Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.
New York City Subway
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, the metro system with the most stations, it offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the MTA operates the Staten Island Railway and MTA Bus, with free transfers to and from the subway. The PATH in Manhattan and New Jersey and the AirTrain JFK in Queens both accept the subway's MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. However, the Roosevelt Island Tramway does allow free transfers to the MTA and bus systems though it is not operated by the MTA.
The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the eighth busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend. On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. Of the system's 27 services, 24 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is above ground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks.
The outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments. Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under Broadway.) The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line; the fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line; the oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. By the time the first subway opened in 1904, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932; this required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.
In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority, a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus
59th Street (Manhattan)
59th Street is a crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from York Avenue/Sutton Place to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity between Ninth Avenue/Columbus Avenue and Eighth Avenue/Central Park West where the Time Warner Center is located. At Second Avenue, 59th Street branches off onto the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, referred to as the 59th Street Bridge though 59th Street continues east to York Avenue/Sutton Place; the portion of the street forming the southern boundary of Central Park from Columbus Circle at Eighth Avenue/Central Park West on the west to Grand Army Plaza at Fifth Avenue on the east is known as Central Park South. Entry into Central Park can be made at the Scholars' Gate at Fifth Avenue, the Artists' Gate at Sixth Avenue, the Artisans' Gate at Seventh Avenue, the Merchants' Gate at Columbus Circle. Central Park South contains four famous upscale hotels: the Plaza Hotel, the Ritz-Carlton, the flagship of the Ritz-Carlton chain, the Park Lane, JW Marriott Essex House, a notable residential building, the Gainsborough Studios.
While Central Park South is bi-directional, the section of 59th Street between Ninth and Eleventh Avenue/West End Avenue is one-way westbound, the section between Fifth Avenue and Second Avenue is one-way eastbound. 59th Street forms the border between Uptown Manhattan. North of 59th Street, the Manhattan neighborhoods of the Upper West Side and Upper East Side continue on either side of Central Park. On the West Side, Manhattan's numbered avenues are renamed north of 59th Street, with Eighth Avenue becoming Central Park West, Ninth Avenue renamed Columbus Avenue, Tenth Avenue renamed Amsterdam Avenue, Eleventh Avenue becoming West End Avenue. 59th Street is served by the following New York City Subway stations: 59th Street–Columbus Circle Fifth Avenue–59th Street Lexington Avenue/59th Street The Roosevelt Island Tramway terminates at Second Avenue near 59th Street, extends eastward to Roosevelt Island. Bloomingdale's Department Store at Lexington Avenue Bloomberg World Headquarters between Third and Lexington Avenues 59E59 Theaters an Off-Broadway theater complex between Park and Madison Avenues General Motors Building at Fifth Avenue Hampshire House Trump Parc Grand Army Plaza Plaza Hotel at Fifth Avenue Central Park New York Athletic Club and 200 Central Park South at SE and SW corners of Seventh Avenue Gainsborough Studios, 222 Central Park South 2 Columbus Circle Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center at 10th Avenue IRT Powerhouse fills the entire block between 58th to 59th Street, from 11th to 12th Avenues.
Hudson River Park extends along the Hudson River from Battery Park to 59th Street. New York City portal Notes
West Side Line
The West Side Line called the West Side Freight Line, is a railroad line on the west side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. North of Penn Station, from 34th Street, the line is used by Amtrak passenger service heading north via Albany to Toronto. South of Penn Station, a 1.45-mile elevated section of the line abandoned since 1980 has been transformed into an elevated park called the High Line. The south section of the park from Gansevoort Street to 20th Street opened in 2009 and the second section up to 30th Street opened in 2011, while the final section to 34th Street opened in 2014; the West Side Line was built by the Hudson River Railroad, which completed the forty miles to Peekskill on September 29, 1849, opened to Poughkeepsie by the end of that year, extended to Albany in 1851. The city terminus was at the junction of Hudson Streets. Over this part of the right-of-way, the rails were laid at grade along the streets, since by the corporation regulations locomotives were not allowed, the cars were drawn by a dummy engine, according to an 1851 description, consumed its own smoke.
