The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League; the team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. Before the beginning of the 1978–79 NHL season, the team merged with the Cleveland Barons after the league granted them permission due to each team's respective financial struggles; the franchise relocated to Dallas for the 1993–94 NHL season. The Stars played out of Reunion Arena from their relocation until 2001, when the team moved less than 1.5 miles into the American Airlines Center. The Stars have won eight division titles in Dallas, two Presidents' Trophies as the top regular season team in the league, the Western Conference championship twice, in 1998–99, the Stanley Cup. Joe Nieuwendyk won the Conn Smythe Trophy as the most valuable player of the playoffs that year. In 2000, Neal Broten was inducted into the United States Hockey Hall of Fame.
In 2009, Brett Hull became the first Dallas Stars player inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, followed by Ed Belfour and Joe Nieuwendyk in 2011 and Mike Modano in 2014. In 2010, brothers Derian and Kevin Hatcher were inducted to the United States Hockey Hall of Fame; the Minnesota North Stars began play in 1967 as part of the league's six-team expansion. Home games were played at the newly constructed Metropolitan Sports Center in Bloomington, Minnesota. Successful both on the ice and at the gate, the North Stars fell victim to financial problems after several poor seasons in the mid-1970s. In 1978, the North Stars were purchased by the owners of the Cleveland Barons, the Gund brothers, George III and Gordon. With both teams on the verge of folding, the league permitted the two failing franchises to merge; the merged team continued as the Minnesota North Stars, but assumed the Barons' place in the Adams Division in order to balance out the divisions, while the Seals/Barons franchise records were retired.
The merger brought with it a number of talented players, the North Stars were revived—they reached the Stanley Cup Finals in 1981, where they lost in five games to the New York Islanders. However, by the early 1990s, declining attendance and the inability to secure a new downtown revenue-generating arena led ownership to request permission to move the team to the San Francisco Bay Area in 1990; the league rejected the request and instead agreed to award an expansion franchise, the San Jose Sharks, to the Gund brothers. The North Stars were sold to a group of investors that were looking to place a team in San Jose, although one of the group's members, Norman Green, would gain control of the team. In the following season, the Minnesota North Stars made it to the Stanley Cup Finals, only to lose to the Pittsburgh Penguins. After the 1991 season, the North Stars suffered through poor profitability; the team's fortunes were further impeded by the terms of the settlement with the Gund brothers, in which they were permitted to take a number of North Stars players to San Jose.
New owner Norman Green explored the possibility of moving the team to Anaheim, however the league decided instead to place the expansion Mighty Ducks there in 1992. In their final two seasons in Minnesota, the team adopted a new logo which omitted the "North" from "North Stars", leading many fans to anticipate the team heading south. In 1993, amid further attendance woes and bitter personal controversy, Green obtained permission from the league to move the team to Dallas, for the 1993–94 season, with the decision announced on March 10, 1993. Green was convinced by former Dallas Cowboys quarterback Roger Staubach that Dallas would be a suitable market for an NHL team; the league, to quell the controversy, promised the fans of Minnesota a return in the future with a new franchise. The Stars would move into Reunion Arena, built in 1980, the downtown arena occupied by the National Basketball Association's Dallas Mavericks. With the league changing the names of the conferences and divisions, the newly relocated Stars were placed in the Central Division of the Western Conference, played their first game in Dallas on October 5, 1993, a 6–4 win against the Detroit Red Wings.
In that game, Neal Broten scored the first Stars goal in Dallas. Dallas was an experiment for the league. At that time, the Stars would be one of the three southern-most teams in the league, along with the newly-created Tampa Bay Lightning and Florida Panthers, as the leagues's first real ventures into southern non-traditional hockey markets. Though the Stars were still unknown in the area, word of the team spread and the immediate success of the team on the ice, as well as Mike Modano's career best season helped spur the team's popularity in Dallas; the Stars set franchise bests in wins and points in their first season in Texas, qualifying for the 1994 playoffs. The Stars further shocked the hockey world by sweeping the St. Louis Blues in the first round, but lost to the eventual Western Conference Champion Vancouver Canucks in the second round; the Stars' success in their first season, along with American superstar Mike Modano's spectacular on ice performances would be an integral part of the Stars' eventual franchise success in the immediate years to come.
