1.
Physics
–
Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory. In the book, he was also the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
2.
Truss
–
In engineering, a truss is a structure that consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object. A two-force member is a component where force is applied to only two points. In this typical context, external forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act only at the nodes and result in forces in the members that are either tensile or compressive. For straight members, moments are explicitly excluded because, and only because, all the joints in a truss are treated as revolutes, as is necessary for the links to be two-force members. A planar truss is one all members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane, while a space truss has members and nodes that extend into three dimensions. The top beams in a truss are called top chords and are typically in compression, the beams are called bottom chords. The interior beams are called webs, and the areas inside the webs are called panels, Truss derives from the Old French word trousse, from around 1200, which means collection of things bound together. The term truss has often used to describe any assembly of members such as a cruck frame or a couple of rafters. One engineering definition is, A truss is a single plane framework of individual structural member connected at their ends of forms a series of triangle to span a large distance, a truss consists of typically straight members connected at joints, traditionally termed panel points. Trusses are typically composed of triangles because of the stability of that shape. A triangle is the simplest geometric figure that will not change shape when the lengths of the sides are fixed, in comparison, both the angles and the lengths of a four-sided figure must be fixed for it to retain its shape. The joint at which a truss is designed to be supported is commonly referred to as the Munter Point, the simplest form of a truss is one single triangle. This type of truss is seen in a roof consisting of rafters and a ceiling joist. Because of the stability of this shape and the methods of used to calculate the forces within it. The traditional diamond-shape bicycle frame, which utilizes two conjoined triangles, is an example of a simple truss, a planar truss lies in a single plane. Planar trusses are used in parallel to form roofs and bridges. The depth of a truss, or the height between the upper and lower chords, is what makes it an efficient structural form, a solid girder or beam of equal strength would have substantial weight and material cost as compared to a truss. For a given span, a deeper truss will require less material in the chords, an optimum depth of the truss will maximize the efficiency
3.
Compression (physics)
–
It is contrasted with tension or traction, the application of balanced outward forces, and with shearing forces, directed so as to displace layers of the material parallel to each other. The compressive strength of materials and structures is an important engineering consideration, in uniaxial compression the forces are directed along one direction only, so that they act towards decreasing the objects length along that direction. If the stress vector itself is opposite to x, the material is said to be under compression or pure compressive stress along x. In a solid, the amount of compression depends on the direction x. If the stress vector is purely compressive and has the same magnitude for all directions and this is the only type of static compression that liquids and gases can bear. In a mechanical longitudinal wave, or compression wave, the medium is displaced in the waves direction, when put under compression, every material will suffer some deformation, even if imperceptible, that causes the average relative positions of its atoms and molecules to change. The deformation may be permanent, or may be reversed when the compression forces disappear, in the latter case, the deformation gives rise to reaction forces that oppose the compression forces, and may eventually balance them. Liquids and gases cannot bear steady uniaxial or biaxial compression, they will deform promptly and permanently, however they can bear isotropic compression, and may be compressed in other ways momentarily, for instance in a sound wave. The deformation may not be uniform and may not be aligned with the compression forces, what happens in the directions where there is no compression depends on the material. Most materials will expand in those directions, but some special materials will remain unchanged or even contract, by inducing compression, mechanical properties such as compressive strength or modulus of elasticity, can be measured. Compression machines range from small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity. Gases are often stored and shipped in highly compressed form, to save space, slightly compressed air or other gases are also used to fill balloons, rubber boats, and other inflatable structures. Compressed liquids are used in equipment and in fracking. In internal combustion engines the explosive mixture gets compressed before it is ignited, in the Otto cycle, for instance, the second stroke of the piston effects the compression of the charge which has been drawn into the cylinder by the first forward stroke. This compression, moreover, obviates the shock which would otherwise be caused by the admission of the steam for the return stroke. Buckling Container compression test Compression member Compressive strength Longitudinal wave P-wave Rarefaction Strength of materials
4.
Potential energy
–
In physics, potential energy is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors. The unit for energy in the International System of Units is the joule, the term potential energy was introduced by the 19th century Scottish engineer and physicist William Rankine, although it has links to Greek philosopher Aristotles concept of potentiality. Potential energy is associated with forces that act on a body in a way that the work done by these forces on the body depends only on the initial and final positions of the body in space. These forces, that are called potential forces, can be represented at every point in space by vectors expressed as gradients of a scalar function called potential. Potential energy is the energy of an object. It is the energy by virtue of a position relative to other objects. Potential energy is associated with restoring forces such as a spring or the force of gravity. The action of stretching the spring or lifting the mass is performed by a force that works against the force field of the potential. This work is stored in the field, which is said to be stored as potential energy. If the external force is removed the field acts on the body to perform the work as it moves the body back to the initial position. Suppose a ball which mass is m, and it is in h position in height, if the acceleration of free fall is g, the weight of the ball is mg. There are various types of energy, each associated with a particular type of force. Chemical potential energy, such as the energy stored in fossil fuels, is the work of the Coulomb force during rearrangement of mutual positions of electrons and nuclei in atoms and molecules. Thermal energy usually has two components, the energy of random motions of particles and the potential energy of their mutual positions. Forces derivable from a potential are also called conservative forces, the work done by a conservative force is W = − Δ U where Δ U is the change in the potential energy associated with the force. The negative sign provides the convention that work done against a force field increases potential energy, common notations for potential energy are U, V, also Ep. Potential energy is closely linked with forces, in this case, the force can be defined as the negative of the vector gradient of the potential field. If the work for a force is independent of the path, then the work done by the force is evaluated at the start
5.