While passing through the city the train of cars was preceded by a man on horseback known as a "West Side cowboy" or "Tenth Avenue cowboy" who gave notice of its approach by blowing a horn. At 34th Street the right-of-way curved into Eleventh Avenue, the dummy engine was detached, the regular locomotive took the train; as far as 60th Street, the track was at street level. The first cut was at Fort Washington Point; the railroad crossed Spuyten Duyvil Creek on a drawbridge. In 1867 the New York Central Railroad and Hudson River Railroad were united by Cornelius Vanderbilt, being merged in 1869 to form the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad; the railroad acquired the former Episcopal church's St. John's Park property and built a large freight depot at Beach and Varick streets which opened in 1868; the tracks south to Chambers Street were removed. In 1871, the Spuyten Duyvil and Port Morris Railroad opened, most passenger trains were rerouted into the new Grand Central Depot via that line along the northeast bank of the Harlem River and the New York and Harlem Railroad part of the New York Central system.
The old line south of Spuyten Duyvil remained for freight to the docks along Manhattan's west side and minimal passenger service to the West Side station on Chambers Street. As the city grew, congestion worsened on the west side. Plans were drawn up for a grade-separated line; the West Side Elevated Highway was built with the line's grade separation in the 1930s. Work on the highway – named for Manhattan Borough President Julius Miller, who championed it – began in 1925, the first section was dedicated June 28, 1934; this included a new elevated eight-track freight terminal at St. John's Park, located several blocks north of the old one, with a south edge at Spring Street. North of there, an elevated structure carried two tracks north on the west side of Washington Street, curving onto the east side of Tenth Avenue at 14th Street crossing Tenth Avenue at 17th Street and heading north along its west side. Just south of the Pennsylvania Station rail yard at 31st–33rd Streets, the line turned west on the north side of 30th Street north just east of the West Side Highway.
The northernmost bridge crossed 34th Street, a ramp took it back to Eleventh Avenue south of 35th Street. The elevated line was built through the third floors of several buildings along the route. In 1937 the tracks along Eleventh Avenue were bypassed by a below-grade line, passing under the 35th Street intersection and running north just west of Tenth Avenue before curving northwest, passing under Eleventh Avenue at 59th Street and rejoining the original alignment. Around the same time, master builder and urban planner Robert Moses covered the line with an expansion of Riverside Park from 72nd Street north to 120th Street, his project, called the West Side Improvement, was twice as expensive as the Hoover Dam and created the Henry Hudson Parkway as well as the expansion of Riverside Park. North of the 1937 alignment, the Henry Hudson Parkway and Riverside Park were built above the tracks from 72nd Street north to near 123rd Street, creating a railroad tunnel through the park; the large 60th Street Yard served as the dividing point between the two-track realignment and a wider four-track line to the north.
North of 123rd Street, the line became elevated between the Henry Hudson Parkway and Riverside Drive before returning to the surface and crossing under the Parkway to its west side near 159th Street. It continues along the shore of the Hudson River to the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge, a swing bridge across the Harlem Ship Canal, before merging with the Hudson Line just north of the bridge. In addition to serving the industrial and dock areas of the Lower West Side, the line was the primary route for produce and meat into New York, serving warehouses in the West Village and the Meatpacking District, as well as serving the James Farley Post Office and private freight services; the New York Central Railroad was merged into Penn Central in 1968 and Conrail in 1976. Conrail continued to operate freight along the West Side Lin
Highbridge Park is located in Washington Heights on the banks of the Harlem River near the northernmost tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, between 155th Street and Dyckman Street. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Recreation; the City maintains the southern half of the park, while the northern half is maintained by the non-profit New York Restoration Project. Prominent in the park are the Manhattan end of the restored High Bridge, re-opened in June 2015, the High Bridge Water Tower, the Highbridge Play Center. Highbridge Park derives its name from New York City’s oldest standing bridge, the High Bridge, built to carry the Old Croton Aqueduct over the Harlem River. From the 17th to the 19th centuries, the area was sparsely populated with scattered farms and private estates. During the American Revolution, General George Washington used the Morris-Jumel Mansion, adjacent to the southern end of the park near Edgecombe Avenue and West 160th Street, as his headquarters in September and October 1776.
