Teochew is a dialect of Chaoshan Min, a Southern Min language, spoken by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world. It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese rendering, due to the English romanisation by colonial officials and explorers, it is related to some dialects of Hokkien, as it shares some cognates and phonology with Hokkien, although the two are not mutually intelligible. Teochew preserves many Old Chinese pronunciations and vocabulary that have been lost in some of the other modern varieties of Chinese; as such, many linguists consider Teochew one of the most conservative Chinese languages. This refers to the variant of Southern Min spoken in China. Chaozhou children are introduced to Standard Chinese as early as in kindergarten. In the early years of primary education, Mandarin becomes the sole language of instruction, but students continue to speak to one another in Chaozhou. Mandarin is understood, however minimally, by most younger Chaozhou speakers, but the elderly do not speak Mandarin since teaching used to be done in the local vernacular.
Native Chaozhou-speakers find the neutral tone in Mandarin the most difficult tone to master. Chaozhou has lost the alveolar nasal ending and so Chaozhou-speakers replace it with the velar nasal when they speak Mandarin; the southern Min dialects all have no front rounded vowel and so a typical Chaozhou accent supplants the unrounded counterpart for. Chaozhou, like its ancient ancestor, lacks labio-dentals and so its speakers use or instead of when they speak Mandarin. Chaozhou has no retroflex consonants in its northern dialects and so, replace, in the Chaozhou accent in Mandarin. Since Chao'an, Jieyang border the Hakka-speaking region in the north, some people there speak Hakka but they can speak Chaozhou as well. Chaozhou people have had a great deal of contact with the Hakka people, but Hakka has had little, if any, influence on Chaozhou. In Dabu and Fengshun, where the Chaozhou- and the Hakka-speaking regions meet, Chaozhou is spoken, but Hakka remains the primary form of Chinese spoken there.
Because of the strong influence of Hong Kong soap operas, Guangdong provincial television programs and Cantonese pop songs, many young Chaoshan peoples can understand quite a lot of Cantonese if they cannot speak it with much fluency. In the mountainous area of Fenghuang, the She language, an endangered Hmong–Mien language, is spoken by the She people, who are an recognised non-Han ethnic minority, they predominantly speak Teochew. Teochew, like other Southern Min varieties, is one of the few modern Sinitic languages which have voiced obstruents; the voiced stops and and are voicelessly prenasalised, respectively. They are in complementary distribution with the tenuis stops, occurring before nasal vowels and nasal codas, whereas the tenuis stops occur before oral vowels and stop codas; the voiced affricate dz, initial in such words as 字, 二, 然, 若 loses its affricate property with some younger speakers abroad, is relaxed to. Southern Min dialects and varieties are typified by a lack of labiodentals, as illustrated below: Syllables in Teochew contain an onset consonant, a medial glide, a nucleus in the form of a vowel, but can be occupied by a syllabic consonant like, a final consonant.
All the elements of the syllable except for the nucleus are optional, which means a vowel or a syllabic consonant alone can stand as a fully-fledged syllable. All the consonants except for the glottal stop ʔ shown in the consonants chart above can act as the onset of a syllable. Teochew finals consist maximally of a medial and coda; the medial can be i or u, the nucleus can be a monophthong or diphthong, the coda can be a nasal or a stop. A syllable must consist minimally of syllabic nasal. Teochew, like other Chinese varieties, is a tonal language, it has extensive tone sandhi. As with sandhi in other Min Nan dialects, the checked tones interchange; the yang tones all become low. Sandhi is not accounted for in the description below; the grammar of Teochew is similar to other Min languages, as well as some southern varieties of Chinese with Hakka, Yue and Wu. The sequence'subject–verb–object' is typical, like Standard Mandarin, although the'subject–object–verb' form is possible using particles; the personal pronouns in Teochew, like in other Chinese varieties, do not show case marking, therefore 我 means both I and me and 伊人 means they and them.
The southern Min dialects, like some northern dialects, have a distinction between an inclusive and exclusive we, meaning that when the addressee is being included, the inclusive pronoun 俺 would be used, otherwise 阮. No other southern Chinese variety has this distinction. Teochew does not distinguish the possessive pronouns from the possessive adjectives; as a general rule, the possessive pronouns or adjectives are formed by adding the genitive or possessive marker 個 to their respective personal pronouns, as summarised below: 本書是我個。
The ARP Pro Soloist was one of the first commercially successful preset synthesizers. Introduced by ARP Instruments, Inc. in 1972, it replaced the similar ARP Soloist in the company's lineup of portable performance instruments. ARP Instruments, having developed the large and powerful ARP 2500 for studio work, released the Soloist as a light, easy-to-use performance instrument that could be placed on top of an electric piano or Hammond organ. In contrast to the flexible modular design of the 2500, the Soloist had cables. A set of toggle switches allowed the performer to choose one of 18 preset monophonic patches that were not modifiable; this lack of programmability was compensated by giving the performer control over the voice expression, adding "growl", "wow", "brilliance", pitch bend, and/or vibrato to the timbre. A pressure-sensitive keyboard allowed players to use aftertouch to control all of these effects. While moderately successful in its niche, the Soloist was not regarded as a serious synthesizer by most professional musicians.