Force
–
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity, force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity and it is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newtons second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the adjacent parts, such internal mechanical stresses cause no accelation of that body as the forces balance one another. Pressure, the distribution of small forces applied over an area of a body, is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate. Stress usually causes deformation of materials, or flow in fluids. In part this was due to an understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction. A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion, most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were eventually corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton. With his mathematical insight, Sir Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion that were not improved-on for nearly three hundred years, the Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. Only four main interactions are known, in order of decreasing strength, they are, strong, electromagnetic, weak, high-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction. Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines. The mechanical advantage given by a machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work. Analysis of the characteristics of forces ultimately culminated in the work of Archimedes who was famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids. Aristotle provided a discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of Aristotelian cosmology. In Aristotles view, the sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different natural places therein. Aristotle believed that objects on Earth, those composed mostly of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground. He distinguished between the tendency of objects to find their natural place, which led to natural motion, and unnatural or forced motion
6.
Newton (unit)
–
The newton is the International System of Units derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, see below for the conversion factors. One newton is the force needed to one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in direction of the applied force. In 1948, the 9th CGPM resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force, the MKS system then became the blueprint for todays SI system of units. The newton thus became the unit of force in le Système International dUnités. This SI unit is named after Isaac Newton, as with every International System of Units unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case. Note that degree Celsius conforms to this rule because the d is lowercase. — Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2. Newtons second law of motion states that F = ma, where F is the applied, m is the mass of the object receiving the force. The newton is therefore, where the symbols are used for the units, N for newton, kg for kilogram, m for metre. In dimensional analysis, F = M L T2 where F is force, M is mass, L is length, at average gravity on earth, a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An average-sized apple exerts about one newton of force, which we measure as the apples weight, for example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN. One kilonewton,1 kN, is 102.0 kgf,1 kN =102 kg ×9.81 m/s2 So for example, a platform rated at 321 kilonewtons will safely support a 32,100 kilograms load. Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for, the values of fasteners, Earth anchors. Working loads in tension and in shear, thrust of rocket engines and launch vehicles clamping forces of the various moulds in injection moulding machines used to manufacture plastic parts
7.
Acceleration
–
Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time. An objects acceleration is the net result of any and all forces acting on the object, the SI unit for acceleration is metre per second squared. Accelerations are vector quantities and add according to the parallelogram law, as a vector, the calculated net force is equal to the product of the objects mass and its acceleration. For example, when a car starts from a standstill and travels in a line at increasing speeds. If the car turns, there is an acceleration toward the new direction, in this example, we can call the forward acceleration of the car a linear acceleration, which passengers in the car might experience as a force pushing them back into their seats. When changing direction, we call this non-linear acceleration, which passengers might experience as a sideways force. If the speed of the car decreases, this is an acceleration in the direction from the direction of the vehicle. Passengers may experience deceleration as a force lifting them forwards, mathematically, there is no separate formula for deceleration, both are changes in velocity. Each of these accelerations might be felt by passengers until their velocity matches that of the car, an objects average acceleration over a period of time is its change in velocity divided by the duration of the period. Mathematically, a ¯ = Δ v Δ t, instantaneous acceleration, meanwhile, is the limit of the average acceleration over an infinitesimal interval of time. The SI unit of acceleration is the metre per second squared, or metre per second per second, as the velocity in metres per second changes by the acceleration value, every second. An object moving in a circular motion—such as a satellite orbiting the Earth—is accelerating due to the change of direction of motion, in this case it is said to be undergoing centripetal acceleration. Proper acceleration, the acceleration of a relative to a free-fall condition, is measured by an instrument called an accelerometer. As speeds approach the speed of light, relativistic effects become increasingly large and these components are called the tangential acceleration and the normal or radial acceleration. Geometrical analysis of space curves, which explains tangent, normal and binormal, is described by the Frenet–Serret formulas. Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in which the velocity of an object changes by an amount in every equal time period. A frequently cited example of uniform acceleration is that of an object in free fall in a gravitational field. The acceleration of a body in the absence of resistances to motion is dependent only on the gravitational field strength g
8.
Net force
–
In physics, net force is the overall force acting on an object. In order to calculate the net force, the body is isolated and it is always possible to determine the torque associated with a point of application of a net force so that it maintains the movement of the object under the original system of forces. With its associated torque, the net force becomes the resultant force and has the effect on the rotational motion of the object as all actual forces taken together. It is possible for a system of forces to define a torque-free resultant force, in this case, the net force when applied at the proper line of action has the same effect on the body as all of the forces at their points of application. It is not always possible to find a torque-free resultant force, the sum of forces acting on a particle is called the total force or the net force. The net force is a force that replaces the effect of the original forces on the particles motion. It gives the particle the same acceleration as all actual forces together as described by the Newtons second law of motion. Force is a quantity, which means that it has a magnitude and a direction. Graphically, a force is represented as line segment from its point of application A to a point B which defines its direction, the length of the segment AB represents the magnitude of the force. Vector calculus was developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the parallelogram rule used for the addition of forces, however, dates from antiquity and is noted explicitly by Galileo and Newton. The diagram shows the addition of the forces F →1 and F →2, the sum F → of the two forces is drawn as the diagonal of a parallelogram defined by the two forces. Forces applied to a body can have different points of application. Forces are bound vectors and can be added if they are applied at the same point. The net force on a body applied at a point with the appropriate torque is known as the resultant force. A force is known as a vector which means it has a direction and magnitude. A convenient way to define a force is by a segment from a point A to a point B. If we denote the coordinates of points as A= and B=. The length of the vector B-A defines the magnitude of F and is given by | F | =2 +2 +2, the sum of two forces F1 and F2 applied at A can be computed from the sum of the segments that define them