The land for Highbridge Park was assembled piecemeal between the 1960s. It was designed in 1888 by Samuel Parsons Calvert Vaux; the park was the site of the 1887 USA Cross Country Championships. In the 1890s, the City of New York built a racetrack for horses, the Harlem River Speedway, along the riverbank of the park; the cliffside area from West 181st Street to Dyckman Street was acquired in 1902, the parcel including Fort George Hill was acquired in 1928. In 1934 the Department of Parks obtained the majestic Highbridge Tower and the site of old High Bridge Reservoir. By the early years of the 20th century, upper-middle class New Yorkers would promenade along the wide boardwalks in top hats and bustles; the park provided access to the Harlem River and places for horseback riding and other outdoor sports. By the 1920s dirt and other materials from the build-up of the new Washington Heights neighborhood threatened to ruin the nascent park. In 1940, Robert Moses turned portions of the Speedway into the Harlem River Drive, a 6-lane highway from the Manhattan end of the Triborough Bridge at 125th Street, to the tunnels under Manhattan to the George Washington Bridge.
New fences blocked public recreational access to the riverfront. It was this series of actions, according to Parks & Recreation Commissioner Adrian Benepe, that "ruined" the park; the 1200–foot–long, 116-foot-tall High Bridge walkway was closed to regular public use around 1970. As New York City was beset with serious financial problems in the 1970s, the park's neglect accelerated. Huge sections of the park, set aside as natural areas, had been taken over by homeless people who built permanent shacks made of sheet metal and steel pipes driven into the earth. Prostitutes, drug dealers and drug users frequented the park. By the mid-1980s, Highbridge had become so degraded that during a manual cleanup in 1986, 250 tons of garbage and 25 auto wrecks were removed, but garbage again began to fill the park within a matter of days. In recent years, as the economy of northern Manhattan has improved, the condition of park has gotten better, it is no longer a haven for petty crime and other illegal activities.
The New York Restoration Project, chaired by Bette Midler, has been working since 1999 to restore the park. On May 19, 2007, the first legal mountain bike trails and dirt jumps in New York City were opened in Highbridge Park. New York City Mountain Bike Association, working with NYC Parks & Recreation, the International Mountain Bicycling Association, worked to design and install the trails. Around 2010, the waterfront Speedway was rehabilitated and reopened as the Harlem River portion of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway; as of late 2011, despite the efforts of both the New York Restoration Project and the City Parks Department, the infrastructure of the park had decayed significantly. A citizen-driven restoration movement culminated in a grant from the Bloomberg administration to repair the bridge and make some other improvements; the restored bridge was reopened on June 9, 2015. Highbridge Park was awarded a major grant of $30 million by the City of New York in August 2016, to be used for further improvements and restoration work.
The High Bridge Water Tower, located in the park between West 173rd and 174th Streets, was built in 1866–1872 to help meet the increasing demands on the city's water system. The 200-foot-tall octagonal tower was designed by John B. Jervis in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and neo-Grec styles, was accompanied by a 7-acre reservoir; the High Bridge system was inaugurated in 1872, reached its full capacity by 1875. With the opening of the Croton Aqueduct, the High Bridge system became less relied upon. In 1949 the tower was disconnected from the system, a carillon, donated by the Altman Foundation, was installed in 1958; the tower's cupola was damaged by an arson fire in 1984. The tower and cupola were rehabilitated and restored in 1989–1990; the High Bridge Water Tower was designated a New York City landmark by the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1967. The Highbridge Play Center, located on Amsterdam Avenue between West 172nd and West 174th Streets, was built in 1934-36 in the Art Moderne style, during the Fiorello LaGuardia administration.
