Buddhist fire rite and sermons by Buddhist priests. The Meisei confraternity spread Nakayama's teachings as moral philosophy and thus escaped persecution. Following this example, a petition was submitted on May 9, 1884 to establish an organization named, "Tenrin-O-Sha: Institute for the Study of Practical Ethics." Thought the office denied the request because of the lack authority to grant the request, an office called "Tenrin-O-Sha" was opened in Osaka. In March and April 1885, the followers approached the Shinto Headquarters for the appointment of Shinnosuke Nakayama and nine others as religious instructors. On May 22, Shinnosuke was appointed as a religious instructor, the next day, May 23, the other religious instructors were appointed, permission was granted for the establishment of a sixth-degree church to be directly supervised by the Shinto Headquarters.
On June 2, a letter accepting these appointments was sent to the Shinto authorities. The first attempt to obtain civil authorization happened on April 29, 1885, when the followers filed a petition to the governor of Osaka for permission to form the Tenrikyo Church. Attached with the petition were four texts – The Twelve Songs, Ofudesaki Part IV, Ofudesaki Part X, the Story of Creation; the request was denied. On July 3, the followers filed a second petition to the governor of Osaka, which read, "Request to Establish the Shinto Tenrikyo Church." Again, the request was denied. On January 26, 1887 by the lunar calendar, the foundress of Tenrikyo, Nakayama Miki, died at around two o'clock in the afternoon, after a performance of the Service. On February 25, 1887, a funeral for Nakayama Miki was conducted, with over 10,000 people in attendance, she was buried in the graveyard at Zenpuku-ji, along with other members of the Nakayama family. However, in 1892, Tenrikyo followers, led by Nakayama Shinnosuke, constructed a new cemetery on Mount Toyoda, the ceremony for her reburial was held on December 13.
The reburial ceremony was attended by over a hundred thousand people. A petition for the legal recognition of a church was sent to the government office of Tokyo prefecture. On April 10, 1888, the governor of Tokyo approved this petition, establishing Tenrikyo Church Headquarters as a "sixth class" church belonging to the Shinto Main Bureau; the legal authorization removed the threat of suppression and allowed followers to seek permission to establish branch churches and to gain official recognition for missionary work. In 1888, Koriyama and Yamana were established as the first two branch churches under Tenrikyo Church Headquarters. On April 6, 1891, the Shinto Main Bureau changed Tenrikyo's designation from a "sixth class" church to a "first class" church; the membership rose in the first decade of the Headquarters' existence. In 1892, the number of Tenrikyo followers had reached over one million, a thirty-fold increase in membership in five years. By December 1896, Tenrikyo had 3,137,113 members belonging to 1,078 churches, there were 19,061 ministers.
This growth invited negative reactions from Buddhist institutions, which were concerned about losing adherents, from newspapers such as Chuo Shinbun, Yorozu Chouho, Ni-Roku Shinbun, who labeled the religion as "anti-social." On April 6, 1896, the Home Ministry issued "Directive No. 12," which ordered strict and secretive surveillance over Tenrikyo Church Headquarters under the pretense of maintaining and strengthening the state polity of Japan. Issues raised by authorities were the congregation of both men and women together, the obstruction of medical treatment, the alleged policy of enforced donations; the Tenrikyo leaders complied to the state demands in several ways. They changed several aspects of their prayer ritual, known to adherents as the Service; the name of the Tenrikyo deity Tenri-O-no-Mikoto was changed to "Tenri-no-Okami." Tenrikyo Church Headquarters' conformity with the state demands resulted in a dual structure of the Tenrikyo faith, where on the surface, Tenrikyo complied with the state demands, while adherents disregarded those changes and maintained the teachings and rites as taught by Miki Nakayama.
In 1899 the Shinto Main Bureau advised the Tenrikyo Church Headquarters officials about the possibility of official recognition as an independent religion (independent meaning to be classified directly under the Meiji
Nakayama Miki was a nineteenth-century Japanese farmer and religious leader. She is the primary figure of the Japanese new religion Tenrikyo. Followers, who refer to her as Oyasama, believe that she was settled as the Shrine of Tsukihi from the moment she experienced a divine revelation in 1838 until her death in 1887. Upon her divine revelation, she gave away most of her family's possessions and dismantled the family's house, thereby entering a state of poverty, she began to attract followers, who believed that she was a living goddess who could heal people and bless expectant mothers with safe childbirth. To leave a record of her teachings, she composed the Ofudesaki and taught the lyrics and music of the Service, which have become Tenrikyo's scripture and liturgy respectively, she identified what she claimed to be the place where God created human beings and instructed her followers to mark the place with a pillar and perform the liturgy around it, which she believed would advance humankind toward the salvific state of the Joyous Life.