The limited set of voices, combined with tuning stability problems, kept it from wider use. It found a place on recordings by such artists as Quincy Jones and Steely Dan. During the recording of Steely Dan's Countdown to Ecstasy, Donald Fagen was so irritated with having to tune the Soloist so he threw it down the recording studio stairwell and jumped up and down on it. Shortly after, a producer joined in with some alcohol and they burned the ARP into a pile of melted plastic. In 1972, ARP introduced a revised and enhanced version of the Soloist. Expanding the number of preset patches to 30, incorporating digital electronics for preset memory and keyboard control, it was much more reliable than the Soloist. A novel "digitized" tone generator eliminated tuning problems suffered by the Soloist; the voice selection tabs were now above the keyboard, instead of below as on the original Soloist. Although marketed to home organists, it found its way into the hands of such famous musicians as Tony Banks of Genesis, Josef Zawinul, Billy Preston, Tangerine Dream, Gary Numan, Anthony Phillips, John Entwistle, Steve Walsh of Kansas.
Dennis DeYoung of Styx. Banks used the Pro Soloist prominently on the Genesis albums Selling England by the Pound through to Seconds Out, it was used by Funk keyboardist like Junie Morrison on the Ohio Players song "Funky Worm" and by Bernie Worrell in the Parliament Mothership Connection album. Around the same time, the company released its ARP Odyssey synthesizer, a powerful duophonic instrument, as the flagship of its performance line; the Pro Soloist offered an easier-to-use alternative which appealed to professionals as well as home users. By the time the Pro Soloist caught on, many competitors such as Moog Music, Roland Corporation, Farfisa had introduced similar keyboards, though most of the competitors' clones had the voice selection tabs below the keyboard, like the original Soloist; the ARP Pro Soloist would be reintroduced as the updated Pro-DGX featuring momentary digitally-latched push button voice selector switches with LED status indicators, rather than toggle switches. It would remain in production until the company's demise in 1981.
The Pro Soloist is monophonic and features a multiple-trigger, last note priority, transposable 37-key three-octave keyboard with aftertouch sensitivity. The case is sheet metal with wooden side panels, a fiberboard or Masonite bottom cover; the Pro Soloist was significant in using digital read-only memory chips to program all of its internal signal paths. The Voice selection switches deliver unique digital codes to set the ROMs' digital outputs, setting the parameters required for each circuit to produce the sound of the selected voice; the expression controls, including aftertouch, remain under analog control. There are four slider pots to the left of the keyboard to control volume, touch sensitivity and portamento speed during live performance. A 3-position octave switch allows "normal" or plus or minus one octave transposition of the 3-octave keyboard to extend the range of the instrument to five playable octaves. There is a rotary pot which serves double duty to control both the rate of Vibrato or Tremolo and Repeat, which causes the LFO to retrigger the envelopes of any selected voice upon key depression.
The Pro Soloist features a single oscillator, which generates available pulse and sawtooth waveforms. The sawtooth wave is not a separate oscillator circuit, but instead is derived from the sum of 5 pulse waves, generating a 64-step "staircase" waveform to emulate a sawtooth pattern. Pulse waves are generated at a high frequency, seven or eight octaves higher than the pitch of the note being played. A digital code from the octave selector is combined with the key code and sent to a frequency divider, which outputs the correct sub-octave waveforms from the oscillator; the pulse oscillator provides pulse-width ratios of 1/14, 1/9, 1/64, 2/11. A dynamic pulse width output adds harmonic expression to the decay phase of some voices; the output of the pulse and sawtooth waves can be directed through a saw/pulse mixer f
Two in a Crowd is a 1936 romantic comedy film directed by Alfred E. Green and starring Joan Bennett and Joel McCrea, it was released by Universal Pictures. The screenplay was written by Lewis R. Foster, Doris Malloy, Earle Snell, based on story by Lewis R. Foster. Larry Stevens is about to be evicted by landlady Lillie for not paying his rent, he happens to be passing by, as does Julia Wayne, when two halves of a ripped $1,000 bill float down to the street. Up above, gangster Bonelli has been handing out thousands to his girls. One who's angry with him tossed it out the window. Skeeter, a jockey, joins up with Larry as they discuss what to do with the money. Julia has a $500 debt. Larry wants to use it to enter his horse Hector's Pal in a big race; the money was stolen from a bank. A suspicious detective, begins to follow Larry, who attracts the attention of unemployed actor Anthony and bank cashier Bennett, who want a piece of the action. Larry wants to help fulfill her dream of performing in a show.
A theatrical producer pretends to hire her on talent, but secretly has schemed with Larry to finance the show if his horse wins the race. Julia races to the race track to see. Joan Bennett as Julia Wayne Joel McCrea as Larry Stevens Reginald Denny as Anthony Elisha Cook, Jr. as Skeeter Nat Pendleton as Flynn Donald Meek as Bennett Andy Clyde as Jonesy Bradley Page as Bonelli Alison Skipworth as Lillie Paul Fix as Bonelli's Henchman Two in a Crowd at the TCM Movie Database Two in a Crowd on IMDb Two in a Crowd at Allmovie