The supervising architect was Aymar Embury II, the landscape architect was Gilmore D. Clarke, among others, it was built on the site of the reservoir which had served the High Bridge Water Tower, features a large swimming pool. The Play Center was designated a New York City landmark by the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission in 2007. Notes
7 Subway Extension
The 7 Subway Extension is a subway extension of the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line, served by the 7 local and <7> express services. The extension stretches 1 mile southwest from its previous terminus at Times Square, at Seventh Avenue and 41st Street, to one new station at 34th Street and Eleventh Avenue. A second station at 10th Avenue and 41st Street was dropped from the plans in October 2007; the entirety of the extension is located within the New York City borough of Manhattan. The extension, a key part of the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, is expected to bring business and entertainment into the area, as well as aid redevelopment of nearby Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen, located around the Long Island Rail Road's West Side Yard; the extension serves the nearby Jacob K. Javits Convention Center; the project was proposed in 2005 as part of the Hudson Yards project, which included the failed attempt to build the West Side Stadium for the New York Jets and the city's bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics.
Although the stadium plan was rejected by the state legislature, the rest of the Hudson Yards rail yard development, including the 7 Subway Extension, went forward. Construction on the extension started in 2007; the extension's opening was pushed back multiple times from its original target of December 2013. The delays were attributed to a variety of problems involving the 170-foot-long incline elevators that were custom-designed for the new station; the extension opened to the public on September 13, 2015. Proposals to extend the transit system to the Far West Side to support massive redevelopment were floated as early as 1969, when the New York City Planning Commission's master plan proposed to expand midtown westward along a 48th Street transit line to replace what the plan described as "blocks of antiquated and deteriorating structures of every sort" between Eighth and Twelfth avenues; that proposal for the West 40s and 50s failed after voters rejected a state bond issue that would have financed the proposed new east-west transit line or "people mover."
Subsequently, attention shifted to the IRT Flushing Line. In response to the CPC's 1993 proposal to improve access to the Manhattan Central Business District, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority began exploring the possibility of a 7 extension to New Jersey. In 2001, a business and civic group convened by Senator Charles Schumer argued that a westward extension of the Midtown office district could not be accomplished without a subway extension, saying: The long blocks along the avenues make the walk as long as 20 minutes to the westernmost parts of the area. In addition, there is no convenient link from Grand Central Station or elsewhere on the east side of Manhattan, making the Far West Side a difficult commute for workers from parts of Manhattan, Queens and Connecticut. An extension of the Flushing Line was proposed as part of the New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics; the City wanted to get funding before July 2005, at which time the International Olympic Committee would vote on funding.
However, due to shortfalls in the MTA's Capital Program, as well as preexisting funding for the Second Avenue Subway and East Side Access, the MTA could not pay to fund the extension. After a proposal for the West Side Stadium, an Olympic stadium to be located above the nearby West Side Yard, was rejected in 2005, New York City lost their Olympic bid. However, in a report entitled No. 7 Subway Extension – Hudson Yards Rezoning and Development Program, the government of New York City, devised a rezoning plan for the Hudson Yards area and proposed two new subway stations to serve that area. The subway extension was approved following the successful rezoning of about 60 blocks from 28th to 43rd Streets, which became the Hudson Yards neighborhood. Mayor Michael Bloomberg's December 12, 2006, address to the New York League of Conservation Voters noted that in November 2006, the government began issuing bonds to fund the extension of the 7 subway to Eleventh Avenue and 34th Street; the $2.4 billion extension was funded with New York City funds from municipal Tax Increment Financing bond sales that are expected to be repaid with property tax revenues from future developments in areas served by the extension.
In October 2007, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority awarded a $1.145 billion contract to build 7,000 feet of twin-tube tunnel from the 7 train's then-terminus at Times Square to the then-planned shell of the 34th Street–Hudson Yards station. The contract was awarded to S3, a joint venture of J. F. Shea, Skanska USA Civil, Schiavone; the extension's construction was overseen by the MTA's Capital Construction division. Dattner Architects, designed the 34th Street station. After excavating the new terminal's shell and creating the first 1,000 feet of tunnel using the drill-and-blast method, S3 placed two tunnel-boring machines in the ground to dig the remaining 6,000 feet. Early on in the project, it was announced; the stations would include special air-cooling systems to reduce the temperature along platforms. Due to its depth, the extension has ventilation towers, rather than the ventilation grates ubiquitous in the rest of the subway system. However, in October 2007, soon after the announcement of the new extension, the 10th Avenue station was canceled due to an overrun of the $2.4 billion budget, the MTA did not have an extra $500 million to build the 10th Aven