In the last several years of her life and her followers were arrested and detained a number of times by the Japanese authorities for forming a religious group without official authorization. A year after her death, Tenrikyo Church Headquarters received official authorization to be a church under the Shinto Main Bureau. Tenrikyo doctrine maintains that Nakayama Miki was the fulfillment of God's promise to humankind at creation, that after a certain number of years had elapsed, God would be revealed through the soul of the mother of humankind at the place of creation and inform humankind of its origins and means of salvation. Doctrine maintains that as the Shrine of God, Nakayama's words and actions were in complete accordance with the divine will and that upon her death, her soul withdrew from physical existence and became everliving. Nakayama Miki, née Maegawa, was born on 18 April 1798 around five o'clock in the morning, she was born in Sanmaiden Village, Yamabe County, Yamato Province, or present day Tenri, Nara, to a family of the farming class.
Her father Maegawa Hanshichi was a member of the Tōdō clan and held the title of musokunin, a samurai-like status which entitled him to have a surname and carry a sword, though without stipend. He was an ojoya, a head of a group of local villages, her mother, was from the Nagao family of the same village and was said to have excelled in needlework. In the first decade of her life, Miki learned how to write with a brush from her father and how to sew and spin cotton from her mother. From the ages of nine to eleven, she attended a private school for children at a nearby village, where she was educated in reading and writing. At home, she learned needlework from her mother and became proficient enough to make handicraft items and to cut garments out of wide bolts of cotton; the Maegawas were pious adherents of the Pure Land school of Buddhism and belonged to a local temple. In her childhood, Miki became familiar enough with Buddhist prayer so that by the age of twelve or thirteen, she was able to recite from memory various sutras as well the hymns from the Jōdo Wasan.
At that time, she expressed an interest in becoming a nun. However, Miki's parents, on the suggestion of Miki's aunt, asked her to marry Nakayama Zenbei, the son of Miki's aunt. At first, Miki hesitated to agree to the request out of her desire to become a nun, but she consented, on the condition that when married she would be allowed to continue her Buddhist prayer. On 15 September 1810, Miki took part in her bridal procession to the residence of the Nakayama family in the village of Shoyashiki. Dressed in a long-sleeved kimono, she was carried in a palanquin and was accompanied by attendants carrying a trousseau of five loads – two chests of drawers, two long chests, a pair of boxes; the Nakayama family, like the Maegawa family, held some prestige in the local area. The custom in Shoyashiki was for the male head of the Nakayama household to inherit the post of toshiyori, in Miki's lifetime, her father-in-law Zenyemon, her husband Zenbei served as toshiyori. In addition, the Nakayama family was a major landholder in the village.
In 1813, Miki's in-laws entrusted her with the management of all household affairs. The Life of Oyasama, Tenrikyo's biography of Miki, portrays her as a productive worker. According to its account she did every type of farm work except for the men's tasks of digging ditches and plowing rice fields, pulled more than half an acre of cotton a day, wove fabrics twice as fast as the average woman. In the spring of 1816, she completed a training course known as the Fivefold Transmission at Zenpuku Temple, her parish temple in Magata Village. During the Fivefold Transmission, she attended lectures on the writings of Hōnen, underwent tonsure, made a vow to repeat the nenbutsu for the remainder of her life; those who enrolled in the Fivefold Transmission were initiated into the mysteries of the Pure Land sect and were considered to have reached the highest level of faith. In June 1820, Nakayama Zenyemon, Miki's father-in-law, died at the age of sixty-two. In July 1821, Miki's first child named Zenyemon was born.
Her first daughter Omasa and second daughter Oyasu were born in April 1825 and September 1827 respectively. In April 1828, Miki's mother-in-law Kinu, died; the anecdotes from The Life of Oyasama depict Miki as a forgiving mother. When a man was caught stealing a bag of rice from the Nakayama family's storehouse, Miki allowed him to keep the rice instead of turning him in to the authorities; when the mothers