The immediate success of the Stars was helped by a long history of second-tier hockey in the area. The minor league Central Hockey League had two teams in the area, the Fort Worth Texans and the Dallas Blackhawks for 40 years before the Stars arrival; these two t
The Cleveland Clinic is an American academic medical center based in Cleveland, Ohio. Owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921, it runs a 170-acre campus in Cleveland, as well as 10 regional hospitals and 19 family health centers in north-east Ohio, hospitals in Florida and Nevada. Tomislav Mihaljevic is the president and CEO. Outside the United States, Cleveland Clinic operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto. A Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2021. Cleveland Clinic is ranked as one of the best hospitals in the United States. In 2018-2019, the U. S. News & World Report ranked Cleveland Clinic as the number 2 hospital in the Best Hospitals Honor Roll, as it was nationally ranked in 14 adult and 10 pediatric specialties. Cleveland Clinic’s cardiology program has ranked No. 1 in the nation since 1995. Cleveland Clinic's operating revenue in 2017 was its operating income $330 million.
That year it recorded 229,132 admissions. As of 2018, it has over 52,000 employees, a figure that includes over 11,800 nurses and over 3,600 physicians and scientists, it is affiliated with the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, with which it started a physician-investigator medical school training program: the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine. The Cleveland Clinic publishes the peer-reviewed journal Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. In 2008, Cleveland Clinic became the first healthcare provider in the United States to become a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and the second in the world; the organization grew out of the surgical practice of Frank J. Weed at 16 Church Street on the near-west side of Cleveland; the practice was purchased by Frank E. Bunts and George Washington Crile. In 1892 they were joined by Crile's cousin, William E. Lower, in 1897 the practice moved to the Osborn Building on Prospect Avenue, downtown Cleveland. A four-story outpatient building was constructed, Cleveland Clinic was dedicated at a private ceremony on February 26, 1921.
It opened its doors two days to the public and registered 42 patients. By April 1921, it had 60 employees, including four nurses. In 1922 the founders purchased four private homes nearby for hospitalization, radiation treatment, administration. A fifth house was acquired as a residence for patients with diabetes receiving insulin treatments. To meet rising patient volume, a 184-bed hospital was built in 1924, located at East 90th Street and Carnegie Avenue. A power plant and ice plant were built. A research laboratory was constructed in 1928. On May 15, 1929, nitrocellulose x-ray films stored in the basement of the outpatient building ignited. An explosion sent a cloud of toxic oxides of carbon though the building. One hundred and twenty-three people lost their lives, including one of the founders. A dozen investigating agencies were not able to determine. Cleveland Clinic's own inquiry narrowed the possible causes down to spontaneous combustion caused by heat. Philanthropist Samuel Mather formed a committee of 36 community leaders to help Cleveland Clinic reestablish itself in temporary quarters across the street.
Patient care services resumed five days later. The 1921 building was renovated, a new three-story clinic building, with a new main entrance, was added in 1931. All debts were repaid by 1941. Cleveland Clinic built new operating rooms in the early 1970s to accommodate the growth of cardiac surgery; the Martha Holden Jennings Education Building opened in 1964, with an auditorium named for Dr. Bunts. A new hospital building opened in 1966, a research building opened in 1974. A pathology and laboratory medicine building was constructed on Carnegie Avenue in 1980. Willian S. Kiser, chairman of the board 1977–1989, led the development of a strategic plan to accommodate growing patient volumes in the late 1970s; this resulted in a group of buildings known as the Century Project. Completed in 1985, the Century Project includes a 14-story outpatient building designed by architect Cesar Pelli; the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute conducts biomedical research in a 480,000-square-foot building that opened in 1999.
The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University opened in 2004. It is a 5-year medical school in the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine with 32 students per class, each receiving a scholarship for full tuition and fees. While most MD-granting medical schools in the U. S. are four-year programs, the fifth year of CCLCM is dedicated to a year of research. Cleveland Clinic publishes the peer-reviewed Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine monthly, focusing on internal medicine and diabetes; the Top 10 Medical Innovations is an annual list selected in October each year by a panel of Cleveland Clinic physicians and scientists. For consideration on the list, the development must be considered to be available to the public in the upcoming year and to be expected to have a significant impact on a large part of the population. Cleveland Clinic is regarded as one of the top hospital systems in the United States and in the world, it is well regarded in technological management systems.
In 2018-2019, Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the #2 overall hospital in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report, behind th
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Warrior Sports is an American manufacturer of lacrosse, ice hockey and soccer equipment and clothing based in Warren, Michigan. Warrior entered the soccer market in 2012, producing kits and training equipment for several clubs around the world, although the soccer sponsorship and products were discontinued with its parent company New Balance's entry into the category. Warrior Sports was founded in 1992 by a former lacrosse player; the company name is derived from Morrow's roots as a member of the Brother Rice Lacrosse team, the Warriors, in Birmingham, Michigan. The company started out as the first manufacturer of titanium lacrosse shafts, which changed the game due to their strength and light weight. Morrow went on to highlight the breakthrough shaft as he played for the Princeton Tigers lacrosse team, he went on to be the NCAA player of the year. In 2004, the held company, New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. obtained controlling interest in Warrior. One year Warrior moved into the ice hockey industry when it acquired California–based manufacturer Innovative Hockey.
In 2007 Warrior acquired the Boston-based Brine Sporting Goods to further establish their market share in lacrosse. Beginning in July 2012, Warrior Lacrosse embroiled itself in controversy by launching a Twitter marketing campaign for which users were entered into a raffle to win a free pair of shoes if they used the hashtag #ninjaplease; the campaign has been derided throughout the industry and in the lacrosse world. As Warrior was a founding factor in Major League Lacrosse and sponsors all teams, some African-American players in the league have protested, with the possibility of retiring from the league should the controversy not be handled appropriately. Warrior suspended the campaign and the MLL removed all references to it on October 29, 2012, when the meaning of the hashtag used in the campaign came to the attention of officials of both organizations. In April 2011, Warrior Sports signed a sponsorship agreement for Liverpool worth £25 million per season as of the 2012–13 season while Carlsberg reduced their annual sponsorship to just half of that, overtaking the English club record of £23.3 million paid by Nike for supplying Manchester United and the previous deal from Adidas worth £13 million.
On January 18, 2012, Liverpool and Warrior Sports announced a deal between the two organisations, whereby Warrior became the Liverpool kit sponsor effective from June 1, 2012. The new Liverpool home kits were launched on the official Liverpool website on May 11, 2012, were notable for their classic design and a return to a more simplified club badge; the design has angered some. This is due to the new kit moving the traditional commemorative symbol for the Hillsborough disaster from the front to the back of the kit. On June 5, 2013, the new Liverpool away kit was launched for the 2013–14 season. Described as "possibly one of the worst football kits of all time", its reception was overwhelmingly negative, both in the press and from the fans, who took to social media to express their dislike of it. In February 2015, parent company New Balance announced; as part of the move, all clubs and players sponsored by Warrior would be outfitted by New Balance while Warrior would go back to just hockey and lacrosse going forward.
The practice facility of the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League and the home arena of the Boston Pride of the National Women's Hockey League is named Warrior Ice Arena. The arena, part of a larger project called Boston Landing is owned by Warrior's parent company New Balance. Official website Warrior Football
Erik Nicklas Lidström is a Swedish former professional ice hockey defenceman who played 20 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Detroit Red Wings, which he captained for the final six seasons of his career. He is regarded to be one of the greatest defensemen in NHL history. Over his 20 NHL seasons, Lidström won four Stanley Cup championships, seven James Norris Memorial Trophies, one Conn Smythe Trophy as the playoff MVP, was voted into 12 NHL All-Star Games; the Red Wings never missed the postseason during his career, the longest in league history for a player never missing the playoffs. Lidström was the first European-born-and-trained captain of a Stanley Cup winning team, as well as the first European player named playoff MVP. Lidström is the all-time leader in games played with only one NHL team and by a European-born player. Lidström was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame on 9 November 2015. In 2017 Lidström was named one of the'100 Greatest NHL Players' in history. Considered one of the greatest defencemen of all time, Lidström was awarded the Norris Trophy seven times, a feat matched by only two other players: Doug Harvey and by Bobby Orr.
Lidström was nominated for the award a total of 12 times in his last 14 seasons in the NHL, the first three times finishing as the runner-up, won it in seven of his last ten. In 14 consecutive seasons, he finished no lower than sixth place in Norris Trophy voting. Lidström played his entire 20-year NHL career with the Detroit Red Wings, finishing his career with the second-most Stanley Cup playoff games played in NHL history, with 263 appearances, he was a member of four Stanley Cup-winning teams in 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02 and 2007–08. With the exception of the cancelled 2004–05 season lockout year, Lidström played in the playoffs for an NHL record 20 consecutive seasons. Known for his durability, Lidström ranked amongst the top in the NHL in ice time per game, he averaged 28:07 minutes in the 2005 -- a career high. He won three consecutive Norris Trophies, from 2001 to 2003, becoming the first defenceman since Bobby Orr to win three straight. In the 2003–04 season, he played in his 1,000th game of his career, having missed only 17 games in 12-and-a-half seasons.
In the 2002 Stanley Cup playoffs, Lidström was named the winner of the Conn Smythe Trophy as most valuable player during the playoffs, becoming the first European to be awarded the trophy. Lidström began his career in Avesta, playing with Skogsbo SK, before moving on to play with VIK Västerås HK of the Swedish Elitserien. In three seasons with the team, he played in scoring 12 goals and 30 assists. Drafted by the Detroit Red Wings 53rd overall in the 1989 NHL Entry Draft, Lidström joined the team in the 1991–92 season, though he returned to play for Västerås IK for a brief period during the 1994–95 NHL lockout. Lidström scored 60 points in his rookie season, finishing second to Pavel Bure in voting for that year's Calder Trophy, he was selected to the 1992 NHL All-Rookie Team, along with fellow Red Wings defenceman Vladimir Konstantinov. Representing Sweden, Lidström won the World Championship in 1991. At the 2006 Winter Olympics, Lidström was a major factor in Sweden's win over Finland in the finals, scoring the gold medal-clinching goal, thus earning him a spot on the Olympic All-Star Team.
He became the 17th member of the Triple Gold Club. The Hockey News selected Lidström as the "Best European-trained player in the NHL." The Sporting News and Sports Illustrated selected Lidström as the "NHL Player of the Decade." Lidström was set to make $10 million during the 2005–06 season, but due to the new terms of the NHL Collective Bargaining Agreement, implemented during the 2004–05 season, salaries on pre-existing contracts were reduced by 24%, which lowered his compensation to $7.6 million. That season, he posted 16 goals to have 80 points. On 30 June 2006, it was announced that Lidström had signed a two-year, $15.2 million contract extension with the Red Wings. Lidström was an alternate captain of the Red Wings since the 1997–98 season, but was awarded the captaincy after the 2006 retirement of long-time Red Wings captain Steve Yzerman, it was an honour made more special by the fact that he became the first European captain in franchise history. In his first year of captaincy, Lidström led the Red Wings to the Western Conference Finals, but lost to eventual Stanley Cup champions, the Anaheim Ducks.
In the off-season, Lidström joined an elite group by capturing the Norris Trophy as the League's outstanding defenceman for the fifth time. Lidström became the fourth defenceman in NHL history with as many as five Norris Trophy wins, joining Hockey Hall of Famers Bobby Orr, Doug Harvey and Ray Bourque. Near the beginning of the 2007–08 season, in an 8 October win against the Edmonton Oilers, Lidström registered two assists, passing Peter Forsberg as the second-highest scoring Swedish-born NHL player of all-time, he trails only Mats Sundin. In the season, on 26 December, Lidström signed a contract extension through the 2009–10 season. Several months later
Penalty (ice hockey)
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by sending the offending player to a penalty box for a set number of minutes. During the penalty the player may not participate in play. Penalties are enforced by the referee, or in some cases, the linesman; the offending team may not replace the player on the ice, leaving them short-handed as opposed to full strength. When the opposing team is said to be on a power play, they will have one more player on the ice than the short-handed team; the short-handed team is said to be "on the penalty kill" until the penalty expires and the penalized player returns to play. While standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common varieties of penalties, as well as common infractions; the statistic used to track penalties was traditionally called "Penalty Infraction Minutes", although the alternate term "penalty minutes" has become common in recent years. It represents the total assessed length of penalties each team has accrued.
The first codified rules of hockey, known as the Halifax Rules, were brought to Montreal by James Creighton, who organized the first indoor hockey game in 1875. Two years the Montreal Gazette documented the first set of "Montreal Rules", which noted that "charging from behind, collaring, kicking or shinning the ball shall not be allowed"; the only penalty outlined by these rules was that play would be stopped, a "bully" would take place. Revised rules in 1886 mandated that any player in violation of these rules would be given two warnings, but on a third offence would be removed from the game, it was not until 1904. At that time, a referee could assess a two-, three- or five-minute penalty, depending on the severity of the foul. By 1914, all penalties were five minutes in length, reduced to three minutes two years and the offending player was given an additional fine; when the National Hockey League was founded in 1917, it mandated that a team could not substitute for any player, assessed a penalty, thus requiring them to play shorthanded for the duration.
The penalty was shortened to two minutes for the 1921–22 season, while five- and ten-minute penalties were added two years later. Both the NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation recognize the common penalty degrees of minor and major penalties, as well as the more severe misconduct, game misconduct, match penalties. A minor penalty is the least severe type of penalty. A minor penalty is two minutes in length; the offending player is sent to the penalty box and in most cases, his team will play shorthanded. If the offending player is the goaltender or a team is given a "bench minor" penalty any skater, on the ice at the time of the infraction may serve the penalty. In rare cases, when the offending player suffers an injury on the same play, whoever is on the ice at the time of the penalty may serve the penalty, as was the case of Game 2 of the Pittsburgh Penguins-Washington Capitals during the 2017 Stanley Cup playoffs, when Phil Kessel served a penalty in place of Tom Kuhnhackl. A team with a numerical advantage in players will go on a power play.
If they score a goal during this time, the penalty will end and the offending player may return to the ice. In hockey's formative years, teams were shorthanded for the entire length of a minor penalty; the NHL changed this rule following the 1955–56 season where the Montreal Canadiens scored multiple goals on one power play. Most famous was a game on November 5, 1955, when Jean Béliveau scored three goals in 44 seconds, all on the same power play, in a 4–2 victory over the Boston Bruins. Coincidental minor penalties occur when an equal number of players from each team are given a minor penalty at the same time; the permission of a substitute player depends on the league and the situation at the time of the infractions. In some leagues, such as the NHL, the teams will play four-on-four for the duration of the penalties if they occurred when both teams were at strength. However, if there is a manpower differential both teams are allowed to make substitutions while the penalized players will remain in the penalty box until the first stoppage in play after their penalty expires.
In other competitions, such as IIHF events, coincidental penalties do not affect manpower in any situation. Coincidental minor penalties are not ended. In some cases, a referee can impose a triple minor; the infraction is counted as three separate minor penalties. If a team scores a power play goal during such a penalty, only the current block of two minutes being counted down is canceled. Expiration rules of double- or triple-minor penalties due to goals being scored are identical to that of regular minor penalties being served back-to-back. A major penalty is a stronger degree of penalty for a more severe infraction of the rules than a minor. Most infractions which incur a major penalty are more severe instances of minor penalty infractions. A player who receives a major penalty will remain off the ice for five minutes of play during which his team will be short-handed. A major penalty cannot end early if a goal is scored against the short-handed team, unless the goal is scored during an overtime period.
If major penalties are assessed to one player on each team at
The SM-liiga, colloquially called the Finnish Elite League in English, is the top professional ice hockey league in Finland. It is one of the six founding leagues of the Champions Hockey League and allocated five spots - the maximum number - based on success in previous editions, it was created in 1975 to replace the SM-sarja, fundamentally an amateur league. The SM-liiga is not directly overseen by the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, but the league and association have an agreement of cooperation. SM is a common abbreviation for Suomen mestaruus, "Finnish championship"; the SM-liiga had a system of automatic promotion and relegation in place between itself and the Mestis, the second highest level of competition in Finland, but the automatic system was ended in 2000. The league was allowed KalPa to get a promotion. In 2009, a new system was introduced and it includes the last placed SM-liiga team facing the Mestis champion in a best of seven playout series. In 2013, the relegation system was abandoned again and replaced by a procedure in which successful clubs of Mestis may apply for a promotion if they fulfill definite financial criteria.
Since 2013, Jokerit joined the KHL and Espoo Blues went bankrupt, but Sport, KooKoo and Jukurit were promoted. Therefore Liiga is a competition of 15 teams in the 2016 -- 2017 -- 18 seasons; the SM-liiga was constituted in 1975 to concentrate the development of top-level Finnish ice hockey, pave the way towards professionalism. Its predecessor, the SM-sarja, being an amateur competition, had its disadvantages, which were perceived as impeding Finland's rise to the highest ranks of ice hockey. One of the main problems was that the governing of the SM-sarja was based on the annual meeting of the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, where all important issues were decided by vote. Since all clubs registered under the Finnish Ice Hockey Association had the right to vote, the many amateur clubs prevailed over the few business-like clubs. Therefore, the concentrated development of top-level Finnish ice hockey by the motivated and financially capable clubs proved arduous; the new SM-liiga was to be run by a board consisting of its participating clubs only and to have an agreement of cooperation with the Finnish Ice Hockey Association.
The SM-sarja was outdated on its own, as it was run according to amateur principles. Clubs were not supposed to pay their players beyond compensation for lost wages. However, by the 1970s many clubs were run like businesses and recruited players through a contract of employment, paying their wages secretly and evading taxes. However, in 1974, accounting reform in Finland extended book-keeping standards to cover sports clubs, shortfalls were exposed in audit raids; the SM-liiga was to allow wages for players, clubs were put under a tighter supervision. They were to establish their own association for SM-liiga ice hockey only, separating their commitments from junior activities and other sports. Copies of all player contracts were to be sent to the SM-liiga to provide players with adequate security, such as insurance and pensions; the SM-sarja had other limits for players. According to amateur ideals, no player could represent more than one club within one season. Personal sponsorship was forbidden.
To discourage trading, a system of quarantine was in force. The SM-liiga stripped the limitations for players, replaced quarantine with a then-modest transfer payment, introduced the transfer list. Players wanting a transfer were to sign up, the SM-liiga would distribute the right of negotiations to clubs. In practice, the list was not successful, as both parties worked their way around the formalities; these changes led to a transition towards professional ice hockey as the league became semi-professional. Only a few players would make a livelihood out of ice hockey in Finland in the 1970s, many players the young, would settle for a contract in the SM-liiga without a wage. A major financial development for professional ice hockey in Finland was the introduction of playoffs. Gate receipts and other income from playoffs were distributed as a placement bonus. Although playoffs were the standard way of determining the champions in North American professional sports, at the time they were not common in Europe.
The SM-liiga was established rather hastily. The required changes were initiated at the 1974 annual meeting, the SM-liiga was launched for the 1975–76 season, it was the first Finnish professional sports league, its solutions were untried. However, there had been a mounting demand for these changes, as the popularity of ice hockey had been rising in the previous decade; the SM-liiga picked up. The four best of the regular season were to proceed to the playoffs; the system of promotion and relegation from the SM-sarja remained in force: last-placed teams of the regular season had to qualify for their position in the SM-liiga against the best teams of the second-highest series. The combined attendance for the first eleven regular seasons hovered around 900,000. In 1986–87, the number of games for each team was increased from 36 to 44, reaching its current level of 56 games in 2000–01, the SM-liiga was expanded to 12 clubs for the 1988–89 season; the general popularity of ice hockey strengthened through international success of the Finland men's national ice hockey team, the combined attendance climbed through the 1990s to about 1.8 million.
This prompted an increase in the profitability of the ice hockey business and the completion of the transition to full professionalism. By the mid-1990s, all players were full-time, by 2000, most clubs had reformed into limited companies. In late 1990s and early 2000s the S